Presentation on theme: "Physical development and the implications of sensory and neurological disabilities Dr Karl.R. Wall DOS-2009-2010."— Presentation transcript:
Physical development and the implications of sensory and neurological disabilities Dr Karl.R. Wall DOS
(1) Introduction The nature of human development Brains, eyes and seeing-an introduction (2) Observed development How do ‘typical’ children develop and when? Typical development -milestones V I development – neurological aspects -milestones (3) Explaining development – theories and issues
Four dimensions Physical development Social and emotional development Thinking skills Communication skills
Using a web based resource e.g. 1: We will go to the various sites in turn: Parts of the UNSW Embryology site Using web based resources Issues in relation to using images for study purposes: Citing the web source and time of download Copyright vs commons licence Note any adaptation Make a live hyper-link so source can be accessed directly Use the actual website (not downloaded images and text) as a normal user You may need permission to: Use the image Distribute the image as a paper print out To adapt it
Using a web based resource e.g. 2: We will go to the sites: Parts of the WEBVISION site Using web based resources
For a detailed account of the evolution of the vertebrate eye see:
Photo construction- based on pictures found on the web Brain Eyes Brain stem Brain and eyes
Human Skull Orbit of eye in close up Orbits of the skull
Primary sensory area Visual processing of moving targets… Visual area Motor speech area Eye movement control Secondary motor area Primary motor area Secondary sensory area Primary auditory area Secondary auditory area Face processing area
Brains etc… Foot Hip Trunk Arm Hand Face Tongue Larynx The sensory homunculus
0 – 5 months: ‘typical’ development From upper part of Figure 10 p64 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.
5 months – 1 year: ‘typical’ development From lower part of Figure 10 p64 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.
12 mths – 18 mths: ‘typical’ development. From upper part of Figure 18 p154 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.
18 mths – 60 mths: ‘typical’ development From lower part of Figure 18 p154 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.
Variation and range in milestones From Table 4 ‘Ages when motor skills are achieved’ p95 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.
Apart from what a child ‘does’, we need to take account of: The characteristics of a particular child Their immediate environment Their family context and its social nature Their cultural context: social implications How the same child varies by setting A health warning!
More broadly we need to be mindful of: How the developmental course varies for different individuals in: similar settings different settings with the same people with different people …and another health warning!
We always need to ask: ‘How our developmental expectations affect our interpretation of what we observe?’ ‘How the expectations of others may affect their interpretation of what they observe?’ OK!... Another warning!
Kathleen Berger (2000) The typical (usual) patterns of growth and change are ones everyone follows to some degree but no one follows exactly
Typical and atypical development Five broad groups of contexts linking typical and atypical children: 1 Delayed development 2 Atypical development 3 Compensatory development 4 Absence of development 5 Typical behaviour displayed by atypical children
Atypical development 1 1 Delayed development Development is slower than typically developing children. Similar processes are shared, involving the same stages. Atypical children may not develop to the same extent Based on Herbert, M. (2003) ‘Typical and Atypical Development’ Oxford: BPS Blackwell. p.xiii
Atypical development 2 2 Atypical development The processes of development differ to those found in typical children - as a result behaviours and developments not seen in typical children may be apparent Based on Herbert, M. (2003) ‘Typical and Atypical Development’ Oxford: BPS Blackwell. p.xiii
3Compensatory development Here the same developmental end point is reached but the route taken by atypical children is different to that taken by typically developing children Based on Herbert, M. (2003) ‘Typical and Atypical Development’ Oxford: BPS Blackwell. p.xiii Atypical development 3
4 Absence of development Children fail to develop a particular aspect of development Based on Herbert, M. (2003) ‘Typical and Atypical Development’ Oxford: BPS Blackwell. p.xiii Atypical development 4
5 Typical behaviour displayed by atypical children Here atypical children display typical behaviours and development: the atypical child may show typical development, developing within the range of variation noted for typical development. Based on Herbert, M. (2003) ‘Typical and Atypical Development’ Oxford: BPS Blackwell. p.xiii Atypical development 5
When milestones occur - taking account of range and underlying variation Expectations Impact of cultural variation Issues linked to ‘milestones’ 1
Impact of cultural variation Child-rearing practices The equivalence of expectations from different professional perspectives Different periods, different judgements: e.g. height and physical maturity Issues linked to ‘milestones’ 2
