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1990’s Unit Essential Questions:

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1 1990’s Unit Essential Questions:
1. How does the nature of democracy in the U.S. evolve as society grows and changes? 2. How are civil liberties challenged during times of conflict? 3. How has the perception of the U.S. in the world changed as U.S. self-perception changed? 4. How has American democracy been shaped by the struggle between individuals, states, and the federal government? 5. How has the U.S. policy resisted outside influence? How has the role of the media shaped U.S. policies? 7. Does society cause government to change or does government cause society to change?

2 Unit 12 Objectives: Objective Problems in the Third World, Modern-day genocide, AIDS and Pandemics, Politics of War, Rise of political and religious radicalism, collapse of communism, European Union, and Changing roles of international organizations. Objective Role of lobbyists and special interest groups , The Supreme Court, Recession: Economic boom or bust, globalization, conservative measures, and the impact of economics on lifestyle, stock market, and the job market. Objective Impact of technology on way of life, changes from industrial economy to service economy. Objective Changing society: social, political, cultural, demographic; presidential troubles, Major issues: health care, welfare-reform, Medicare, and AIDS. Objective Growing cultural diversity in the U.S., questions of race, and population changes and demographics. Objective Restrictions on civil liberties, the challenge to the America spirit, the U.S. government’s policy towards terrorism, and the impact of terrorist threats on U.S. foreign policy.

3 1990’s Key Vocabulary Election of 1796
Savings and Loan Crisis/ Bailout “Read my lips, No New Taxes!” Panama Invasion (1989) / Manuel Noriega Election of 1992/ Michael Dukakis ADA – America with Disabilities Act (1990) Clean Air Act (1990) START Treaty – Strategic Arms Treaty (1991) Mikhail Gorbachev Boris Yeltsin Berlin Wall comes down (1989) Persian Gulf War (1991) Election of 1796 United Nations Earth Summit (1992) Exxon Valdese Incident (1989) Operation Desert Storm Saddam Hussein Kuwait General H. Norman Schwartzkopf (Stormin’ Norman) General Colin Powell Kurds Rodney King Case (1992) / L.A. Riots Somalia Incident/ “Black Hawk Down” Dan Quayle David H. Souter/ Supreme Court Justice (1989)

4 More Key Terms United Nations Earth Summit (1992)
Exxon Valdese Incident (1989) Operation Desert Storm Saddam Hussein Kuwait General H. Norman Schwartzkopf (Stormin’ Norman) General Colin Powell Kurds Rodney King Case (1992) / L.A. Riots Somalia Incident/ “Black Hawk Down” Dan Quayle David H. Souter/ Supreme Court Justice (1989)

5 More Key Terms Election of 1992 Election of 1996 Ross Perot Bob Dole
Al Gore “New Democrat” Janet Reno Ruth Bader Ginsburg/ Supreme Court Justice (1993) Stephen Breyer / Supreme Court Justice (1994) Hillary Rodham Clinton “Don’t ask, don’t tell policy” Welfare System Reform Columbine High School Incident (1999) World Trade Center Bombing (1993) Oklahoma City Bombing Incident Timothy McVeigh Haiti Invasion Ethnic Cleansing Yugoslavia splits (Serbs, Croats, Bosnians )

6 More Key Terms Slobodan Milosevic Rwanda genocide incident (1994) NATO
Kosovo NAFTA (North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement (1994) Newt Gingrich / Contract with America White Water Investigation (1994) Kenneth Starr Monica Lewinski Paula Jones Linda Tripp Clinton’s Impeachment (1998) Brady Bill (1994) Branch Davidian Cult Compound Incident (1993) David Koresh O.J. Simpson murder trial/ Nicole Simpson/ Ron Goldman “Graying of America”

7 George Herbert Walker Bush (1989-1993)
I. Biographical Information A. He was the 41st President of the United States - Republican B. He was Reagan’s Vice President from C. He was born in Massachusetts, the son of a wealthy banker. D. His father was later a U.S. Senator from the state of Connecticut. E. He served in the Navy as a pilot during WWII where he received the Distinguished Flying Cross Award. F. He married Barbara Pierce in She became the second wife and mother of a President.

