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T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Trends in Food Production, Availability and Food Balance in India and World Dr.T.Balaguru Head – ARSMP Division National Academy.

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Presentation on theme: "T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Trends in Food Production, Availability and Food Balance in India and World Dr.T.Balaguru Head – ARSMP Division National Academy."— Presentation transcript:

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2 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Trends in Food Production, Availability and Food Balance in India and World Dr.T.Balaguru Head – ARSMP Division National Academy of Agricultural Research Management Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 30 January 24, 2007

3 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Agricultural Resources Food Production Food Availability Food Security Food Needs Food Consumption Food Balance Presentation Sequence

4 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Agricultural Population (millions) CountryNumber* 1979-81 1989-91 1999-01 2003 2004 India441 (64) 493 (58) 546 (54) 557 (52) 560 (52) World2219 (50) 2442 (46) 2573 (42) 2595 (41) 2600 (41) * Figures in parentheses indicate % of total population

5 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Economically Active Population in Agriculture CountryShare in Total Economically Active Population (%) 1979-81 1989-91 1999-01 2003 2004 India69646058 World52494543

6 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Land Use (m.ha) Country Land Area Arable Land 1980 1990 2000 Permanent Crops 1980 1990 2000 India297163 161579 World13004134613961398102120136

7 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Water Use (%) [2000] SectorCountry India World Agriculture86.570.0 Industry05.520.0 Domestic08.010.0

8 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Irrigated Land (m.ha) CountryArea Irrigated * 1979-81 1989-91 1999-01 2003 2004 India 39 (23) 47 (28) 56 (33) 56 (33) 56 (33) World 210 (15) 244 (16) 275 (18) 277 (18) 277 (18) * Figures in parentheses indicate % share in arable land and permanent crops

9 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 CountryTotal Consumption* 1980 1990 2000 2001 2002 Macronutrients* (2002) N P K India 6 (5.1) 12 (8.6) 17 (12.6) 17 (12.3) 16 (11.4) 10 (11.8) 4 (12.1) 2 (8.7) World 117139135138141853323 Fertilizer Consumption (m.t) * Figures in parentheses indicate % of world consumption

10 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Agricultural Machineries (Number/1000 ha) CountryTractors & Harvesters - Threshers 1979-81 1989-91 1999-01 2003 2004 India 2.46.112.113.615.7 World 18.821.722.222.422.7

11 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Animal Population (millions) CountryCattle & Buffaloes* 1979-81 1989-91 1999-01 2003 2004 India253 (18.9) 283 (19.6) 286 (19.3) 284 (18.7) 283 (18.6) World13401443147915191522 * Figures in parentheses indicate % of world total

12 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Animal Population (millions) Country Sheep & Goat* 1979-81 1989-91 1999-01 2003 2004 India132 (8.5) 162 (9.1) 181 (10.2) 182 (10.0) 183 (9.9) World15541781176918131851 * Figures in parentheses indicate % of world total

13 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Rainbow of Agricultural Revolutions Green Revolution : Food Crops Yellow Revolution : Oilseeds White Revolution : Dairy Blue Revolution : Fish Golden Revolution : Fruits & Vegetables Gene Revolution : Biotechnology Agri-Export Revolution

14 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Country1979-811989-911999-0120032004 India*138 (8.8) 196 (10.3) 238 (11.4) 233 (11.2) 232 (10.2) World15731904208520862270 Food Production Production of Cereals (m.t) * Figures in parentheses indicate % share in the world

15 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Indias Share in World Production – Cereals

16 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Country1979-811989-911999-0120032004 India*56.5 (9.0) 76.1 (9.4) 117.4 (9.7) 126.6 (9.4) 127.6 (9.2) World629.7812.71207.61345.11383.7 Production of Fruits & Vegetables (m.t) * Figures in parentheses indicate % share in the world

17 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Country1979-811989-911999-0120032004 India*2.62 (1.92) 3.88 (2.16) 5.27 (2.25) 5.94 (2.34) 6.03 (2.32) World136.22179.65234.67253.69260.10 Production of Meat (m.t) *Figures in parentheses indicate % share in the world

18 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 CommodityWorldIndia Quantity % Share in World Cereals2270.36232.3610.2 Pulses61.1214.5023.7 Oilseeds (oil equivalent) 142.139.706.8 Fruits & Vegetables 1383.65127.569.2 Roots & Tubers718.2032.604.5 Sugar Crops1576.83236.1815.0 Stimulants15.001.137.5 Production of Major Food Commodities (m.t) [2004]

