Presentation on theme: "United States History – Unit Two"— Presentation transcript:
1 United States History – Unit Two (Chapters 7-9)Essential Questions1. How has the nature of democracy in the U.S. changed as society has grown and changed?2. How did the conflict between the forces of expansionism, nationalism, and sectionalism shape the economic, political, social, and cultural structure of America during the antebellum period?
2 Unit Two Course Objectives The rationale for and the consequences of Manifest DestinyThe federal Indian policy before the Civil WarThe political and economic importance of the WestObjective 2.02 –Cultural expressions of patriotismCelebrating the common man and the American way of lifeInfluence of the Transcendentalist MovementObjective 2.03 –Transformation of life and the Industrial revolutionCultural polarization of Antebellum AmericaObjective 2.04 –Political agendas of antebellum leadersConcepts of “Jacksonian Democracy”Slave revoltsStates’ RightsEra of Good FeelingObjective 2.06 –Second Great AwakeningMoral Dilemma of SlaveryThe Abolitionist MovementObjective 2.05 –Women’s rightsTemperance movementImprovement of social institutions (prisons, mental health, education)Development of Utopian Communities
3 Unit Two Key Vocabulary (part one) Liberia/ MonroviaErie Canal (1825)Gibbons verses Ogden (1824)Francis Cabot LowellCyrus McCormickElias HoweSamuel F.B. MorseRobert FultonPeter CooperPony ExpressElection of 1820Missouri Compromise of 1820Election of 1824National RepublicansTariff of 1828/ Tariff of AbominationsElection of 1796“Era of Good Feelings”Tariff of 1816ProtectionismRush-Bagot Treaty (1818)Cumberland Road ( )Seminole War ( )American SystemHenry ClayAdams-Onis Treaty/ Transcontinental Treaty (1819)Panic of 1819Land SpeculationSpecieMcCulloch verses Maryland (1819)John MarshallNational SupremacyIndustrial RevolutionFactory System/ Samuel SlaterTallmadge AmendmentStephen F. Austin
4 James Monroe (1817-1825) I. Biographical Information A. Monroe was born in 1758 in Westmoreland County, Virginia. He Died on July 4, 1831.B. He became the 5th President of the U.S. in Elbridge Gerry served his second term as Vice President.C. He was the member of the Republican Party.D. He served as Minister to France fromE. He helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.F. He selected John Q. Adams as his Secretary of State.II. EventsA. Election of Monroe defeated Rufus King (Federalist)
5 B. Monroe’s two terms in office were referred to as the “Era of Good Feelings.” A time of peace in the U.S.2. There were no major political party differences.3. Republicans dominated the north, south, and west, but political factions over issues like the national bank, tariffs, and slavery would continue.C. Tariff of Congress raised tariff rates on certain goods after the war to help raise govt. revenue and help protect U.S. manufacturers from foreign competition (protective tariff).D. Rush-Bagot Treaty of Signed between England and the U.S.1. It called for disarmament of the Great Lakes Region by both sides.2. It made the 49th parallel as the U.S.-Canadian border.3. Agreed to joint occupation of the Oregon Territory for ten years.E. (1818) - The presidential palace is rebuilt after the War of 1812 and is renamed the “White House.”F. (1818) - The first federal (national) road is built known as the Cumberland Road.1. It connected Baltimore to Wheeling, Virginia.2. It was 130 miles long, and would eventually extend to Vandalia, Illinois.3. It was built between
6 G. (1817-1818) Andrew Jackson defeats the Seminole Indians in Florida known as the Seminole War. H. Henry Clay’s American SystemHe was a Senator from Kentucky.2. He believed that a stronger national government would benefit all sections of the U.S.3. He supported a protective tariff that would be placed on all imported goods in the U.S. He claimed that this would protect American manufacturers.- It would force Americans to buy from Americans and not other countries.- This tariff seemed to benefit the North, because most of the industries were located there.4. The tariff did not benefit the South and West. It forced them to buy from the North, who then raised their prices, or they could buy from Europe and have to pay.5. Clay also wanted to re-charter the National Bank which had expired in 1811.- The bank bill passed.- It mainly benefited the northern businesses.6. He also pushed for internal improvements for roads and canals.7. His plan was very similar to Alexander Hamilton’s plan.
