Presentation on theme: "Physical development and the implications of sensory and neurological disabilities Dr Karl .R. Wall DOS-2009-2010."— Presentation transcript:
1 Physical development and the implications of sensory and neurological disabilities Dr Karl .R. WallDOS
2 (1) IntroductionThe nature of human developmentBrains, eyes and seeing-an introduction(2) Observed developmentHow do ‘typical’ children develop and when?Typical development -milestonesV I development – neurological aspects -milestones(3) Explaining development – theories and issues
3 Four dimensionsPhysical developmentSocial and emotional developmentThinking skillsCommunication skills
4 Using web based resources Using a web based resource e.g. 1:We will go to the various sites in turn:Parts of the UNSW Embryology siteIssues in relation to using images for study purposes:Citing the web source and time of downloadCopyright vs commons licenceNote any adaptationMake a live hyper-link so source can be accessed directlyUse the actual website (not downloaded images and text) as a normal userYou may need permission to:Use the imageDistribute the image as a paper print outTo adapt it
15 Visual processing of moving targets… Secondary motor areaPrimary motor areaPrimary sensory areaEye movement controlVisual processing of moving targets…Motor speech areaSecondary sensory areaVisual areaFace processing areaPrimary auditory areaSecondary auditory area
18 The sensory homunculus Brains etc…The sensory homunculusHipTrunkArmHandFootFaceTongueLarynx
19 0 – 5 months: ‘typical’ development From upper part of Figure 10 p64 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.
20 5 months – 1 year: ‘typical’ development From lower part of Figure 10 p64 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.
21 12 mths – 18 mths: ‘typical’ development. From upper part of Figure 18 p154 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.
22 18 mths – 60 mths: ‘typical’ development From lower part of Figure 18 p154 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.
23 Variation and range in milestones From Table 4 ‘Ages when motor skills are achieved’ p95 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.
24 A health warning!Apart from what a child ‘does’, we need to take account of:The characteristics of a particular childTheir immediate environmentTheir family context and its social natureTheir cultural context: social implicationsHow the same child varies by setting
25 …and another health warning! More broadly we need to be mindful of:How the developmental course varies for different individuals in:similar settingsdifferent settingswith the same peoplewith different people
26 OK!... Another warning! We always need to ask: ‘How our developmental expectations affect our interpretation of what we observe?’‘How the expectations of others may affect their interpretation of what they observe?’
27 Kathleen Berger (2000)The typical (usual) patterns of growth and change are ones everyone follows to some degree but no one follows exactly
28 Typical and atypical development Five broad groups of contexts linking typical and atypical children:1 Delayed development2 Atypical development3 Compensatory development4 Absence of development5 Typical behaviour displayed by atypical children
29 Atypical development 1 1 Delayed development Development is slower than typically developing children. Similar processes are shared, involving the same stages. Atypical children may not develop to the same extentBased on Herbert, M. (2003) ‘Typical and Atypical Development’ Oxford: BPS Blackwell. p.xiii
30 Atypical development 2 2 Atypical development The processes of development differ to those found in typical children - as a result behaviours and developments not seen in typical children may be apparentBased on Herbert, M. (2003) ‘Typical and Atypical Development’ Oxford: BPS Blackwell. p.xiii
31 Compensatory development Atypical development 3Compensatory developmentHere the same developmental end point is reached but the route taken by atypical children is different to that taken by typically developing childrenBased on Herbert, M. (2003) ‘Typical and Atypical Development’ Oxford: BPS Blackwell. p.xiii
32 4 Absence of development Atypical development 44 Absence of developmentChildren fail to develop a particular aspect of developmentBased on Herbert, M. (2003) ‘Typical and Atypical Development’ Oxford: BPS Blackwell. p.xiii
33 5 Typical behaviour displayed by atypical children Atypical development 55 Typical behaviour displayed by atypical childrenHere atypical children display typical behaviours and development: the atypical child may show typical development, developing within the range of variation noted for typical development.Based on Herbert, M. (2003) ‘Typical and Atypical Development’ Oxford: BPS Blackwell. p.xiii
34 Issues linked to ‘milestones’ 1 When milestones occur - taking account of range and underlying variationExpectationsImpact of cultural variation
35 Issues linked to ‘milestones’ 2 Impact of cultural variationChild-rearing practicesThe equivalence of expectations from different professional perspectivesDifferent periods, different judgements: e.g. height and physical maturity
36 Specific issues: VI and milestones 1 Parent –child interactionImportance of visual feedbackMotor activity and movementFocus on child touch and hand movementsFocus on listening by childCompensatory communication routes