19 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 CommodityWorldIndia Quantity % Share in World Milk622.1491.0014.6 Meat260.106.032.3 Eggs62.972.463.9 Fish195.636.133.1 Production of Major Food Commodities (m.t) [2004]

20 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Indias Ranking in the World Production India is 1 st in: Beans Chick Peas Lentils Millets Pigeon Peas Pulses Banana Mangoes Okra Peas Castor beans Tea Sesame Seed Buffalo Milk Goat Milk Buffalo Meat India is 2 nd in: Rice Wheat Cabbage Cauliflower Egg Plant Garlic Lemons & Limes Onions Pumpkins Cashew Nut Groundnut Sugarcane Cow Milk Goat Meat

21 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Status of Productivity in Food Grains (2002-2004) Cereals Indias Ranking Rice63 Wheat48 Sorghum77 Maize90 Pulses Indias Ranking Peas, Dry 57 Pigeon Peas 13 Chick Peas 29 Beans, Dry 110 Groundnut in Shell 72 Soybeans 68

22 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Status of Productivity in Livestock Products (2002-2004) Meat Products Indias Ranking Buffalo Meat 16 Chicken Meat 134 Duck Meat 48 Goat Meat 141 Pig meat 168 Milk Products Indias Ranking Buffalo Milk 2 Cow Milk, Whole Fresh 113 Goat Milk 33 Others Hen Eggs 55 Honey 15

23 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Food Group 1969-711979-811990-921995-972001-03 Cereals & Products Pulses & Products Oil Crops (excluding products) Vegetable Oils & Products Fruits & Products Vegetables & Products Starchy Roots & Products Tree Nuts & Products 163 20 25 5 29 47 20 - 165 15 22 4 30 52 24 1 184 15 32 7 33 58 26 1 187 15 37 7 40 60 28 1 178 12 29 6 43 73 30 1 Per Capita Food Production in India (kg/person/year)

24 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Food Group 1969-711979-811990-921995-972001-03 Sugars & Sweeteners Beverage Crops Spices Milk & Products Animal Fats & Products Meat & Products Eggs & Products Fish, Seafood & Products 21 1 39 1 4 1 3 20 1 2 47 1 4 1 3 25 1 2 63 1 5 1 5 26 1 2 71 2 5 2 5 27 1 3 84 3 5 2 6 Per Capita Food Production in India (Contd…) (kg/person/year)

25 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Country1979-811989-911999-0120032004 India75.690.3100.0100.399.7 World87.192.4100.0102.3105.3 Per Capita Agricultural Production Index (1999-2001: 100.0)

26 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 1979-811989-911999-0120022003 3.242.672.722.332.64 Share of India in World Food Production (%)

27 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 World Population 1 Billion 2 Billion 3 Billion 4 Billion 5 Billion 6 Billion 1804 1927 1960 1974 1987 1999 123 Years 33 Years 14 Years 13 Years 12 Years Population Growth : 78 Million / Year

28 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Total Population (millions) CountryNumber 1979-81 1989-91 1999-01 2003 2004 India689 (15.5) 846 (16.1) 1017 (16.8) 1066 (16.9) 1081 (17.0) World44355263607063026378

29 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Minimum Dietary Energy Requirements (kcal/person/day) 1969-711979-811990-921995-972001-032002-04 17701780179018001820 Food Security: Food Needs in India

30 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Country1969-711979-811989-912001-032002-04 India 20402080237024402470 World -2550270028002810 Dietary Energy Consumption (kcal/person/day)

31 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Country1969-711979-811989-912001-032002-04 India51 57 64 World -67727583 Dietary Protein Consumption (g/person/day)

32 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Country1969-711979-811989-912001-032002-04 India3033415251 World -59687876 Dietary Fat Consumption (g/person/day)

33 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Per Capita Daily Consumption India

34 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 World Per Capita Daily Consumption

35 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Food Group 1969-711979-811990-921995-972001-03 Cereals & Products Pulses & Products Oil Crops (excluding products) Vegetable Oils & Products Fruits & Products Vegetables & Products Starchy Roots & Products Sugars & Sweeteners 401 45 15 11 70 118 47 53 410 34 12 14 70 133 54 55 451 36 20 18 79 146 55 62 449 35 20 22 96 153 61 64 428 32 17 27 101 184 65 67 Food Consumption in India ( g/person/day )