7 I. Adams-Onis Treay (Transcontinental Treaty of 1819) - It was signed between the Spanish Foreign Minister Luis de Onis and Sect. of State John Q. Adams.1. It was a historic agreement between the United States and Spain that settled a border dispute in North America between the two nations. The treaty was the result of increasing tensions between the U.S. and Spain regarding territorial rights.2. Spain ceded Florida to the U.S. for five million dollars.3. The treaty also drew a definite boundary between Mexico and the Louisiana Territory along the 42nd parallel.
8 J. Western States’ Objectives: 1. Cheap Money (loose money) – easy credit from state banks rather than from the bank of the U.S.2. Wanted land at low prices from the government.3. Wanted improved transportation from the West to the East.K. Panic of 18191. Brought on by rapid westward expansion and bad management of banks.2. Led to extensive land speculation – buying large amounts of land with the intention of selling it for a profit.3. It forced up land prices.4. Congress required the repayment of debts in specie – gold or silver.5. The second national bank enforced this.6. Farmers did not have the specie and could not repay their loans.7. Led to many foreclosures on farm land.8. Resulted in a deep resentment for the national bank by the West and South.L. Tallmadge Amendment (1820) - New York Congressman, James Tallmadge, proposed that Missouri gradually free its slaves after becoming a state. It was passed by the House, but killed by the Senate.1. It caused a heated debate of the issue of slavery in new territories. Southerners perceived it as a threat to their power.
9 M. (1819) - McCulloch v. Maryland Case 1. In order to protest the national bank, the state of Maryland tried to tax the national bank.2. Chief Justice John Marshall, appointed by Adams in 1800, ruled that states could not use their powers to tax the national bank.3. Marshall and the court ruled that the national bank was constitutional according to the “necessary and proper clause” – Article I, section 8, clause 184. This case was important because it established the principle of “National Supremacy” – the national government will have the final say in matters against the states.5. Marshall will be known for strengthening the power of the Supreme Court during his tenure as Supreme Court Justice.N. Monroe Doctrine (1823)1. James Monroe established a new foreign policy concerning European countries from colonizing in the Americas. He sided with England and they helped enforce it with their Royal Navy.2. He said, “Do not meddle with the western hemisphere countries, and we will not meddle in European country affairs.”
10 O. Industrial Revolution – from farms to factories 1. Before the war of 1812, there were approximately 94 percent farmers.2. After the war, the U.S. began to change from an agricultural to a more industrial economy.3. New inventions led to what would be known as the “Factory System.”4. Samuel Slater built the first successful textile factory in the U.S. built beside a waterfall in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. He became known as the “father of the American Factory System.”5. Cyrus McCormick’s mechanical reaper made harvesting wheat much easier.6. John Deere’s steel-tipped plow made planting crops faster and easier.7. Elias Howe invented a much-improved sewing machine, which added efficiency in the production of clothing and shoes. Isaac Singer perfected it.8. Samuel F.B. Morse’s invention of the telegraph and Morse Code revolutionized communication in the U.S.9. James Watt, a Scotsman is credited with the invention of the first practical steam engine. Oliver Evans became the first American to develop a high-pressure steam engine.10. Francis Cabot Lowell invented a power loom which enabled weavers to keep up with the spinners of thread in the textile factories.
11 P. Improved Transportation 1. Cumberland Road (National Road)Travelers in the West, between the Appalachians and the Mississippi River, often used flatboats and keelboats for travel and for floating goods to market.They were propelled upstream by men walking back and forth using long poles to push the boat along.3. Robert Fulton is credited with building the first practical steamboat named the Clermont. Averaged 5 mph upstream.4. The first canal was built in Erie Canal.The canal ran a distance of 363 miles to connect the Hudson River to Lake Erie. “Clinton’s Ditch”5. In 1830, the first thirteen-mile stretch of track was opened named the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. On this line, Peter Cooper’s engine, the Tom Thumb, made a trial run.by 1840, the U.S. had nearly 3,000 miles of track.6. America’s greatest contribution to the history of sailing vessels was the Clipper Ship. Increases sailing time by one-half. Logged 465 miles in 24 hours.