8 G. He graduated from Yale in 1948, and moved to Texas where he helped establish an oil company.
H. He served two years in the U.S. House of Reps. from Texas during the 1960’s. I. He ran against the Democratic candidate, Michael Dukakis, in the Election of and won by a landslide. J. His experience as an Ambassador to the United Nations under Nixon and as Director of the CIA under Ford allowed him to come to the Presidency with an impressive resume of foreign policy accomplishments. K. During his campaign, he made the promise, “Read my lips, no new taxes!” L. The weak economy and the tax hike that he promised not to do doomed his chances of being re-elected in This loss would end the 12 year Republican reign. II. Events The early 1990’s saw a serious economic recession take place in the U.S. B. One big factor that contributed to the economic problems was the Savings and Loan Crisis, caused by bankers making risky loans (Greed). 1. This led to the worst string of bank failures since the Great Depression. 2. The Federal Government had to bail out these banks, costing Americans money.

9 C. Bush would have to back down on his pledge to not raise taxes by increasing income taxes and raising rates on alcohol, tobacco, gas, and luxury items. D. There was a large population boom in the Sunbelt, South, and Western regions of the U.S. due to a large influx of Latino and Asian immigrants. E. The U.S. invades Panama in 1989 to capture General Manuel Noriega on charges of drug trafficking. He is placed on trial in Miami, and sentenced to 40 years in prison. F. (1990) - Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) - bans discrimination in the hiring, promoting , and firing of handicapped persons (cancer, AIDS, and epilepsy). G. (1990) - Clear Air Act - Set pollution standards and deadlines for factories, oil refiners, and automakers to make improvements. H. (1991) - START Treaty (Strategic Arms Treaty) – signed between the U.S. and Russia to cut both nation’s nuclear arsenals by 2/3 after the Cold War ended. I. (1991) non-Russian republics declared their independence from the Soviet Union. Gorbachev lost his power and resigned as Soviet President. He was replaced by Boris Yeltsin who was elected by the people. J. (1992) - Bush and Russian President Boris Yeltsin issued a formal statement declaring an end to the Cold War that had been going on since 1945.

10 K. United Nations Earth Summit nations signed treaties to reverse disturbing trends in the environment. 1. The most important issue dealt with Global Warming. It involved the Greenhouse Effect, which is the increase in world-wide temperature caused by manmade chemicals trapped in the atmosphere. 2. Environmental protection became an issue after the oil tanker, “Exxon Valdese”, struck a reef off the Alaskan coast, spilling ten million barrels of oil. L. Persian Gulf War (1991) 1. During the 1980’s, Iran and Iraq had fought a prolonged war, and Sadam Hussein found himself with enormous war debts to pay. 2. To increase his wealth, he instructed his Iraqi troops to invade the tiny oil-rich country of Kuwait, loot the area, and then head toward Saudi Arabia to take over their oil fields. 3. If Iraq conquered Saudi Arabia, along with Kuwait, they would control one half of the world’s known oil reserves. 4. With the support of Congress and the UN, President Bush launched Operation Desert Storm to liberate Kuwait from Iraqi control. 5. H. Norman Schwartzkopf (Stormin’ Norman) was chosen as the commander to lead the operation. General Colin Powell was chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. 6. On January 16, 1991, the U.S. and its allies staged a massive air assault against Iraq after Hussein refused to remove his troops.

11 7. On February 23, 1991, they launched a successful ground offensive from Saudi Arabia.
8. On February 28, 1991, President Bush announced a ceasefire, Iraq retreated back to their country, and Operation Desert Storm was over. Kuwait was liberated. M. (1992) - Rodney King (African American) is arrested and beaten by police in L.A. The entire event is caught on video. The case goes to trial and the police involved were originally found innocent, leading to massive riots in Los Angeles. N. (1992) - The U.S. sends troops to Somalia as part of the UN’s effort to provide emergency medical and food relief to the people, but the warlords will not allow the people to get them. This conflict escalates into the “Black Hawk Down” incident in 1993 under Clinton.

12 William J. Clinton (1993-2001) I. Biographical Information
A. 42nd President of the U.S. - Democrat B. He was the first “Baby Boom” President. C. As a college student in the 1960’s, he opposed the Vietnam War and pulled strings to avoid being drafted. D. He was born in Hope, Arkansas in 1946. E. He graduated from Yale Law School, and taught law at the University of Arkansas Law School. F. He became Governor of Arkansas in 1979 at age 32. G. He married Hillary Rodham. H. He defeated George Bush and the Third Party Candidate, Ross Perot, to become President at the age of Ross Perot received 19% of the popular vote. Many believe these votes cost Bush a chance at re-election. Al Gore was chosen as his Vice President.