36 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Food Group 1969-711979-811990-921995-972001-03 Tree Nuts & Products Beverage Crops Spices Milk & Products Animal Fats & Products Meat & Products Eggs & Products Fish, Seafood & Products 1 4 92 2 10 1 8 1 2 4 108 3 10 2 8 2 5 148 4 13 3 11 3 2 5 164 4 13 4 12 2 7 182 7 14 5 13 Food Consumption in India (Contd…) (g/person/day)

37 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 CountryMacronutrientsShare in Total Dietary Energy Consumption (%) 1969-71 1979-81 1990-92 1995-97 2001-03 2002-04 India Carbohydrates Proteins Fats 77 10 13 76 10 14 75 10 15 73 10 17 71 10 19 71 10 19 World Carbohydrates Proteins Fats ------ ------ ------ 66 11 23 66 11 25 64 12 24 Dietary Composition

38 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Food Consumption Pattern: Main Food Crops (India) Food Group Share of Dietary Components to Total Energy Consumption (%) 1969-71 1979-81 1990-92 1995-97 2001-03 Cereals & Products Pulses & Products Vegetable Oil & Products Fruits & Products Sugars & Sweeteners Milk & Products Animal Fats & Products 66 8 5 1 9 3 1 66 6 1 9 3 1 64 5 7 1 9 4 1 62 4 8 2 9 4 2 59 4 10 2 10 4 2

39 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Food Consumption Pattern: Main Food Crops (India) Food Group Share of Dietary Components to Total Protein Consumption (%) 1969-71 1979-81 1990-92 1995-97 2001-03 Cereals & Products Pulses & Products Vegetable Oil & Products Milk & Products Meat & Products Fish, Seafood & Products 62 18 3 7 3 2 64 14 4 8 3 2 62 13 4 10 3 2 61 12 4 11 3 2 59 11 4 11 3 2

40 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Food Consumption Pattern: Main Food Crops (India) Food Group Share of Dietary Components to Total Fat Consumption (%) 1969-71 1979-81 1990-92 1995-97 2001-03 Cereals & Products Oil Crops (excluding products) Vegetable Oil & Products Milk & Products Animal Fat & Products 22 9 37 11 7 20 7 43 11 8 16 9 43 13 8 14 8 47 13 9 11 6 52 9 12

41 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Food ItemPer Capita Daily Calorie Intake (kcal/person/day) India World Rice Wheat Maize Sorghum Potatoes Cassava Sugar Soybean Oil Palm Oil Rapeseed & Mustard Oil 754 510 35 55 31 14 171 50 72 30 557 521 147 33 60 43 202 87 50 30 Consumption of Major Vegetable Foods [2001-03]

42 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Food ItemPer Capita Daily Calorie Intake (kcal/person/day) India World Milk (whole) Milk (skimmed) Animal Fat (raw & butter) Cheese Eggs Pig Meat Poultry Meat Bovine Meat Sheep & Goats Meat 78 26 55 - 7 4 5 9 3 83 13 59 25 33 117 46 40 11 Consumption of Major Animal Foods [2001-03]

43 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Food Group India World Cereals Pulses Vegetable Oils Fruits & Vegetables Roots & Tubers Sugars & Sweeteners Milk, Egg & Fish Meat Animal Fats Others 58.8 4.5 9.7 3.8 1.9 9.7 4.9 0.9 2.3 3.5 46.9 2.0 9.6 5.4 5.2 8.7 6.5 8.0 2.2 5.4 Share of Dietary Components in Total Energy Consumption (%): 2001-03

44 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Source of Dietary Energy Consumption (%) [2001 – 03]

45 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Source of Dietary Energy Consumption (%) [2001 – 03]

46 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Diet Diversification Index: India Macronutrients Contribution of Non-Starchy Foods to Total Dietary Consumption (%) 1969-71 1979-81 1990-92 1995-97 2001-03 Energy Protein Fats 32 37 77 32 35 80 34 36 83 36 38 86 39 88

47 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Diet Diversification Index: India (Contd…) Macronutrients Contribution of Animal Products to Total Dietary Consumption (%) 1969-71 1979-81 1990-92 1995-97 2001-03 Energy Protein Fats 5 12 23 6 13 24 7 16 26 7 17 26 8 19 26