12 Q. Improved Communications 1. In the early 1800’s, a letter sent from Maine to Georgia took twenty days.2. Postal rates were set according to distance.3. A one-page letter delivered by Pony Express within a distance of 30 miles was eight cents. Over 400 miles would cost you $6.25.4. The Pony Express, a private company, was started in 1860 t carry the U.S. mail between St. Joseph, Missouri and Sacramento, California.At stations along the way, riders changed horses every 75 miles.5. The Pony Express would be eventually put out of business by the telegraph.R. Election of 1820, Monroe won all of the electoral votes except one.
13 S. Missouri Compromise of proposed by Henry Clay (the Great Compromiser) to satisfy both free soilers and slave state supporters.1. It was concerned with the creation of new slave states.2. There were 11 free states and 11 slave states in the Union at the time.3. Missouri will be admitted as a slave state; Maine as a free state.4. It also created the degree Latitude Line. All new states created above the line would be free and all new states created below the line would be slave.
14 T. (1822) - Stephen Austin founds the first American settlement in Texas. U. (1822) - Freed U.S. slaves found Liberia on the West Coast of Africa.Monroe supported the colonization of freed slaves outside the U.S. His support earned him the honor of having the capital named after himself- Monrovia.V. (1824) - A border dispute with Russia is settled at degrees North.W. (1824) - Gibbons v. Ogden Case - The Supreme Court ruled against a transportation monopoly granted by the New York state legislature to Robert Livingston and Robert Fulton.Transporting people across the Hudson River to New Jersey involved interstate commerce, which was a power granted to the Federal govt. in the Constitution.X. Indiana (1816), Mississippi (1817), Illinois (1818), and Alabama (1819)
15 Y. Hudson River School for the Arts (1817) - A group of American landscape painters of the mid-nineteenth century, who took a Romantic approach to depicting the Hudson River Valley, as well as lands further west.1. As the American frontier moved westward, the Hudson River painters' views of this expanding territory found an enthusiastic audience.2. Many painters of this school were influenced by their reading of a book, Essay on the Nature and Principles of Taste by Archibald Alison. In his book Alison claims that the beauty and grandeur of unspoiled nature can inspire good moral qualities.3. Established a spirit of nationalism. Ex. Frederick Church
16 John Quincy Adams ( )I. Biographical InformationBorn in 1767, in Braintree, MassachusettsB. He became our 6th President of the U.S.C. John C. Calhoun was chosen as his V.P.D. He was the first President who was a son of a President.E. He was known for being humorless, self-righteous, short, pudgy, and stubborn.F. He was the first President to wear long trousers instead of knee breeches.G. He studied law at Harvard, and became a lawyer.H. In 1809, he became Minister to Russia.I. In 1814, he helped draw up the Treaty of Ghent.J. He was Monroe’s Secretary of State.K. He drew up the Monroe Doctrine.
17 2. Jackson – 99, Adams – 84, Crawford – 41, and Clay - 37 I. EventsA. Election of 18241. This election followed the “Era of Good Feelings”, and no candidate really claimed a political party.2. Jackson – 99, Adams – 84, Crawford – 41, and Clay - 373. It had to be decided by the House of Reps because there was not a majority of the electoral vote in favor of one candidate. The top three candidates were voted on.4. Crawford had a stroke and removed himself from consideration leaving just Jackson and Adams.5. Henry Clay, Speaker of the House, threw his support to Adams, because Adams supported his “American system.”6. Adams became our 6th President, John C. Calhoun became the V.P.7. After the election, Adams named Clay his Sect. of State.8. Jackson referred to the election of 1824 as the “Corrupt Bargain.”9. As a result of the election, new political parties formed.
19 10. The Federalists changed their name to the National Republicans (led by Adams), and the Republicans became the Democrats (led by Jackson).11. This was the first election in which a popular vote was counted in a presidential election, not just state electors.B. Adams’ National Agenda:1. He tried to improve the national economy.He endorsed Clay’s “American System”3. He collected high tariffs to fund projects to improve the economy.4. He had canals, lighthouses, and roads built.5. He pushed for settlers to explore the western territories.C. Because of politics, he accomplishes very little as President. The Democrats blocked all of his legislation.D. The Southerners referred to Adams’ Tariff of 1828 as the “Tariff of Abominations.”
20 E. Adams was not effective as President. F. He would be easily defeated by Jackson in the Election of 1828, but would serve in the House of Reps. From 1831 until his death in 1848 at the age of 79.
