Presentation on theme: "FOOD AND NUTRITON SECURITY AT HOUSEHOLD AND NATIONAL LEVEL Dr.P.Yasoda Devi Deputy Director Planning and Monitoring Cell Administrative Office ANGR Agricultural."— Presentation transcript:
FOOD AND NUTRITON SECURITY AT HOUSEHOLD AND NATIONAL LEVEL Dr.P.Yasoda Devi Deputy Director Planning and Monitoring Cell Administrative Office ANGR Agricultural University Rajendranagar, Hyderabad
FAO defined food security as Access by all people at all times to the food they need to live healthy lives. It is also described as Physical and economic access to food to all children, women and men at all times. The term household food security is defined as Access to culturally acceptable food, that is adequate in terms of quantity and quality for all the household members (Gillespie and Masa, 1991). At the household level, food security is the ability of the household to secure enough food to ensure an adequate dietary intake for all its members (Van Braun etc. al., 1991.)
Nutrition Security is defined as the appropriate quantity and combination of inputs such as - Food - Nutrition - Health Services -Caretakers time To ensure an active and Healthy life at all times for all people Consequences of inadequate Nutrition In case of young child, SurvivalIn Adults -Growth- Health -Health or Sickness- Biological Functions -Activity- Productive Activity -Cognitive development
Determinants of Child Survival and Development Survival, Growth and Development Adequate Dietary Health Intake Household Food Security Maternal and Child Care Health Services & Health Environment Resources and Control Human Economic and Organizational Political and Ideological Superstructure Economic Structure Potential Resources Underlying Determinants Basic Determinants Manifestations Immediate Determinants
Poor Nutritional Status of an Individual results from combination of Inadequate dietary intake and Infectious Diseases Hence, strategy for Addressing Malnutrition should be based on three underlying issues of : -Food -Health -Care Womens Role in caring the family and in all aspects of Nutrition is increasingly recognized
List of significant factors for the three indicators of Nutritional status in stepwise regression Stepwise regression Weigh / age% Height / age% Weight / Height% Child related factors: Number of diarrhoel episodes ****** 2. Calorie adequacy of ****** Childs diet 3. Primary care taker of ****** Child 4. Age of child *** * 5. Regularity of bath to ** * NS Child 6. Immunization coverage *NS NS 7. Number of URI episodes NSNS * 8. Number of other infection *NS NS episodes 9. Age of starting weaning NSNS ** Food
Maternal Factors: Stepwise regression Wt / age% Ht / age% Wt / Ht% 10.Health status during **NS** Pregnancy 11.Help received by mother NSNS* for Household activities 12.Help received by mother NS ** NS from her parents
Stepwise regressionWeight / age% Height / age% Weight / Height% Paternal Factors: 13.Health status during *NSNS study period 14.Spends time with the *NSNS family after work 15.Expenditure on luxuries NSNS * & Vices 16.Not loving and affectionate **NS with child 17.Frequent quarrels between *NSNS parents
Socio-Economic factors: 18.Income from land**** 19.Land availablilityNS-NS 20.Number of children** - in the family attending school/college 21.CasteNS**NS 22.Per capita food - - NS expenditure 23.Per capita incomeNSNS - 24.Type of hospitalNSNS - visited. **: Significant at 1% level *: Significant at 5% level -: Significant at 10% level NS: Not significant
FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURE HOUSEHOLDS NameEducationNo. of child ren & spacing Type of family & support Child Care taker Earning members income debts Type of House Children attending school Yes/No Personal Hygiene Anjaneyulu & Kamalamma 2 nd class Attended adult education classes 3 (8,6,3 yrs) Joint With good support from in- laws Grand Monther (Energet ic, high awarenes s at child care) 3 adults all hard working Rs.50/- per day Nil Brick wall and tiled roof with adequate outdoor Space (Govt. Housing scheme) Neat and well ventilated Yes, older two Good, daily bath neat clothes though not costly.
NameEducationNo. of children spacing Type of family & support Child Care Taker Earning member s income debts Type of House Children attending school Yes/No Personal Hygiene Rajaratnam & Maneema 5 th class Illiterate with Good awareness on child care 5 (16,13,1 0,7,3½ yrs) Nuclear (older children s support for househol d work) Mother1 (hard Working ) Rs.30/- per day, in-laws support in terms of grains cash Nil Brick wall and tiled roof with adequate outdoor Space (Govt. Housing scheme) Neat and well ventilate d Yes, older Four Good, daily bath neat clothes though not costly.
FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURE HOUSEHOLDS Antenatal Care Breast Feeding WeaningParents Concern VicesWife & House and Relationship Remarks Good Good (cousin who is an ANM provided appropriate care) Breast fed upto 3½ yrs undergone Tubectomy operation -do- Weaned at 5 months, Grand mother took good care to feed the child Weaned at 5 months, Mother showed special interest to prepare different low-cost weaning foods Good Good –loving and affectionate parents seeks immediate/ Timely medical attention Nil Nil Good Good Couple were determined to work hard to provide good future for the children Awareness of couple regarding childcare is high, Higher priority for childcare than income.
FOOD AND NUTRITION INSECURE HOUSEHOLDS FOOD AND NUTRITION INSECURE HOUSEHOLDS FOOD AND NUTRITION INSECURE HOUSEHOLDS NameEdu. cation No. of children spacing Type of family & support Child Care taker Earning members income debts Type of House Children attendin g school Yes/No Personal Hygiene Malayya & Sankaramma Illiterate Illiterate 7 (9 deliveries Nuclear No support from in- laws Sibling Care (7 yrs girl) /- per day and income from goats Rs.3000/- Kutcha, Mud walls and flooring, that ched kitchen, goats tied in the kitchen NoVery poor, bath once in ten days, child always found in rags on mud floor Mogalayya and Laxmi and Pushpamma -do-2+1 (5&3 yrs and 7 yrs) Nuclear, no support from either families Sibling care which is inadequate 2 Rs.20/- Rs.30/- per day (husband does not work) Rs.5000/- Kutcha, untidy house and surroundings No-do- All members had scabies for most of the study period. Contd..
FOOD AND NUTRITION INSECURE HOUSEHOLD AntenatalBreast Feeding WeaningParents concernVicesWife and Husband Relationship Remarks Very poor Poor Poor gave birth to low birth weight child Insufficient (aged mother) Could not feed properly. Husband left her when the child was very young and her health deteriorated. Breast milk only for 3 months because of next pregnancy and also work outside home 1½ years, inadequate quantity of rice with dal or vegetable, frequent diarrhoea Improper Weaning 13 months, poor weaning practices by the grand mother Very poor Very poor, no medical care even when all 3 children had measles attack, without elders care Though mother is concerned, is helpless because of domination of mother-in-law Yes Drunke d Nil Not good Very poor always quarrels in the family, two wives do not get along well Normal Unwanted child, dejected mother-too many family problems Lazy and un supportive husband. Less harmony in the family Lack of family support and poor economic factors were detrimental inspite of her concern for the child.
Attempts made in the past to improve the quality of foodgrains Improving the protein content and its distribution in the grains improving the nutritional status by improving the lysine and other essential amino-acids in the grains Producing pulses like lathyrus which are free from neurotoxin. Improving the protein content either by genetic manipulation or by appropriate agronomic management, Improving the lysine content in sorghum - the entire world germplasm was screened for variation for this component. In case of maize, the opaque-2 and floury-2 genes were incorporated to improve the lysine content but the grain so developed became highly susceptible to pests. Similar was the case-with man-made cereal the triticale which although had high protein or lysine content could not be successful because of grain pests. Mid day meals programme Introducing farming and cropping systems into cultivation. Distribution of foodgrains at subsidized rates to the hostels and also to children.
Some Indicators of social Development ( ) Life expectancy Male Female Infant mortality rate (per 100 births) Death rate (per 1000) Birth rate (per 1000) Fertility rate (per 1000) Literacy rate % Years 7 years & above Per capita consumption of food grains (kgs) a) Villages without drinking water (000) b) (b) Villages partially covered (Less than 40 x Ipcd) Electricity as a source of rural lighting (% of dwellings) Urban Nil Ipcd = Litres per capita per day (Source: Directorate of Econ. & Stat. DOA & Coop. MoA., Govt. of India, 1993)
The present transfer of technology cannot meet the demands the people, and hence needs to be improved. The future strategies 1.Increasing Food Production 2.Population Control for Economic Growth and Increased Food Availability 3.Improving the purchasing power of the people. 4.Empowerment of women in the house which also helps in improving the nutrition of the children and whole family.