48 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 1969-71 to 1979-81 FPP F P 1979-81 to 1990-92 FPP F P 1990-92 to 1995-97 FPP F P 1995-97 to 2002-04 FPP F P 0.22.42.21.33.52.30.31.20.90.11.31.2 Food Consumption & Population Growth: India Average Annual Rate of Change (%) FPP : Food Per Person (Energy Consumption) F : Food (Energy Consumption to Total Population) P : Population

49 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Food Consumption Expenditure: India [Share of Food Consumption to Total Consumption(%)] PopulationBefore 19902004 Rural Urban National 63.8 55.9 64.0 54.0 41.6 49.5

50 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Prevalence of Undernourishment Country Undernourished Population (millions) 1979-81 1990-92 1995-97 2001-03 2002-04 India World 261.3 (27.7) 944.8 214.8 (25.1) 855.1 201.8 (24.2) 833.9 212.0 (24.8) 856.4 209.5 (24.5) 863.9 Figures in parentheses indicate % of World total

51 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Prevalence of Undernourishment (Contd…) CountryProportion to Total Population (%) 1979-81 1990-92 1995-97 2001-03 2002-04 India World 38 21 25 16 21 15 20 14 20 14

52 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Life Expectancy at Birth (Years) Country19801990199520002003 India World 54 63 59 65 61 66 63 66 63 67

53 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Child Mortality Rate (per 1000 live births) Country19801990199520002003 India World 173 118 123 95 104 89 94 83 87 80

54 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Food Balance: Cereals (2001-03) [Quantity (m.t)] Country Production ( + ) Exports ( - ) Imports ( + ) Stock Changes ( - ) Consumption (=) India World 187.17 (1.14) 1879.60 (1.99) 7.94 (0.05) 294.69 (0.31) 0.05 - 294.07 (0.31) 15.15 (0.09) 936.07 (0.99) 164.13 942.73 Figures in parentheses indicate ratio to consumption

55 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Food Balance: Vegetable Oils (2001-03) [Quantity (m.t)] Country Production ( + ) Exports ( - ) Imports ( + ) Stock Changes ( - ) Consumption (=) India World 6.27 (0.61) 101.72 (1.46) 0.26 (0.03) 47.97 (0.69) 5.09 (0.50) 45.90 (0.66) 0.85 (0.08) 29.98 (0.43) 10.26 69.68 Figures in parentheses indicate ratio to consumption

56 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Food Balance: Sugars & Sweeteners (2001-03) [Quantity (m.t)] Country Production ( + ) Exports ( - ) Imports ( + ) Stock Changes ( - ) Consumption (=) India World 28.50 (1.12) 177.43 (1.12) 1.57 (0.06) 51.81 (0.33) 0.07 (-) 48.52 (0.31) 1.47 (0.06) 16.31 (0.10) 25.53 157.83 Figures in parentheses indicate ratio to consumption

57 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Food Balance: Roots & Tubers (2001-03) [Quantity (m.t)] Country Production ( + ) Exports ( - ) Imports ( + ) Stock Changes ( - ) Consumption (=) India World 31.60 (1.27) 690.71 (1.73) 0.06 ( - ) 36.38 (0.09) 0.02 ( - ) 41.70 (0.10) 6.60 (0.27) 296.58 (0.74) 24.96 399.45 Figures in parentheses indicate ratio to consumption

58 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Food Balance: Milk (Excluding Butter) (2001-03) [Quantity (m.t)] Country Production ( + ) Exports ( - ) Imports ( + ) Stock Changes ( - ) Consumption (=) India World 87.73 (1.26) 601.88 (1.22) 0.31 ( - ) 78.66 (0.16) 0.04 ( - ) 74.42 (0.15) 17.87 (0.26) 102.87 (0.21) 69.59 494.77 Figures in parentheses indicate ratio to consumption

59 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007 Food Balance: Meat (2001-03) [Quantity (m.t)] Country Production ( + ) Exports ( - ) Imports ( + ) Stock Changes ( - ) Consumption (=) India World 5.72 (1.06) 246.46 (1.01) 0.31 (0.06) 27.58 (0.11) - 26.28 (0.11) - 2.02 (0.01) 5.41 243.14 Figures in parentheses indicate ratio to consumption

60 T.Balaguru (NAARM) 2007


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