Pseudomonas aeruginosa It is a pathogen to man and animals and causing a variety of infections, including skin rashes and otitis externa. P. aeruginosa is active as a spoilage organism, attacking many common and exotic substrates.
Staphylococcus aureus The presence of Staph… in recreational waters is considered to be mainly due to discharges from the mouth, nose, and throat of swimmers, as well as from their skin surface.
Salmonella Salmonellosis is any disease in a man or animal for which the causative agent is the Salmonella bacterium. The symptoms of this infection include acute gastroenteristis, enteric fever, and septicemia
Shigella Shigellosis, the infection caused by Shigella, can be transmitted through person-to-person contact, poor-quality drinking water, or contaminated food. The symptoms of shigellosis range from a mild-transitory diarrhea to vomiting, abdominal pains, fever, and profuse bloody feces.
Aeromonas Infections caused by the species have been divided into four categories: Cellulitis or wound infection related to exposure to water Acute diarrheal disease of short duration Septicemia, mostly in association with hepatic biliary or pancreatic disease Other infection, such as soft-tissue infections, urinary tract infections, meningitis, peritonitis, otitis, and endocarditis, particularly in immuno- compromised people.
Campylobacter jejuni Camplyobacter jejuni has been isolated from water, mud, livestock, and dogs and cats. Bird droppings have been a well-documented reservoir. Modes of transmission to humans include contact with animals, handling raw chicken, person-to-person contact, and consumption of contaminated food, raw milk, and water.
Legionella Legionellaceae have been recognized as an important cause of respiratory illnesses, causing legionellosis and Pontiac fever. Legionellosis is a multiple-system disease that can be fatal in immuno-compromised persons. Pontiac fever is a self-limited, flu-like illness, mainly affecting immuno-competent persons. The mode of infection is by inhalation of infected aerosols.
Viruses The diseases produced by the enteric viruses range from unapparent to severe. Enteric viruses can cause gastroenteritis, hepatitis A and hepatitis E, fever, respiratory ailments, eye infections, central nervous system infections, poliomyelitis, etc.
Toxic Phytoplankton Phytoplankton, which are microscopic floating plants, can become a hazard and a nuisance in recreational waters, especially when the concentrate at the water surface in blooms. This can be a natural phenomenon, but it is often caused by cultural eutrophication.
Nuisance Organisms TWO principal types of biological factors influence the recreational value of surface waters: those that endanger the health or physical comfort of people and animals (vectors), and those that render water aesthetically objectionable or unusable as a result of excessive nutrient enrichment or the presence of unsightly substances (aquatic growth).