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Essential Questions United States History – Unit Two 1. How has the nature of democracy in the U.S. changed as society has grown and changed? 2. How did.

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Presentation on theme: "Essential Questions United States History – Unit Two 1. How has the nature of democracy in the U.S. changed as society has grown and changed? 2. How did."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Essential Questions United States History – Unit Two 1. How has the nature of democracy in the U.S. changed as society has grown and changed? 2. How did the conflict between the forces of expansionism, nationalism, and sectionalism shape the economic, political, social, and cultural structure of America during the antebellum period? (Chapters 7-9)

3 Unit Two Course Objectives Objective 2.01 – The rationale for and the consequences of Manifest Destiny The federal Indian policy before the Civil War The political and economic importance of the West Objective 2.02 – Cultural expressions of patriotism Celebrating the common man and the American way of life Influence of the Transcendentalist Movement Objective 2.03 – Transformation of life and the Industrial revolution Cultural polarization of Antebellum America Objective 2.04 – Political agendas of antebellum leaders Concepts of Jacksonian Democracy Slave revolts States Rights Era of Good Feeling Objective 2.05 – Womens rights Temperance movement Improvement of social institutions (prisons, mental health, education) Development of Utopian Communities Objective 2.06 – Second Great Awakening Moral Dilemma of Slavery The Abolitionist Movement

4 Unit Two Key Vocabulary (part one) Election of 1796 Era of Good Feelings Tariff of 1816 Protectionism Rush-Bagot Treaty (1818) Cumberland Road ( ) Seminole War ( ) American System Henry Clay Adams-Onis Treaty/ Transcontinental Treaty (1819) Panic of 1819 Land Speculation Specie McCulloch verses Maryland (1819) John Marshall National Supremacy Industrial Revolution Factory System/ Samuel Slater Tallmadge Amendment Stephen F. Austin Liberia/ Monrovia Erie Canal (1825) Gibbons verses Ogden (1824) Francis Cabot Lowell Cyrus McCormick Elias Howe Samuel F.B. Morse Robert Fulton Peter Cooper Pony Express Election of 1820 Missouri Compromise of 1820 Election of 1824 National Republicans Tariff of 1828/ Tariff of Abominations

5 James Monroe ( ) I. Biographical Information A. Monroe was born in 1758 in Westmoreland County, Virginia. He Died on July 4, B. He became the 5 th President of the U.S. in Elbridge Gerry served his second term as Vice President. C. He was the member of the Republican Party. D. He served as Minister to France from E. He helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase in F. He selected John Q. Adams as his Secretary of State. II. Events A. Election of Monroe defeated Rufus King (Federalist)

6 B. Monroes two terms in office were referred to as the Era of Good Feelings. 1.A time of peace in the U.S. 2. There were no major political party differences. C. Tariff of Congress raised tariff rates on certain goods after the war to help raise govt. revenue and help protect U.S. manufacturers from foreign competition (protective tariff). 3. Republicans dominated the north, south, and west, but political factions over issues like the national bank, tariffs, and slavery would continue. D. Rush-Bagot Treaty of Signed between England and the U.S. 1. It called for disarmament of the Great Lakes Region by both sides. 2. It made the 49 th parallel as the U.S.-Canadian border. 3. Agreed to joint occupation of the Oregon Territory for ten years. E. (1818) - The presidential palace is rebuilt after the War of 1812 and is renamed the White House. F. (1818) - The first federal (national) road is built known as the Cumberland Road. 1. It connected Baltimore to Wheeling, Virginia. 2. It was 130 miles long, and would eventually extend to Vandalia, Illinois. 3. It was built between

7 G. ( ) Andrew Jackson defeats the Seminole Indians in Florida known as the Seminole War. H. Henry Clays American System 1.He was a Senator from Kentucky. 2. He believed that a stronger national government would benefit all sections of the U.S. 3. He supported a protective tariff that would be placed on all imported goods in the U.S. He claimed that this would protect American manufacturers. - It would force Americans to buy from Americans and not other countries. - The bank bill passed. 4. The tariff did not benefit the South and West. It forced them to buy from the North, who then raised their prices, or they could buy from Europe and have to pay. 5. Clay also wanted to re-charter the National Bank which had expired in This tariff seemed to benefit the North, because most of the industries were located there. - It mainly benefited the northern businesses. 6. He also pushed for internal improvements for roads and canals. 7. His plan was very similar to Alexander Hamiltons plan.

8 I. Adams-Onis Treay (Transcontinental Treaty of 1819) - It was signed between the Spanish Foreign Minister Luis de Onis and Sect. of State John Q. Adams. 1. It was a historic agreement between the United States and Spain that settled a border dispute in North America between the two nations. The treaty was the result of increasing tensions between the U.S. and Spain regarding territorial rights. 2. Spain ceded Florida to the U.S. for five million dollars. 3. The treaty also drew a definite boundary between Mexico and the Louisiana Territory along the 42 nd parallel.

