SD and ‘survival of the fittest’ FRANCIS GALTONANDREW CARNEGIEPETER KROPOTKIN
Evolutionism v Evolutionary Stephen Toulmin: Evolutionism accounts for long-term changes ‘in some mysterious way, as the ‘conclusions’ of a Cosmic Argument, which unfolds ‘logical implications’ operative throughout the whole History of Society.’ Cited in Sanderson, Social Evolutionism, p. 3.
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) Universal Evolution – from homogeneity to heterogeneity ‘Progress: Its Laws and Causes’ (1852): universal principle: ‘every cause produces more than one effect.’ Social evolution – population pressure.
Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-81) Ancient Society (18770 Evolution of human mind Ethnical periods Inventions and Ideas
Morgan: ‘ethnical periods’ PERIODSCONDITIONS Lower SavageryFrom the Infancy of the Human Race to the commencement of the next Period Middle SavageryFrom the acquisition of a fish subsistence and a knowledge of the use of fire to etc. Higher SavageryFrom the Invention of the Bow and Arrow, to etc. Lower BarbarismFrom the Invention of the Art of Pottery, to etc. Middle BarbarismFrom the Domestication of animals on the Eastern hemisphere, and in the Western from the cultivation of maize and plants by Irrigation, with the use of adobe-brick and stone, to etc. Higher BarbarismFrom the Invention of the process of Smelting Iron Ore, with the use of iron tools, to etc. CivilizationFrom the Invention of a Phonetic Alphabet, with the use of writing, to the present time.
Friedrich Engels and Marxism 1820-95 Engels and Morgan: The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State. Marxism, evolutionism, human nature and economic determinism