21 Unit Two Key Vocabulary (part two) Nominating conventionsAge of JacksonPolitical Party System“Common Man”Spoils SystemKitchen CabinetDemocratic Party“Indian Killer”Hermitage“Old Hickory”Indian Removal Act of 1830Nat TurnerOregon Trail (1843)Whig PartyRoger B. TaneyTexas Revolution (1836)Santa AnnaAlamoSam Houston“Remember the Alamo” (1836)Battle of San Jacinto (1836)Trail of Tears (1838)Worcester verses Georgia (1832)Webster-Hayne Debate (1830)Civil DisobedienceRalph Waldo EmersonSeneca Falls ConventionCult of DomesticityNational Trades Union (1834)Elizabeth Cady StantonSarah and Angela GrimkeDeclaration of SentimentsElection of 1832Election of 1836Tariff of 1832NullificationJohn C. CalhounHenry ClayNational Bank/ Nicholas Biddle“Pet Banks”Specie Circular (1836)Alex de Tocqueville’s Speech“King Andrew”“Old Kinderhook”Panic of 1837Corrupt BargainEaton AffairForce BillElection of 1840Log Cabin and Cider campaignTippecanoe and Tyler Too!Van, Van is a Used Up Man!Charles FinneySecond Great AwakeningRevivalUtopian CommunitiesMormons/ Latter Day SaintsJoseph Smith/ Brigham YoungBrook FarmTemperance Movement/ Lucretia MottShakersHenry David ThoreauDorthea DixHorace MannWilliam H. McGuffey / McGuffey’s Readers
22 I. Biographical Information Andrew Jackson ( )I. Biographical InformationHe was born in S. Carolina, a son of an Irish Immigrant.B. He was elected our 7th President. John C. Calhoun was chosen as Vice President.C. He grew up on the N.C. frontier, a “redneck”D. His father died before he was born, and his mother died when he was 14 years old.E. He taught himself to read, write, and become a lawyer in Tennessee.F. He became known as an “Indian Killer.”G. He is known for his victories at the Battle of New Orleans, Horseshoe Bend, and the Seminole War.H. He was appointed governor of the Florida Territory.I. His home in Tennessee was called the “Hermitage.”J. Because of his toughness as a military leader, he was given the nickname, “Old Hickory.”
23 M. Rachel would die a few days before Jackson’s inauguration. K. He was known for his brawls and duels. His most famous duel was with Charles Dickinson.L. He married Rachel Donelson Robards in 1791, but she had not been legally divorced.M. Rachel would die a few days before Jackson’s inauguration.N. Jackson became bitterly ill after Rachel’s death blaming it on the National Republican Party.O. Adams would defeat Jackson in the Election of 1824, even thought Jackson won more electoral votes – “Corrupt Bargain.”P. He established the Democratic Party (Jackson Democrats).Q. He bought 20 spittoons for the East Room for $12.50 each.II. EventsA. Election of 18281. Jackson would run for President for the “Common Man.”2. Jackson would easily defeat Adams and become our 7th President.
24 B. He would establish the “Spoils System” – to the victor goes the spoils! 1. He replaced govt. workers with his own loyal supporters.2. He “cleaned house” replacing most of the National Republicans.3. His advisors would be nicknamed his “Kitchen Cabinet.”C. He appointed Martin Van Buren as his Sect. of State.D. (1830) – Jackson approves the Indian Removal Act – it approved the forcing of all Native Americans west of the Mississippi River.E. (1831) - Nat Turner Slave Rebellion1. Turner (a slave) led 75 armed followers in a rebellion against slavery.2. Before they were subdued, they had killed whites.F. The Oregon Trail becomes the main route to the West.
26 G. Jackson and the National Bank 1. Clay had re-chartered the bank from2. Jackson claimed that the bank was undemocratic – it only benefited the wealthy northeasterners.3. Clay pushed to re-charter the bank again in 1832, but Jackson vetoed it.4. Jackson believed that a privileged few were making money form the bank that should have benefited all citizens, so he created “pet banks.”- Jackson moved the money from the national bank back to the state banks. Nicholas Biddle, the bank’s president was corrupt, and he would be bias toward the northern businessmen.5. Jackson also issued the Specie Circular (Coinage Act) of It required payment of public lands be in gold and silver (specie).1. It was issued to protect the settlers who were being forced to pay much higher prices for land.