Bridging the yield gap by appropriate technology input supply to double the existing production. Improving the cropping and farming systems to generate income on a sustained basis. Improving the food needs by popularsing new crops, Popularizing nutrition gardens Improving marketing, transportation, storage, pricing, post-harvest product development and technologies. Knowledge on proper utilization of income and income generating capacity to the village women who are really the food producers, gatherers, makers and protectors of the family health and nutrition. Political will and national planning needs to be done wisely and implemented expeditiously Increasing production of food grain and other commodities
The ill effects of bad weather, particularly droughts and resulting acute and chronic food insecurity a major source of concern for developing countries for many years. Most of the responses to drought – induced food insecurity remains emergency and food-aid oriented. Developing holistic policy approaches is fundamental for increasing food security in drought prone environments
I.The land based coping mechanisms: Intercrop adjustments of cropped area use of farm yard manure, fertilizers, pesticides, weedicides applying seed treatment procedures use of hybrid or improved seeds use of canal or tank or well or borewell water for irrigation use of lift irrigation method, deepening of wells, digging well or borewell seeking support from State Agricultural department and shrinking of net sown area. Coping Mechanisms
II.Livestock based coping mechanisms: Animal rearing carpet weaving with sheep wool seeking support from State Veterinary Department foraging in common property and reduction in the livestock owned by selling, gifting, mortgaging or abandoning.
III.Curtailment in fresh acquisition and liquidation of both farm and non-farm assets by mortgaging or selling The families to work on non-farm occupations small trades during off-season deriving the benefit of welfare programmes call from remittance from relatives postponement of acquisition of consumer durables curtailment in the expenditure on all food and non-food items obtaining loans, accepting to work for low wages and employing children to borrowing money.
IV. Families resorted to opting to work for kind sending children to Anganwadi centre for food procuring cheaper quality foods collecting forest produce procuring unconventional foods decreasing purchase of foods by paying cash or from PDS and purchasing foods on loan
V.The food storage based coping mechanisms: storing the staple, in peak season storing tamarind and red chillies producing major crop and selling them during economic crises
VI.The production, consumption and distribution based coping mechanisms: substitution of millets to rice, use of more puffed rice horsegram or cowpea to redgram cooking only once in a day, reducing the quantity of food intake, curtailment in number of meals from 3 to 2 by adults selling the grains stored for seed purpose curtailment in consumption of coffee and tea diluting the milk or giving coffee/tea to children instead of milk preparation of chutneys in place of vegetable or dhal preparations curtailing work and activities to suppress hunger and forceful starvation.
VII.Curtailment in the use of intoxicants, cigarettes and pan postponement of family functions postponement or avoiding travel or traveling by walk to avoid transport charges sending daughter-in-law along with children to parents house or sending children to grandparents house avoiding guests, relatives, friends, gifts and beggars maintaining the secrecy of food resources in the forests reducing the other social activities involving expenditure
VIII.The health based coping mechanisms: decrease in seeking health services from private clinics increase in seeking health services from Government hospital, Anganwadi centres / community health centres undergoing family planning operations at Government Hospitals seeking health services from native practitioners, or directly from medical shops postponement or avoiding operations postponement or avoiding seeking medical services.
Few of these mechanisms are found to beneficial and can be encouraged others are very harmful necessary policy implications and immediate Government interventions are required.
Household size; Dependency ratio; High percentage of preschoolers; Migration / timing Region / community / caste Total expenditure, Per capita Food expenditure, Per capita Food budget share, Basic staple prices. Contd.. ALTERNATIVE AND TRADITIONAL INDICATORS AT HOUSEHOLD LEVEL – DEVELOPED BY ICRISAT The set of indicators included biological and socio-economic variables like
Income from remittances; Rooms per capita in home; Quality of house construction; Location of water source and sanitation facilities; Land area cultivated and owned Occupation / crop-tenancy status; Employment status; Number of income sources; Access to small-scale/backyard production Livestock/type/owned/offered for sale; Asset ownership; Education of adults;
Number of unique foods consumed or available; Subjective perceptions of participant as to quality of diet; Number of missed meals; Consumption of high-income elasticity items; Quantity of food stores/how long will last/ability to store;
Alternative Indicators of Chronic Household Food Insecurity High household dependency ratio Village the household is located in Household contains at least one child with diarrhea Household purchases many foods on a daily or weekly basis Household purchases grain daily or weekly Poor quality of drinking water in summer (r3)and monsoon (r1) Households frequently substituting oilseeds for oil Households containing working women who have young children Households with a high dependency ratio and a low number of owned plots
Households with a high dependence ratio and a low number of agricultural wage workers in household Households with a high dependency ratio and a low number of income sources in household Household with a high dependency ratio and have taken a food loan within last 4 months Conventional High share of household expenditure on food Low per capita household expenditure Low per capita household food expenditure
Indicators to Plan, Monitor and Evaluate Food and Nutrition Security Programmes I. Adequate food and nutrition 1.Proper nutrition surveillance from birth to five years and no moderate and severe PEM. 2. School children receive adequate food for nutritional requirements 3.Pregnant women receive adequate and proper food, and delivery of newborn babies with birth weight not less than 3,000 g.
