Presentation on theme: "French’s peatlands, uses and its Socio-Economic Consequences in 2005 Or how to render the most visible sub-market….."— Presentation transcript:
French’s peatlands, uses and its Socio-Economic Consequences in 2005 Or how to render the most visible sub-market…..
Theoric Problems of Definition Peatland has several functions serving varying interests and parties, so there are different definitions. It’s a french problem particulary because a special position and a diversity of different climate and végétation Scientists are faced with a massive task of defining peatland and its functions (celine Sacca work on this problematic)
Evolution of This Type of Biotope in France 120.000ha in 1945 (Frances, 199) 60.000ha in 1998 (Frances,199) remission underestimated In 2005 ?
Wetland French Policy 1976: Law for nature protection 1992: Law on water, mention for the first time wetlands 1994: Law for classified installation 1995:Law for protection of biodiversity 1995:PAZH has been initiated by governement to suitable preservation of wetland, born of pole relay mires 1996-1999: Life nature « French’s peatlands » in 15 different régions.
Rhône Alpes DEFINITION Only Sites greater than 1 hectare should be considered Identification of a natural peat environment as defined by the CEE (Version EUR 15) PROCEEDURE Research/ Compilation of written sources Creation of a potential list Systematic visits to the sites The included sites should correspond to the two defining criteria. 1000 visits for 623 peatlands retain today there is some discovered
St Sauveur le Vicomtes - 7 hectares - 10000 tons /year 2010 St Mars du Désert -130 hectare s - 40000 tons /year 2009 St Mars du Désert -82 hectares -5000 tons /year 2008 Autruche 52 hectares -60000tons/year -2020 Saint Mars du Désert 52 hectares -50000 tons/year -2010 Heurteauville 50 hectares -40000tons/year -2007 Ambes -25 hectares -8000tons/year -2020 Le Couderc -25 hectares -15000tons/year -2022 Rascoupet -18 hectares -15000tons/year -2022 Marchastel -18 hectares -7500tons/year -2010 Between 20000 and 49000 tons/year After 50000tons/year St Chély -10 hectares -5000tons/year -2015 Courtenay -5 hectares -?tons/year -2015 Sucé sur Erdre -5 hectares -1500tons/year -? Baupte -360 hectares -250000tons/year -en attente Under 20000tons/year Escout -11 hectares -10000tons/year -2008 Distribution of Peat extraction
Some Figures … There are 16 peat mines in France Approximate surface area used: 1000 ha The exploited sites range from 5 ha to 350 ha, averaging 50ha per site. Employments: 1500 GM, 50 extraction Brown peat comprises the majority 1360000m3 of peat produced in France each year 2200000m3 imported each year CA SC global :183.000.000 € Global SC Volume: 4.150.000 m3 Price: 10 Euro /m3
Two Methods of Extraction Dry For countersinking, use of heavy machinery, drainage….method widely used in many European countries Requires a consistant surface and slope Wet Digging directly into the wetland, a method much less traumatizing for the environment. Possibility to have a good rehabilitation slope, reflect on wise use
National comsumption of peat in tons Importation has exploded, trippling in the last 10 years National production continues to increase, despite the decrease in exploitation Consider the data, which exemplifies a certain line of thought. Considered tons approximatively too
2 MARKETS OF GROWING MEDIA Amatuer Market Strong Competition 12consumers / 35venders Poor Quality GM peat content: 30% Short Period of Harvest Large surfaces for only 3 years Allows for recycling of peat dust Professional MarketProfessional Market Higher Risk thousands of economic formulas High Quality 85 to 100% peat Customer Loyalty when satisfied
Managing Conservation Maintenance of deteriorating sites Conservation of sites in good condition (to avoid closing off the area) What is the initial state of peatland…?? Difficulty to apprehend the initial state of an area after exploitation Measured Intervention, minimum of disturbances = creation of a manadgment planification Reparations in the beginning are well known, but we know less on long term management. source Maitre 2003
Problems of evaluating the economic impact of rehabilitation and managment. A consideration just until intervention? This kind of management has a price, maintenence…. It becomes a low priority in the specialized society of interested in environnemental problems. Pictures Society BON NAT TECH of the peatland in Franbouhans
Agricultural Use Existing agricultural policy in opposition to the environmental legislation, like subvention for hectares use. Agriculture help managment conservation but is not always easy. Exitence of new contract, like CAD or CTE, they introduce environnemental consideration in agriculture manadgment.
Non-official Utilizations Local utilization of peat for « gardening » Illicite extraction (of the lands) Creation of water reservoirs at the end of « canons a neige » in the mountains peatlands. Reforestation (cf. doc du Réseau tourbières Auvergne et Massif Central)
Conclusion Peat market in France no stop to increase, specialy import, national production too. Peat exploitator are contrained to reabilitated peatland before the end of exploitation, what about the control? Use substituts make time, need change in mentality and study other market Madagment conservation learn about rehabilitation, and bring a new way. Economical evaluation of rehabilitation can be a brake
Sociologic pist and reflexions Carine MAITRE want to show the relation between peatland and her different actors or user. She demontrat representation change with residence area. She showed too, that for the local actors there is just a usus relation. How definit this uses relation? What is utility value? Theoric reflexion in social georaphic speak about life territory
3 Different Activities, motivations point of wiew inside the Growing Media Extraction Diminution (employment, exploit, but increase of volum) Extraction, production of growing media Stability Production of growing media Increase
Quick historic of peat extraction in france The use of fuel peat reached its height in 1845 at 600.000 tons produced diminishing to 92.381 tons by 1945. It ceased to be used as fuel 1996 In the 1950’s, the government drained the wetlands to fill the need for more land for industrialized agriculture In the 1960’s, the cultivation of top soil developed, along with the need to raise the price of soil. Peat extraction resumed at an intense level in spite of the restrictive measures passed in the 80’s, and this state has still not changed.
The stopping place manadgment Peatland is a wetland so they need a special machinery. Readaptation of hydric state Coupe des vegetaux, enlevement de la couche de tourbe mineralisée Conditionnement, peat use for stop the drain Evacuation Gestion des ligneux, paturage extensif, fauche, etrepage, pose d’endaims.