Parent –child interaction Importance of visual feedback Motor activity and movement Focus on child touch and hand movements Focus on listening by child Compensatory communication routes Specific issues: VI and milestones 1
Useable vision Size constancy Shape constancy Face recognition Depth perception VI– developmental focus areas Movement perception Perceptual- motor skills Gross motor skills Fine motor skills
Child development theories 1 Historically: Childhood: the early part of being an adult - not a special period Children as little adults – no special care or attention required; no differentiation between ‘child’ development and ‘adult’ development
Arnold Gesell ( ): universal patterns of physical maturation, genetically driven and determined > ‘milestones of development’ Sigmund Freud ( ): early childhood experience informs subsequent development; focus on impact of psychosexual influences > type of stage theory Child development theories 2
Erik Erikson ( ): extends Freud’s perspectives: Brings in environmental factors and more stages issue of overcoming stage related ‘crisis’ events. B.F. Skinner ( ): Child behaviour shaped by how experience is reinforced: Role of reward and punishment > experience conditions behaviour Child development theories 3
Alfred Bandura (1925 -present): Learning informed by imitation and social observation Role of motivation and inner psychological processes modelling, role models, ‘social’ learning: ‘Social Learning Theory’ Child development theories 4
Lev Vygotsky ( ): Learning interactions as basis of development: Role of social context, language, communication and the mediating influence of others inform a ‘social constructivist’ development Historical, cultural and social factors inform cognition and development - ‘language’ is the principal societal tool Child development theories 5
Jean Piaget ( ): development seen as: Four, genetically driven, universal and sequential stages of symbol based ‘cognitive’ development. These reflect children's individual construction of their own thinking systems, supported by interaction with adults Child development theories 6
John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth (Integrated Attachment Theory): focus on how parent – child relationships are established the role of early relational experiences and their impact on how later relationships are formed and maintained ‘Life Course’ perspectives: re-integration of child and adult development as aspects of a single developmental continuum Child development theories 7
Recommended sources Sylva, K. and Lunt, I. (1982) Child development-a first course. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell. Lewis. V. (2003) Development and Disability. 2 nd Edition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Sheridan, M. D. (2005) From Birth to Five years [Updated and revised by Frost, M. and Sharma, A.). London: Routledge. Sheridan, M. D. (2006) Play in Early Childhood – From birth to six years. [Updated and revised by Harding, J. and Meldon-Smith, L.). London: Routledge.
Other sources 1 Butterworth, G. & Harris, M. (1994). Principles of Developmental Psychology. Hove: Psychology Press. Chap. 9: Cognitive development in early childhood; Chap. 10: Cognitive development in middle childhood. Child, D. (1997). Psychology and the Teacher. London: Cassell. Chap. 7: Concept formation and cognitive development. Donaldson, M. (1978) Children’s Minds. London: Fontana. (a critique of aspects of Piaget’s stage theory)
Other sources 2 Eysenck. M.W. (2000). Psychology: A Student’s Handbook. Hove, E. Sussex: Psychology Press. Chap. 16: Cognitive development. Siegler, R.S. & Wagner Alibali, M. (2005). Children’s Thinking. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Chap. 2: Piaget’s theory of development. Sutherland, P. (1992). Cognitive Development Today: Piaget and his Critics. London: Paul Chapman. Tharp, R. & Gallimore, R. (1991). A theory of assisted performance, in P. Light, S. Sheldon, M. Woodhead (eds). Learning to Think. London: Routledge.
Other sources 3 Miller, P. H. (2002) Theories of Developmental Psychology (4th edn). New York: Worth. Kugelmass, J. W. (2007) Constructivist views of learning: implications for inclusive education, in Lani Florian (ed). The SAGE Handbook of Special Education. London: SAGE De Valenzuela. J. S. (2007) Sociocultural views of learning in Lani Florian (ed). The SAGE Handbook of Special Education. London: SAGE
downloaded at 4.15pm Short-Sightedness Also known as Near-sight or Myopia, short-sighted individuals have trouble seeing things in the distance whilst anything close-up is clearer. This occurs because light from the objects being viewed focuses in front of the retina and not on it. It is believed that this mostly happens as a result of the eyeball being slightly too long. The scientific term for this is Axial Myopia
From: downloaded at 4.15pmwww.vogueeyes.com.au Long-Sightedness Also known as Far-sight or Hyperopia, long-sighted individuals have difficulty with anything close-up whilst their general distance vision is not as bad. Light from objects viewed will theoretically focus behind the retina and not on it. However because the eye is able to naturally fatten the lens and cause light to bend more, this error in focus is overcome, which explains why distance vision is generally pretty good.
downloaded at 4.15pm Q: What can we do if particular parts of the eye are affected?