13 I. Clinton established the “New Democrat” of the 1990’s to win back the Reagan Democrats of the 1980’s. J. He appointed more women and minorities to his cabinet than prior administrations. Janet Reno was chosen by Clinton as his Attorney General. Ruth Bader Ginsburg was appointed to the Supreme Court by Clinton. K. He demonstrated a willingness to pursue both liberal and conservative policies on healthcare, the budget deficit, crime, and welfare. L. He emphasized the need to move people off of welfare and called for growth in private business as a means of economic progress. M. He pledged to create a plan to guarantee affordable health care for all Americans. He appointed Hillary to head the team creating the plan. In the end, Congress never even voted for it – the Republicans killed it, citing its expense. N. What stood out during Clinton’s Presidency was his ability to communicate with the American people. He attracted the younger voters.

14 II. Events A. Clinton and the Republican-controlled Congress agreed in 1997 on legislation to balance the federal budget by the year 2002. Cut spending by billions of dollars. * For the first time in 30 years, the federal budget had a surplus. Lowered taxes to win Republican support. Created programs aimed at helping children and improving health care. B. When Clinton took office, the economy rebounded, unemployment began to fall, and the stock market soared. The economy prospered during his two terms. C. Welfare System Reform (1996) - Clinton and Congressional Republicans cooperated to reform the entire welfare system. Limits were placed on how long people could receive benefits. States were given “Block Grants” – set amounts of federal money to spend on welfare. It was very successful. Many people moved off welfare and got jobs. D. (1999) Columbine High School, Colorado Incident students and a teacher were killed, and 23 wounded, by two students.

15 6. The U.S. troops stayed longer than had been intended bringing much criticism of Clinton’s policies. I. NAFTA ( North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement) Its purpose was to strengthen the economy of the countries of the U.S., Canada, and Mexico and create more American Jobs. 1. It established a free trade zone with no tariffs between the three countries. 2. Opponents insisted that NAFTA would transfer American jobs to Mexico where wages were lower, and it would also be harmful to the environment because of Mexico’s weaker anti-pollution laws. J. By mid 1994, after the failure of Clinton’s health care plan and questions regarding his leadership, Republican Congressman, Newt Gingrich, began to turn voter dissatisfaction into support for the Republican Party. 1. He drafted the Contract with America - ten items Republicans promised to enact if they won control of Congress. These included: Congressional term limits, a balanced budget, tax cuts, tougher criminal laws, and welfare reform. 2. After the 1994 elections, the Republicans took control of Congress in both houses. 3. Newt Gingrich was chosen as the new Speaker of the House. 4. The Republican Congress and Clinton would have a stalemate over legislation. Clinton vetoed 15 pieces of legislation.

16 6. The Republican Congress would shut down the federal government for almost a week in November of 1995. Election of Clinton is re-elected defeating the Republican candidate Bob Dole and Reform Candidate, Ross Perot. * Voter Apathy resulted in only 49% of registered voters turning out to vote. L. Whitewater Investigation (1994) - During the late 1970’s, Clinton was involved in a law deal with the Whitewater Development Company in Arkansas. 1. He was accused of improperly using some of the land money to fund his 1984 gubernatorial re-election campaign in Arkansas. 2. Kenneth Starr was appointed as independent counsel to investigate the matter. 3. While investigating, Starr found out that Clinton had an improper relationship with a young Whitehouse intern named Monica Lewinski. 4. Clinton lied under oath about his relationship. 5. Clinton would later be cleared of his wrongdoing in the Whitewater affair, but had to answer for committing perjury while under oath. 6. Clinton became only the second President to ever face a trial in the Senate. The other President was Andrew Johnson, 130 years before.

17 7. The Senate vote to convict Clinton and remove him from office fell short of the 2/3 necessary vote. M. Brady Bill (1994) - a law passed for gun control. It required a 5-day waiting period when purchasing a gun. N. (1993) - Branch Dividian Cult Compound in Waco, Texas, led by David Koresh, was raided by the ATF Bureau and the compound was set on fire killing the inhabitants. O. (1993) - After being accused of killing his ex-wife, Nicole and her male friend, Ron Goldman, OJ Simpson will be tried for murder and found innocent.

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