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Following lives from birth and through the adult years www.cls.ioe.ac.uk Evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study Denise D. Hawkes 15 th July 2008 Early.

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Presentation on theme: "Following lives from birth and through the adult years www.cls.ioe.ac.uk Evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study Denise D. Hawkes 15 th July 2008 Early."— Presentation transcript:

1 following lives from birth and through the adult years Evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study Denise D. Hawkes 15 th July 2008 Early Maternal Employment and Children’s Cognitive and Social Development:

2 following lives from birth and through the adult years Outline of Presentation  Research questions  Data  Model of early maternal employment  Results of determinants of early maternal employment  Model of child outcomes  Results of child outcomes  More on selection  Conclusion

3 following lives from birth and through the adult years Main Research Question  Interested in the impact of early maternal employment on child cognitive development  HOWEVER: Which mothers are employed?  What are the characteristics of those who return to employment?  Are these different from those who do not return to employment?  Do these differences explain the difference in child outcomes observed?  Therefore this paper will consider firstly the determinants of maternal employment and then taking these determinants into account the impact of early maternal employment on child cognitive and behavioural development

4 following lives from birth and through the adult years The impact of government policy  One of the possible determinants of early maternal employment especially in the early months of life is government policies such as:  Maternity Leave/Paternity Leave  Child care provision  Flexible working agreements/Parent friendly practices

5 following lives from birth and through the adult years UK Policy Context  Statuary Maternity Leave  First 4 months statutory maternity pay and an additional 3 months unpaid job protected leave for mothers who have completed one year full service.  Statuary Paternity Leave  2 weeks paid leave  Sure Start  government programme aimed at bring together, early education, childcare, health and family support through their children’s centres which are mainly located in disadvantaged areas in England

6 following lives from birth and through the adult years What do this policy context suggest?  In UK those in employment before the birth of their child are likely to return to employment 4-7 months after the birth of their child  There maybe interesting differences with the UK as only England has Sure Start  Also the determinates of being in employment prior to birth are also likely to be important

7 following lives from birth and through the adult years Millennium Cohort Study  The MCS is a nationally-representative sample of 18,818 babies within 18,552 families  The cohort members were born in the UK between September 2000 and January 2002 and were living in selected UK wards at age 9 months  The sample was drawn to over-represent those who live in areas of high child poverty, areas of high concentrations of ethnic minorities and the Celtic countries of the UK  The first sweep was undertaken when the cohort members were 9 months old, the second when they were 3 years old

8 following lives from birth and through the adult years MCS Descriptive Statistics – Month of employment For Natural MothersMCS 0-3 months6% 4-5 months24% 6-9 months19% Not by 9 months51% Observations18389

9 following lives from birth and through the adult years MCS Descriptive Statistics – Month of employment by education level For Natural Mothers No qualifications Up to A-LevelsDegree plus 0-3 months6%15%12% 4-5 months8%23%33% 6-9 months7%11%19% Not by 9 months 79%51%36% Observations

10 following lives from birth and through the adult years Determinants of early maternal employment model where emp is a dummy for whether the mother has returned to work by the time the cohort child is 9 months child is a selection of child characteristics‘ for example being the first born child mother is a selection of mother characteristics’ for example their level of education familyregion is a selection of family characteristics’ for example if they live in owner occupied accommodation and a set of regional dummies

11 following lives from birth and through the adult years Child Characteristics’ MCS Child Characteristics’ First Birth1.157 ( )** Multiple Birth0.558 ( )** Low Birth Weight0.809 ( )*

12 following lives from birth and through the adult years Mother Characteristics’  Most likely to enter employment by 9 months if:  MCS  between years old at the time of birth  hold qualifications  black ethnic group, not Pakistani or Bangladeshi  AND if employed one year prior to birth of the cohort child

13 following lives from birth and through the adult years Family Characteristics’ MCS Partnership status: reference married Single0.514 ( )** Cohabiting1.028 ( ) Number of other children in the household0.924 ( )* Other adults excluding parents in household1.405 ( )** Owner occupied housing1.630 ( )**

14 following lives from birth and through the adult years Region  MCS  London mothers are the least likely to enter employment by nine months  Mothers in the West Midlands and Yorkshire & Humberside are the most likely to enter employment by nine months

15 following lives from birth and through the adult years Early employment and developmental measures at 9 months for MCS  Those who have return to part time or full time employment relative to those who have not worked in the first 9 months of their child’s life report significantly:  more likely their children sleep through the night  more likely their children can sit up  more likely to be able to pass things from hand to hand  less likely to nod

16 following lives from birth and through the adult years Child outcomes & maternal employment where childout is the standardised BAS, Bracken or SDQ score at 3 years old emp is a two dummies for whether the mother has returned to work full time/part time by the time the cohort child is 9 months child is a selection of child characteristics‘ for example being the first born child mother is a selection of mother characteristics’ for example their level of education familyregion is a selection of family characteristics’ for example if they live in owner occupied accommodation and a set of regional dummies

17 following lives from birth and through the adult years BAS Just considering employment Controlling for all selection variables Reference: no employment by 9 months 0-3 months0.16 (0.03)*** (0.03) 4-6 months0.27 (0.03)*** (0.03) 7-9 months0.30 (0.03)*** (0.03) Observations11505

18 following lives from birth and through the adult years BAS continued  Just working variables working returning to employment in the first nine months of life is significantly positive  Moderated by the inclusion of child characteristics, although they remain significantly positive  largest and most significant covariates are first born, breastfeed and birth weight  Including mother’s characteristics, become insignificant  biggest and most important effect from maternal education, more education higher scores for children  Including family and area characteristics, all remain insignificant

19 following lives from birth and through the adult years BAS continued part 2  Heckman selection model  Subgroups:  no education, just working variables significantly positive for returning after 4 months, with all variables all insignificant  basic education, just working variables all significantly positive, with all variables all insignificant  higher education, just working variables only significantly positive between 7 and 9 months, with all variables all insignificant

20 following lives from birth and through the adult years Bracken Just considering employment Controlling for all selection variables Reference: no employment by 9 months 0-3 months0.13 (0.02)*** (0.03) 4-6 months0.26 (0.03)*** (0.03)** 7-9 months0.34 (0.04)*** (0.03) Observations10980

21 following lives from birth and through the adult years SDQ Just considering employment Controlling for all selection variables Reference: no employment by 9 months 0-3 months-0.12 (0.03)*** 0.04 (0.03) 4-6 months-0.23 (0.02)*** 0.04 (0.02) 7-9 months-0.25 (0.03)*** 0.06 (0.03) Observations12050

22 following lives from birth and through the adult years Subgroup selection paths  Employment positively linked:  no educational qualifications  to not first born, not being Bangladeshi, being a home owner, having a partner and prior employment  GCSE and A-Levels  not being a multiple birth, not being Bangladeshi, being black, being a home owner, having an employed partner, not being a student and prior employment  University  not being a multiple birth, being a home owner, having a partner, not having an employed partner and prior employment

23 following lives from birth and through the adult years Conclusion  Selection into the labour market after birth  Impact of selection when explaining the relationship between child outcomes and early maternal employment  Other things to consider  Link to other two papers

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