II. Proper housing and environment: 1.The house will last at least five years 2.Housing and the environment are hygienic and in order 3.The household possesses a hygienic latrine 4.Adequate clean drinking water is available all year around
III.Adequate basic health and education services 1 Full vaccination with BCG, DTP, OPV and measles vaccine for infants under one year. 2.Primary education for all children 3.Immunization with BCG,DTP and typhoid vaccine for primary school children 4.Literacy among year old citizens 5.Monthly education and information in health care, occupation and other important areas for the family 6. Adequate antenatal services 7.Adequate delivery and postpartum services
IV. Security and safety of life and properties 1. Security of people and properties V. Efficiency in food production by the family 1.Growing alternative crops or soil production crops 2.Utilization of fertilizers to increase yields 3.Pest prevention and control in plants 4.Prevention and control of animal diseases 5.Use of proper genetic plants and animals
VI.Family Planning 1. Not more than two children per family and adequate family planning services V II. People participation in community development 1. Each family is a member of self-help activities 2. The village is involved in self-development activities 3. Care of public properties 4. Care and promotion of culture 5. Preservation of natural resources 6. People are active in voting 7. The village committee is able to plan and implement projects
1. VIII. Spiritual or ethical development 2.1.Being cooperative and helpful in the village 2.Family members are involved in religious practices once a month 3.Neither gambling nor addiction to alcohol or other drugs by family members 4.Modest living and expenses.
Success Factors in South Asian Community-Based Nutrition Programmes 1.Political commitment at all levels of society. 2.A culture where people, particularly women, are involved in decision making. 3.The presence of community organizations. 4.A high level of literacy, especially among women. Contextual Success Factors
5.Infrastructure for the delivery of basic services, including committed and capable staff. 6.Empowered women. 7.Charismatic leaders in the community, who can mobilize and motivate people to do more for themselves in a genuinely self- reliant way. 8.The parallel implementation of poverty reducing programmes, particularly where the nutrition-oriented programme / project is integrated with these.
Programme Success Factors: 1.The creation of awareness of the high prevalence, serious consequences and available low-cost solutions of the nutrition problem. 2.The initiation, promotion and support of a process where individuals and communities participate in assessing the nutrition problem and decide on how to use their and additional outside resources for actions. 3.Clear identification and definition of time-bound goals (targets) at all levels of the programme/project.
4.Strengthening of the awareness and understanding of the causes of malnutrition, including the hierarchy of immediate, underlying and basic causes, and the need to address causes at all three levels. 5.The identification and support of facilitators and community mobilizers 6.Community mobilization and participation 7.Community-based monitoring
8.Both the community and the Government ownership of the programme/project 9.Income-generating activities supported by low-interest credit arrangements for the poor, particularly poor women. 10.Capacity building through training and continuing education of facilitators, community mobilizers and community members in general, particularly women. 11.Good management of the programme/project, including effective leadership, supervision and coordination. 12.Increased cost consciousness and capability to estimate resource requirements. 13. The involvement of NGOs.
Achieving sustainable food security for all by 2020 Nine Critical Driving Forces 1.Accelerating Globalization and Further Trade Liberalization 2.Sweeping Technological Changes 3.Degradation of Natural Resources and Increasing Water Scarcity 4.Health and Nutrition Crises 5.Rapid Urbanization 6.The Changing Face of Farming 7.Continued Conflict 8.Climate Change 9.Changing roles and responsibilities of Key actors
Seven Pro-poor Action Areas 1.Investing in Human Resources 2.Improving Access to Productive Resources and Remunerative Employment 3.Improving Markets, Infrastructure, and Institutions 4.Expanding Appropriate Research, Knowledge, and Technology 5.Improving Natural Resource Management 6.Good Governance 7.Pro-poor National and International Trade and Macroeconomics Policies
Strategies required for household food and nutrition security: 1.1.Ensuring adequate employment opportunities as to enable them to meet their basic family needs 2.2.Ensuring availability of food at affordable prices locally. 3.3.Increasing the literacy status/awareness of women with regard to Nutrition, Health and Hygiene. 4.4.Increasing the awareness of family members specially women with regard to importance of hormony in the family. Good relationship among spouses. 5.5.Empowering the women to make appropriate decisions in management of resources, curtailment of expenditure on luxuries and vices of men.
Principles on which conquest of poverty, malnutrition, and Food Security in India has to be based. A. The protection of the health and Nutritional status of their children must be considered as the moral and legal responsibility and obligation of all parents. The state can only provide the necessary facilities. B. It is the right of all able-bodied adults to expect the state to provide them full employment which will at least guarantee them minimum wages to satisfy the basic needs of their family including particularly the needs of their children.