Presentation on theme: "TEACHING SPEAKING FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES. Speaking for academic purposes is an overall term and used to describe spoken language in various academic."— Presentation transcript:
Speaking for academic purposes is an overall term and used to describe spoken language in various academic settings. In addition it suggests that the language used is is normally formal or neutral and obeys the conventions associated with the academic genre or activity. Typically such situations include: asking questions in lectures, participation in seminars or discussions, making oral presentations, answering ensuing questions/points; verbalising data and giving oral instructions, in seminars or workshops or laboratories.
questions asked in lectures tended to be of four major types: 1. Clarification such as requesting repeated information or additional information; 2. Interpretation check, perhaps in the form of rephrasing of information, or giving an example as a check that understanding was correct. 3. Digression, moving away from the central topic. 4. Challenge, to query or question something that is said.
1. Relatively straightforward questions where there is generally ‘correct’ answer. 2. Questions asking for causes or reasons why. 3. Questions requiring some kind of inference to find an answer. 4. Questions inviting making a case or argument from existing information.
Seminars may take a variety of forms, although the term group discussion can cover most forms. The variety of forms may be due to differing academic traditions in different subject areas. A seminar may be a monologue to a small group from the lecturer without any student-student or student-lecturer input or contribution. Sometimes one student may answer a tutors question or questions in another type, or there may be a number of questions from the tutor and a number of students will answer.
1. Student group work, a problem solving exercise. 2. The lesson..nominated students go over case studies or examples of the academic discipline. 3. Discussion of material previously read by the whole group. Presentation, class members reporting on reading they have done or research students reporting on some research project or part of a research project they have done.
other elements that may need practice are how to get a turn to speak, so strategies such as an intake of breath, eye contact with the tutor, an alert expression, or a filler such as ‘er’ or ‘umm’, or all at once may signal a desire to speak o to continue speaking. This is a another area where there may be cultural differences between the non native speakers and native speakers. Short monosyllabic utterances such as ‘Yes’ ‘But’ No…’ may also help to gain entry into the discussion. A common device is to appear to agree with a previous speaker ‘Yes….@ and then to use the entry to agree, embellish or partially contradict them.
There may be various areas of focus for practice. Typically these will be presentation as a speaker, and participation as audience. For presentation aspects will include: Sequencing of the presentation, signposting or discourse markers such as first, next; delivery aspects such as seped of speech and clarity; visual aids that may be used; body language; and how to begin and conclude a presentation.
1. General Introduction. 2. Statement of Intention. 3. Information in detail. 4. conclusion. 5. Invitation to discuss. There is a need for careful organisation of material in presentations, students need help to present information in an organised and lucid fashion. This a communication skill as much as language skill.
1. Adjusting to different food. 2. Different climate. 3. homesickness. 4. Being a foreigner in a different culture. 5. culture shock. 6. adapting to different customs and habits. 7. Using a foreign language for study purposes. 8. Loneliness. 9. New styles of teaching and learning. 10. Adapting to greater independence. 11. Thinking critically in a foreign language. 12. Organising andf using time efficiently. 13. Paraphrasing and summarising in a foreign language. 14. Uncertainty about standards of work expected. 15. Participating in discussion. 16. Relations with academic staff. 17. Writing essays in a foreign language.
The following points need to kept in mind. 1. Timing. Their time is limited to a specific time, another student may be appointed as a time monitor during their presebtation, to indicate perhaps with a flashcard, such as 3 minutes left, 1 minute left, TIME’S UP!!..at which point the student must stop. Of course the presenter may monitor themselves, but the monitor often helps. This is often done at student conferences
Peer evaluation is useful since it stresses the value of communication between and among the students as part of practice, not just student speech being evaluated by the teacher alone. It helps to draw attention to understanding and being understood by other non native speakers as being as important as being understood by a native speaker alone (in this case the teacher).
Students often have difficulty with verbalising data. Thee are few problems with reading and writing, they emerge with lisetening and speaking. Students in arts and humanities may have little difficulty, whereas students in sciences and social sciences which use a lot of numerical data o other scientific expressions, may need considerable help. They need to understand certain data such as equations and formulae in lectures and seminars and to be able to verbalise them in their own seminar talks
In a last resort, difficulties in speaking in a discussion maybe caused by shyness or personality factors which are independent of the language being used. There is of course another important factor, many students have individual difficulties with pronunciation, stress, intonation, or overall rhythm. At times their speech may be virtually unintelligible to other students or the tutor. In these cases some kind of individual tuition and or self access help will be needed
Adopt simple checklists or surveys to collect information regarding learner’s language learning backgrounds and perceived needs in speaking academic English. Use informal interviews to explore their needs, this could be dome in groups if individual interviews would be too time consuming. Collect language performance data to identify issues. Have in class discussions to identify issues.
Anderson, K. 2004. Study Speaking. CUP Journal of English For Academic Purposes (online Journal). Hyland, K. 2006. English For a Academic Purposes. Abingdon.