37 VI– developmental focus areas Movement perceptionPerceptual-motor skillsGross motor skillsFine motor skillsUseable visionSize constancyShape constancyFace recognitionDepth perception
38 Child development theories 1 Historically:Childhood: the early part of being an adult - not a special periodChildren as little adults – no special care or attention required; no differentiation between ‘child’ development and ‘adult’ development
39 Child development theories 2 Arnold Gesell ( ): universal patterns of physical maturation, genetically driven and determined > ‘milestones of development’Sigmund Freud ( ): early childhood experience informs subsequent development; focus on impact of psychosexual influences > type of stage theory
40 Child development theories 3 Erik Erikson ( ): extends Freud’s perspectives:Brings in environmental factors and more stages issue of overcoming stage related ‘crisis’ events.B.F. Skinner ( ): Child behaviour shaped by how experience is reinforced:Role of reward and punishment > experience conditions behaviour
41 Child development theories 4 Alfred Bandura (1925 -present): Learning informed by imitation and social observationRole of motivation and inner psychological processesmodelling, role models, ‘social’ learning: ‘Social Learning Theory’
42 Child development theories 5 Lev Vygotsky ( ): Learning interactions as basis of development:Role of social context, language, communication and the mediating influence of others inform a ‘social constructivist’ developmentHistorical, cultural and social factors inform cognition and development - ‘language’ is the principal societal tool
43 Child development theories 6 Jean Piaget ( ): development seen as:Four, genetically driven, universal and sequential stages of symbol based ‘cognitive’ development.These reflect children's individual construction of their own thinking systems, supported by interaction with adults
44 Child development theories 7 John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth (Integrated Attachment Theory):focus on how parent – child relationships are establishedthe role of early relational experiences and their impact on how later relationships are formed and maintained‘Life Course’ perspectives: re-integration of child and adult development as aspects of a single developmental continuum
45 Recommended sourcesSylva, K. and Lunt, I. (1982) Child development-a first course. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.Lewis. V. (2003) Development and Disability. 2nd Edition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.Sheridan, M. D. (2005) From Birth to Five years [Updated and revised by Frost, M. and Sharma, A.). London: Routledge.Sheridan, M. D. (2006) Play in Early Childhood – From birth to six years. [Updated and revised by Harding, J. and Meldon-Smith, L.). London: Routledge.
46 Other sources 1Butterworth, G. & Harris, M. (1994). Principles of Developmental Psychology. Hove: Psychology Press. Chap. 9: Cognitive development in early childhood; Chap. 10: Cognitive development in middle childhood.Child, D. (1997). Psychology and the Teacher. London: Cassell. Chap. 7: Concept formation and cognitive development.Donaldson, M. (1978) Children’s Minds. London: Fontana. (a critique of aspects of Piaget’s stage theory)
47 Other sources 2Eysenck. M.W. (2000). Psychology: A Student’s Handbook. Hove, E. Sussex: Psychology Press. Chap. 16: Cognitive development.Siegler, R.S. & Wagner Alibali, M. (2005). Children’s Thinking. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Chap. 2: Piaget’s theory of development.Sutherland, P. (1992). Cognitive Development Today: Piaget and his Critics. London: Paul Chapman.Tharp, R. & Gallimore, R. (1991). A theory of assisted performance, in P. Light, S. Sheldon, M. Woodhead (eds). Learning to Think. London: Routledge.
48 Other sources 3Miller, P. H. (2002) Theories of Developmental Psychology (4th edn). New York: Worth.Kugelmass, J. W. (2007) Constructivist views of learning: implications for inclusive education, in Lani Florian (ed). The SAGE Handbook of Special Education. London: SAGEDe Valenzuela. J. S. (2007) Sociocultural views of learning in Lani Florian (ed). The SAGE Handbook of Special Education. London: SAGE
50 Short-SightednessAlso known as Near-sight or Myopia, short-sighted individuals have trouble seeing things in the distance whilst anything close-up is clearer. This occurs because light from the objects being viewed focuses in front of the retina and not on it. It is believed that this mostly happens as a result of the eyeball being slightly too long. The scientific term for this is Axial Myopiadownloaded at 4.15pm
51 Long-SightednessAlso known as Far-sight or Hyperopia, long-sighted individuals have difficulty with anything close-up whilst their general distance vision is not as bad. Light from objects viewed will theoretically focus behind the retina and not on it. However because the eye is able to naturally fatten the lens and cause light to bend more, this error in focus is overcome, which explains why distance vision is generally pretty good.From: downloaded at 4.15pm
52 Q: What can we do if particular parts of the eye are affected? downloaded at 4.15pm
53 http://webvision.med.utah.edu/anatomy.html downloaded 08-09-09 at 4.15pm