Presentation on theme: "Peak oil Transition Training 2007 Peak oil is the point at which we can no longer increase the amount of crude oil we extract and globally petroleum."— Presentation transcript:
Peak oil Transition Training 2007
Peak oil is the point at which we can no longer increase the amount of crude oil we extract and globally petroleum production goes into irreversible decline. This typically happens when an oil province has extracted roughly ½ of all the oil that is ever going to be extracted from that province - it is not when the oil runs out. This slide illustrates why the sum total of a collection of oil fields in a region when added together creates a peak at about the half way point in production Peak oil- What is it?
Forties field UK sector North Sea Prudhoe Bay, Alaska Two typical oil fields Transition Training 2007
These two large oil fields illustrate the basic dynamics of oil production: A steep initial increase, a production plateau and then a slow but irreversible decline. Once the peak is past there are many techniques and technologies that can brought to maximise the declining output, but it is a losing battle and production will never return to it former levels. Peak oil- What is it? Oil field production
USA Egypt Indonesia Russia Oil discovery follows production Transition Training 2007
Peak oil What is it? Oil production follows discovery Oil production peak follows oil discovery peak, usually years later. This is the time it takes to get production going after the initial finding. In country after country and oil province after oil province the pattern is broadly the same – four examples are shown of countries that have peaked. Globally we are now discovering 1 barrel of oil for every 5 or 6 that we use.
Global oil discovery and production Transition Training 2007
To produce oil you first have to discover it. World discovery peaked in the late 1960s and has been falling ever since, and despite rapidly improving and sophisticated, technology, there is no prospect of it ever increasing. At the same time production has been rapidly rising. Demand is projected to go on rising, (with production failing to keep up), especially in rapidly industrialising countries like China and India, and is leading to rapidly rising oil prices. When will it happen? Global oil discovery, production, and demand
Post peak oil producers (64) Transition Training 2007 Oil producers (98)
There are 98 countries in the word that produce oil, some large some small. The countries in red are the countries that are now post peak. Their oil production is now in decline and nothing they can do will ever reverse that. Of 98 producers 64 have already peaked. Anyone who tries to tell you that peak oil is a myth should look at one of these countries- not one has ever failed to follow the Hubberts peak and then decline When will it happen? Of the 98 producers 64 countries have already peaked
80:20 rule The worlds giant oilfields are in steep decline Transition Training 2007
When will it happen? 80:20 rule – decline of the giant oil fields The 80:20 rule is that 80% of your result comes from the first 20% of your effort – with diminishing returns after that In oil terms we find the easy to find and produce oil first - the largest oil fields. 50% of global oil is produced by the 120 largest oil fields in the world (out of over 4000 fields) This graph shows that discovery of giant oil fields peaked in the late 1960s. Now we find very few giant (greater than 1 billion barrels) oil fields, and that rate of discovery is declining.
WHERE WE GET OUR ENERGY Source: ExxonMobile web site
Why is oil so important? It is frightening how dependent we are on fossil fuels. We have only begun the move away from fossil fuel energy. Even if we were to double the amount of energy we get from renewables, and then double it, and then double again, which would be a heroic achievement, it would still only create 3% of energy requirements.
Why is oil so important? How many men does it take to push a car? Transition Training 2007
Why is it so important? The phenomenal energy in petrol A tank of petrol contains 8,000 human hours work! If you worked for 8 hrs/day, 52 weeks a year, 7 days a week that equates to about 3 years work. Most of us take for granted the amount of energy we have at our disposal instantly, everyday. No human society had anything near the amount of energy before the discovery of fossil fuels.
Transition Training 2007 What do we use oil for? Transition Training 2007
Our entire way of life, and a bewildering array products are reliant on oil. Transport is only the beginning of our oil use. Many products are derived from, or use oil or gas as their raw material. Plastics, synthetic fibres, drugs, laminates, paints, ink… the list is endless The so called Green revolution, modern agriculture depends on oil. Fertilisers and pesticides are made from oil and natural gas, tractors and machinery use it, irrigation requires huge amounts of energy and this is before food miles, processing, and storing, cooking, and packaging and retailing are taken into account. Industry and even the service sector use huge amounts of energy. Why is oil so important? What do we use oil for?