28 2. The South was still hurt by the tariffs. 2. As a result, much of the paper money was devalued and the economy would result in another recession – Panic of 1837H. Jackson and the Tariff Controversy1. The North still pushed protective tariffs on imported goods.2. The South was still hurt by the tariffs.3. Jackson’s Vice President, John C. Calhoun, from S.C. urged nullification if the tariffs continued.4. (1832) – Congress, with the approval of Jackson, passed another high tariff.5. Force Bill of 1833 authorized President Andrew Jackson's use of whatever force necessary to execute laws. It was intended to suppress South Carolina's nullification of tariffs.South Carolina in turn nullified this Bill. Henry Clay's Compromise Tariff passed the same day, satisfying John Calhoun and South Carolina, making nullification unnecessary in any event.6. S.C. nullified the tariff and threatened to secede from the Union if they were forced to pay.7. Jackson supported the tariffs and sent in troops to collect the taxes.8. A compromise was made by Henry Clay temporarily ending the hostilities – lowering the taxes.9. Calhoun then resigned as V.P. replaced by Van Buren.
29 I. Because many in the South felt like Jackson betrayed the Democratic Party, the party would split and the southern democrats would become known as the Whigs in 1834.J. Webster-Hayne Debate (1830) - dealt with the tariff question and the issue of states’ rights.1. Senator Robert Hayne of S.C. debated Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts.2. Hayne spoke in favor of states’ rights and the right of nullification.3. Jackson, even though a southerner, supported the federal govt. and the tariff.K. Cherokee Nation (Worcester) verses Georgia Case -1. The Cherokee nation tried to win just treatment through the U.S. legal system.
30 2. John Marshall ruled that the Cherokee Nation was a distinct political community, and that Georgia was not entitled to regulate the Cherokee or invade their lands.3. This violated Jackson’s Indian Removal Act.4. Marshall believed that the Cherokee should not be forced by the govt. to leave their lands, but should voluntarily cede if they chose to do so.5. Jackson felt that the Indians would be protected from white settlers if they were moved west of the Mississippi.6. Jackson refused to abide by Marshall’s decision saying, “John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it!”7. In 1835, the Cherokee would sign the New Enchota Treaty giving the federal govt. their land in exchange for $5 million and land west of the Mississippi.8. The remaining Cherokee who refused to leave in 1838 were forced to leave by the govt. as part of the “Trail of Tears.”9. In 1834, the govt. would establish the Indian Territory of Oklahoma for all Native Americans to live.
32 L. (1835) - The first assassination attempt made on a President took place against Jackson, but it failed.M. (1836) - Texas Revolution1. Many of the settlers in Texas were Americans, but it was still owned by Mexico.2. (1810) - Mexico declared its independence from Spain.3. The Mexican War for Independence would drag on for 12 years until on September 27, 1821, the Treaty of Cordoba was signed between Mexico and Spain officially recognizing Mexico’s independence.4. In 1835, the Mexican govt. restricted American immigration and outlawed slavery in Texas.5. A war would result between Texas and Mexico.6. Mexican dictator, Santa Anna, would defeat the Texans at the Alamo – Spanish Mission – in San Antonio.- The Texans held out for 13 days until 1,800 Spanish soldiers stormed the old Mission killing all 189 of its defenders
33 Antonio López de Santa Anna (1794-1876) The Alamo
34 7. Sam Houston was the overall commander of the Texas Army who did not send troops in time to help. 8. Commanding officers at the Alamo killed were Jim Bowie and William Travis.9. American frontier hero Davy Crockett was also killed.10. The Texans would use the rally cry of, “Remember the Alamo” to stir them to victory in the Battle of San Jacinto led by Sam Houston.11. The Republic of Texas – “The Lone Star Republic” is established in 1836, but Mexico still refused to recognize it.12. Sam Houston was elected as its first President.
35 N. Alexis de Tocqueville - a Frenchman who came to America for the purpose of studying the U.S. prison system.1. He was also intrigued with the notion of American democracy. He spent 9 months traveling throughout America in search of America’s essence.2. The book that resulted from his journey set the stage for discussions about democracy that are still discussed today.3. His only concerns centered around the inequality of women and slaves. He believed that these two issues would tear democracy part.4. Much of his study focused around Jackson’s new emphasis on the “common man” and Jacksonian democracy.