9 J. Western States Objectives: 1. Cheap Money (loose money) – easy credit from state banks rather than from the bank of the U.S. 2. Wanted land at low prices from the government. 3. Wanted improved transportation from the West to the East. K. Panic of Brought on by rapid westward expansion and bad management of banks. 2. Led to extensive land speculation – buying large amounts of land with the intention of selling it for a profit. 3. It forced up land prices. 4. Congress required the repayment of debts in specie – gold or silver. 5. The second national bank enforced this. 6. Farmers did not have the specie and could not repay their loans. 7. Led to many foreclosures on farm land. 8. Resulted in a deep resentment for the national bank by the West and South. L. Tallmadge Amendment (1820) - New York Congressman, James Tallmadge, proposed that Missouri gradually free its slaves after becoming a state. It was passed by the House, but killed by the Senate. 1. It caused a heated debate of the issue of slavery in new territories. Southerners perceived it as a threat to their power.

10 M. (1819) - McCulloch v. Maryland Case 1. In order to protest the national bank, the state of Maryland tried to tax the national bank. 2. Chief Justice John Marshall, appointed by Adams in 1800, ruled that states could not use their powers to tax the national bank. 3. Marshall and the court ruled that the national bank was constitutional according to the necessary and proper clause – Article I, section 8, clause This case was important because it established the principle of National Supremacy – the national government will have the final say in matters against the states. 5. Marshall will be known for strengthening the power of the Supreme Court during his tenure as Supreme Court Justice. N. Monroe Doctrine (1823) 1. James Monroe established a new foreign policy concerning European countries from colonizing in the Americas. He sided with England and they helped enforce it with their Royal Navy. 2. He said, Do not meddle with the western hemisphere countries, and we will not meddle in European country affairs.

11 Industrial Revolution O. Industrial Revolution – from farms to factories 1. Before the war of 1812, there were approximately 94 percent farmers. 2. After the war, the U.S. began to change from an agricultural to a more industrial economy. Factory System. 3. New inventions led to what would be known as the Factory System. Samuel Slater 4. Samuel Slater built the first successful textile factory in the U.S. built beside a waterfall in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. He became known as the father of the American Factory System. Cyrus McCormicks 5. Cyrus McCormicks mechanical reaper made harvesting wheat much easier. John Deeres 6. John Deeres steel-tipped plow made planting crops faster and easier. Elias Howe Isaac Singer 7. Elias Howe invented a much-improved sewing machine, which added efficiency in the production of clothing and shoes. Isaac Singer perfected it. Samuel F.B. Morses 8. Samuel F.B. Morses invention of the telegraph and Morse Code revolutionized communication in the U.S. Oliver Evans 9. James Watt, a Scotsman is credited with the invention of the first practical steam engine. Oliver Evans became the first American to develop a high-pressure steam engine. Francis Cabot Lowell 10. Francis Cabot Lowell invented a power loom which enabled weavers to keep up with the spinners of thread in the textile factories.

12 Improved Transportation P. Improved Transportation Cumberland Road (National Road) 1. Cumberland Road (National Road) 2.Travelers in the West, between the Appalachians and the Mississippi River, often used flatboats and keelboats for travel and for floating goods to market. They were propelled upstream by men walking back and forth using long poles to push the boat along. Robert Fulton 3. Robert Fulton is credited with building the first practical steamboat named the Clermont. Averaged 5 mph upstream. Erie Canal 4. The first canal was built in Erie Canal. The canal ran a distance of 363 miles to connect the Hudson River to Lake Erie. Clintons Ditch Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 5. In 1830, the first thirteen-mile stretch of track was opened named the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. On this line, Peter Coopers engine, the Tom Thumb, made a trial run. by 1840, the U.S. had nearly 3,000 miles of track. Clipper Ship 6. Americas greatest contribution to the history of sailing vessels was the Clipper Ship. Increases sailing time by one-half. Logged 465 miles in 24 hours.

13 Improved Communications Q. Improved Communications 1. In the early 1800s, a letter sent from Maine to Georgia took twenty days. 2. Postal rates were set according to distance. 3. A one-page letter delivered by Pony Express within a distance of 30 miles was eight cents. Over 400 miles would cost you $ The Pony Express, a private company, was started in 1860 t carry the U.S. mail between St. Joseph, Missouri and Sacramento, California. At stations along the way, riders changed horses every 75 miles. 5. The Pony Express would be eventually put out of business by the telegraph. Election of 1820 R. Election of 1820, Monroe won all of the electoral votes except one.

14 Missouri Compromise of 1820 S. Missouri Compromise of proposed by Henry Clay (the Great Compromiser) to satisfy both free soilers and slave state supporters. 1. It was concerned with the creation of new slave states. 2. There were 11 free states and 11 slave states in the Union at the time. 3. Missouri will be admitted as a slave state; Maine as a free state. 4. It also created the degree Latitude Line. All new states created above the line would be free and all new states created below the line would be slave.