No country has yet decoupled economic growth from energy use Transition Training 2007
Why is oil so important? Economic growth requires growth in our energy supply. We have an economic system that is dependent on growth. Therefore we are dependent on increasing supplies of energy. All forecasts of economic growth also show rising energy demand. When peak oil arrives we will have less total energy so economic growth will slow and probably decline, perhaps permanently
Oceans 40,000 GtC Vegetation about 600 GtC Soils 1600 GtC The atmosphere holds about 750 GtC Fossil CO2 Dead Organisms Transition Training 2007 The carbon cycle 1
The active carbon cycle The carbon dioxide cycle is a natural one,and one that has been in dynamic balance and undergone many fluctuations and cycles over millions of years. There is a balance between the seas and the land and the atmosphere. Carbon is locked up in the seas in plankton and other marine life, and dissolved in the water. Carbon is also locked up in plant matter on the earth (active carbon cycle), and in fossil deposits (inactive carbon cycle) of oil, natural gas, and coal. The destabilising factor in the carbon cycle is that we have taken the locked up (inactive) carbon from fossil fuels and put that carbon in the atmosphere. The land and the sea carbon sinks are unable to absorb this excess carbon.
Transition Training 2007 What is climate change? 2
Define Climate Change The term "climate change" is sometimes used to refer to all forms of climatic inconsistency, but because the Earth's climate is never static, the term is more properly used to imply a significant change from one climatic condition to another. What is causing Climate change or Global Warming? Rising human made CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. It this a theory? Yes Why? Because it is trying to establish two cause and effects. Firstly that CO2 is the cause of global warming and secondly that humans are causing it through the burning of fossil fuels.
Transition Training 2007 Is it proven? 3
Have both cause and effects been proven? Is the earth warming, and are humans causing it? Main Point Yes, as much as a scientific theory can be proven. It It has been confirmed by the International Panel for Climate Change is a worldwide group of scientists who have reviewed all available scientific research. Detail The 4 th IPCC report published in 2007 states, 1-Warming of the climate system is unequivocal. 2-Most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely (confidence level >90%) due to the observed increase in human greenhouse gas concentrations. This is scientific speak for yes! This United Nations study, which was just awarded the 2007 Nobel peace prize, was the most comprehensive study of peer reviewed climate research ever undertaken, and one of the most comprehensive studies of any scientific question ever. Its conclusions are that there is no more debate, the science is clear. The only question is how fast can we act to create real reductions in atmospheric CO2.
What are the main problems with out of control CC? Transition Training
What are the main problems with out of control CC? Main Points Severe one in a hundred year weather events becoming common Sea level rises, leading to increasing land loss and cc refugees Species loss Additional Points Increased droughts/desertification. This slide is of the Australian Murray River system, which has faced an extreme multi year drought. The government has had to take the decision to allocate whatever water there is to the cities rather than allow farmers to irrigate their crops. This has lead to a decrease in the Australian wheat harvest of 35% this year. Australia is one of the bread baskets of the world. Increased floods- like this year in the UK. Acidic seas Species loss due to temperature zones the rate of 2km/yr. This will accelerate species loss due to habitat loss, as many species of plants and animals will be unable to migrate with the temperature. We face a potential of 50% or more loss of life on earth. We are depended on the web of life for our survival. Transition Training 2007
CO2 levels over the past years Ron Oxburgh 381 ppm 2006 Transition Training
The natural carbon cycle and human effects Main points This shows the ice core data measuring atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the last 60,000 years. As you can see CO2 levels have risen and fallen. To keep the climate from warming more than 2 degrees C we would have to keep CO2 concentration to below 450ppm They are currently at 380ppm without counting the other GHG which are Methane, nitrous oxide, CFCs. Additional Points The last ice age ended 20,000 years ago and lead to a rise in CO2, and if we went back a few 100,000 years we would see this pattern of rise and fall. What happens next (in red) shows the result of a new agricultural system, and human population increase, and then the green shows the beginning of the industrial era and the burning of fossil fuels. The orange is the 20 th & 21 st century.
Transition Training 2007 The need for an urgent response 6
Once global temperatures rise to certain levels positive feedback loops will cause further releases of greenhouse gases, leading to runaway climate change On the best evidence we need to keep temperature rises to less than 2* C. Emissions already made have not yet had their full impact – so we are perilously close to reaching this even if we reduce emissions dramatically now. Positive Feedback loops For example if the arctic tundra melts it will emit so much methane, a powerful green house gas, that it will dwarf human CO2 emissions.
Responses to Peak Oil & Climate Change CLIMATE CHANGE Climate engineering Carbon capture and storage International emissions trading Climate adaptation Nuclear power P O + C C = Systems Re-think Planned Relocalisation Energy Descent Pathways Local Resilience PEAK OIL Burn everything! relaxed drilling regulations biofuels tar sands and non- conventional oils Resource nationalism Resource Wars 7
Response to PO and CC Looking at peak oil alone you look for replacements – tar sands, remote fields such as the antarctic, bio fuels, coal to liquids. If we dont reduce oil dependency in rich countries there will inevitably be either climate disaster from replacements or resource wars. Looking at climate change alone you may look for energy intensive solutions to mitigate climate change, including nuclear. When PO and CC are taken together you have to redesign the system – a low energy, re-localised and resilient system is the only viable future.