36 Martin Van Buren (1837-1841) I. Biographical Information A. He became the 8th President of the U.S.B. He chose Richard Johnson as his Vice President.C. He was the first President to be born under the U.S. flag.D. He was born in 1782, a son of a farmer and tavern keeper in New York.E. He was hand-picked by Jackson to succeed him from the Democratic Party.F. He remained loyal to Jacksonian principles while President.G. He had been Jackson’s Sect. of State and became his V.P.. In 1832.H. He was known for his sophistication, high style, and exquisite dress.I. His wife, Hannah, died 18 years before he entered the White House.J. The name of his home was Lindenwald.K. He was hated by the Whig Party.L. The saying, “OK” originated with Van Buren.- It stood for “Old Kinderhook” meaning everything was alright.- It was used during his election campaign of 1836.
37 II. EventsA. Election of 18361. Jackson chose to retire and he hand-picked Van Buren to take his place.2. The Whig Party tried to align Van Buren with the policies of “King Andrew”, but Van Buren easily won the election.B. Most of his presidency was consumed with the Panic of 1837 that did not end until 1843.1. The situation created by the unsound practices of private banks and the specie circular sent the economy in a tailspin.2. Results: banks would close, prices fell, land sales fell sharply. 90 % of the industries in the east were closed.3. Van Buren proposed an independent treasury to manage the nation’s money. Private banks would no longer be used to store its currency. It was approved in 1840.C. John Deere invented the steel-tipped plow in 1837.D. The first postage stamp is invented in 1840.
38 William Henry Harrison (1841-1841) I. Biographical InformationA. He was the 9th President of the United States.B. He became famous for being a war hero in the Battle of Tippecanoe against the Indians.C. He was known for serving the shortest term in office as President.D. He was known for giving the longest inaugural address that lasted one hour and forty minutes.E. He caught a cold that led to pneumonia, and he died thirty days later.F. He became the first Whig Party Candidate to become President.G. He was born in Virginia in 1773.H. His father, Benjamin, was one of the signers of the Dec. of Independence.I. He ran on the campaign slogans, “ Tippecanoe and Tyler Too! “ and “ Van, Van is a used up Man!.”J. He chose John Tyler as his Vice President.II. EventsA. Election of 18401. Known as Harrison’s “Log Cabin and Cider Campaign”
39 B. The Second Great Awakening 1. A religious revival that swept through the U.S.2. The ideas of the preacher Charles Finney ignited it.3. Finney encouraged Christians to separate from the sinners and create Utopian communities – perfect communities with a religious emphasis.
40 - Mormons - “Latter Day Saints” first established in America by Joseph Smith, but brought to the West by Brigham Young to a place located near the Great Salt Lake in Utah.- Brook Farm - A Utopian community founded in Massachusetts based on Unitarian and Transcendentalists beliefs.C. Reform Movements developed out of the Great Awakening- Shakers - “United Society of Believers” - They originated in England in 1736, and were founded by Ann Lee. They set came to America to escape persecution and established a Utopian society near Albany, New York.1. Transcendentalists- Originated in Massachusetts. Put more of an emphasis on reasoning; man is divine and can rely on himself, not in God.- Believed that man should live closer to nature. Ex. Trans. Writer Henry David Thoreau. He lived alone in nature for two years at Walden Pond.- They also preached Civil Disobedience – peaceful actions to protest unjust laws. Later used by Ghandi and Martin Luther King, Jr.
41 4. Abolitionist Movement - the movement to end the evils of slavery. 2. Women’s Reform Movement- Seneca Falls, New York Convention (1848) - the first women’s rights convention to advocate the rights of women. It was organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott.- Declaration of Sentiments - a detailed statement of grievances composed by the women into a document modeled after the Declaration of Independence.- Cult of Domesticity - a belief that married women should restrict their activities to their home and family.- By 1850, one in ten single women worked outside the home earning about half the pay men received for the same job.- Sarah and Angela Grimke – famous women’s rights reformers who were sisters and daughters of a South Carolina Slaveholder.- They spoke in favor of the abolition of slavery. They published An Appeal to Christian Women of the South calling for women to overthrow the institution of slavery.3. Temperance Movement - anti-drinking movement led by Lucretia Mott and supported by women who were tired of how alcohol affected their husbands behavior, and how it resulted in abuse. She also spoke against slavery and was part of the Seneca Falls Convention.4. Abolitionist Movement - the movement to end the evils of slavery.D. Formation of Labor Unions1. Unions began to organize in major cities as early as the 1790’s and increased in number as the factory system took hold.- Many skilled workers (shoemakers and weavers) had to seek employment in factories.- Long hours, low pay, poor working conditions, led to widespread discontent among factory workers . There prime goal was to reduce the workday to 10 hours.- Obstacles: immigrant replacement workers, state laws outlawing unions, frequent economic depressions with high unemployment.- The National Trades Union is formed in Organized in cities to unite trade unions in order to get better working conditions. It lasted until 1837.
42 Elizabeth Cady Stanton Preamble to Declaration of Sentiments Sarah GrimkeAngela GrimkeLucretia MottElizabeth Cady StantonPreamble to Declaration of SentimentsWe hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights governments are instituted, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.
43 E. School and Prison Reforms 1. Dorthea Dix - she was am important prison reformer, especially in the area of mentally ill prisoners who were housed with the general population at the time.- Dix persuaded nine southern states to set up public hospitals for the mentally ill between- She emphasized the idea of rehabilitation to reform the mentally ill.2. Before the Civil War, Massachusetts and Vermont were the only states to pass a compulsory school attendance law.- Classrooms were not divided by grade, so younger and older pupils were thrown together. Few children continued beyond the age of ten.- Horace Mann - a leader of the public school reform movement from Massachusetts. “If we do not prepare children to become good citizens … If we do not enrich their minds with knowledge, then our republic must go down to destruction, as others have gone before it.”- Other states soon followed Massachusetts and Pennsylvania’s good example. By the 1850’s, every state had provided some form of publicly funded elementary schools.- McGuffey’s Readers - most popular grade-school reading book in the 1830’s. It sold nearly 60 million copies by It taught reading, writing, and arithmetic, as well as moral lessons to live by.- It was published by William H. McGuffey, a teacher and preacher from Ohio.
45 Changing American Family/ Women's Rights Communal ExperimentsChanging American Family/ Women's RightsReligion1. Second Great Awakening1. Mormons2. Brook Farm- Northeast and West mainly involved.1. Husbands and wives were redefined.3. Shakers2. Charles Finney4. New Harmony, Indiana2. Birth Control3. Baptists and Methodists- Robert Owens3. N.Y. Female Moral Reform Society5. Oneida Community4. Circuit Preachers/ Peter Cartwright4. Sarah and Angelina Grimke- (1848) Oneida, N.Y.5. Millennialism/ William Miller- Shared property and marriage partners.5. “Letter on the Condition of Women and the Equality of the Sexes” (1837)6. Mormons/ Latter-Day Saints- Joseph SmithU.S. Reform ( )- Brigham Young6. Lucretia Mott an Elizabeth Cady Stanton- New Zion(1848) - Seneca Falls Convention, NY- Great Salt Lake City, Utah- Declaration of Sentiments- PolygamyArts and Literature- Susan B. AnthonyIdeas, Art, Literature1. Genre Painting (1830’s)Slavery Movement1. Transcendentalists2. Architecture- Classical Greek Styles1. Second Great Awakening2. Mystical, intuitive thinking- Nationalism2. Abolitionism/ Abolitionists3. Essence of God through nature3. Literature3. American Colonization Society (1817)4. Ralph Waldo Emerson – best known Transcendentalists4. Washington Irving5. James Fenimore Cooper- Monrovia, Liberia6. Nathaniel Hawthorne5. “The American Scholar”4. American Anti-Slavery Society (1833)7. Herman Melville6. Self-reliance and Independent thinking5. William Lloyd Garrison – The LiberatorReforming Society7. Henry David Thoreau6. Liberty Party (1840)1. Temperance Movement (1826)- Walden (1854)- James Birney2. Public Asylums7. Frederick Douglass- “On Civil Disobedience” – non-violent protests- The North Star- institutions, prisons, mental hospitals, and poorhouses- Mohandas Ghandi and Martin Luther King, Jr.8. Underground Railroad- Harriet Tubman/ Sojourner Truth8. Brook Farm – communal experiment in Transcendentalism3. Dorthea Dix9. Radical (violent) Abolitionists4. Thomas Gallaudet – school for the deaf- (1841) – George Ripley/ Utopia – “perfect community”- David Walker/ Henry Highland Garnet10. Nat Turner Slave Rebellion (1831))
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