15 Stephen Austin T. (1822) - Stephen Austin founds the first American settlement in Texas. Liberia U. (1822) - Freed U.S. slaves found Liberia on the West Coast of Africa. Monroe supported the colonization of freed slaves outside the U.S. His support earned him the honor of having the capital named after himself- Monrovia. V. (1824) - A border dispute with Russia is settled at degrees North. Gibbons v. Ogden Case W. (1824) - Gibbons v. Ogden Case - The Supreme Court ruled against a transportation monopoly granted by the New York state legislature to Robert Livingston and Robert Fulton. Transporting people across the Hudson River to New Jersey involved interstate commerce, which was a power granted to the Federal govt. in the Constitution. X. Indiana (1816), Mississippi (1817), Illinois (1818), and Alabama (1819)

16 Y. Hudson River School for the Arts (1817) - A group of American landscape painters of the mid-nineteenth century, who took a Romantic approach to depicting the Hudson River Valley, as well as lands further west. 1. As the American frontier moved westward, the Hudson River painters' views of this expanding territory found an enthusiastic audience. 2. Many painters of this school were influenced by their reading of a book, Essay on the Nature and Principles of Taste by Archibald Alison. In his book Alison claims that the beauty and grandeur of unspoiled nature can inspire good moral qualities. 3. Established a spirit of nationalism. Ex. Frederick Church

17 John Quincy Adams ( ) I. Biographical Information A.Born in 1767, in Braintree, Massachusetts B. He became our 6 th President of the U.S. C. John C. Calhoun was chosen as his V.P. D. He was the first President who was a son of a President. E. He was known for being humorless, self-righteous, short, pudgy, and stubborn. F. He was the first President to wear long trousers instead of knee breeches. G. He studied law at Harvard, and became a lawyer. H. In 1809, he became Minister to Russia. I. In 1814, he helped draw up the Treaty of Ghent. J. He was Monroes Secretary of State. K. He drew up the Monroe Doctrine.

18 I. Events A. Election of This election followed the Era of Good Feelings, and no candidate really claimed a political party. 2. Jackson – 99, Adams – 84, Crawford – 41, and Clay It had to be decided by the House of Reps because there was not a majority of the electoral vote in favor of one candidate. The top three candidates were voted on. 4. Crawford had a stroke and removed himself from consideration leaving just Jackson and Adams. 5. Henry Clay, Speaker of the House, threw his support to Adams, because Adams supported his American system. 5. Henry Clay, Speaker of the House, threw his support to Adams, because Adams supported his American system. 6. Adams became our 6 th President, John C. Calhoun became the V.P. 7. After the election, Adams named Clay his Sect. of State. 8. Jackson referred to the election of 1824 as the Corrupt Bargain. 8. Jackson referred to the election of 1824 as the Corrupt Bargain. 9. As a result of the election, new political parties formed. 9. As a result of the election, new political parties formed.

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20 10. The Federalists changed their name to the National Republicans (led by Adams), and the Republicans became the Democrats (led by Jackson). 11. This was the first election in which a popular vote was counted in a presidential election, not just state electors. B. Adams National Agenda: 1. He tried to improve the national economy. 2. He endorsed Clays American System 3. He collected high tariffs to fund projects to improve the economy. 4. He had canals, lighthouses, and roads built. 5. He pushed for settlers to explore the western territories. C. Because of politics, he accomplishes very little as President. The Democrats blocked all of his legislation. D. The Southerners referred to Adams Tariff of 1828 as the Tariff of Abominations.

21 E. Adams was not effective as President. F. He would be easily defeated by Jackson in the Election of 1828, but would serve in the House of Reps. From 1831 until his death in 1848 at the age of 79.

22 Unit Two Key Vocabulary (part two) Nominating conventions Age of Jackson Political Party System Common Man Spoils System Kitchen Cabinet Democratic Party Indian Killer Hermitage Old Hickory Indian Removal Act of 1830 Nat Turner Oregon Trail (1843) Whig Party Roger B. Taney Texas Revolution (1836) Santa Anna Alamo Sam Houston Remember the Alamo (1836) Battle of San Jacinto (1836) Trail of Tears (1838) Worcester verses Georgia (1832) Webster-Hayne Debate (1830) Civil Disobedience Ralph Waldo Emerson Seneca Falls Convention Cult of Domesticity National Trades Union (1834) Elizabeth Cady Stanton Sarah and Angela Grimke Declaration of Sentiments Election of 1832 Election of 1836 Tariff of 1832 Nullification John C. Calhoun Henry Clay National Bank/ Nicholas Biddle Pet Banks Specie Circular (1836) Alex de Tocquevilles Speech King Andrew Old Kinderhook Panic of 1837 Corrupt Bargain Eaton Affair Force Bill Election of 1840 Log Cabin and Cider campaign Tippecanoe and Tyler Too! Van, Van is a Used Up Man! Charles Finney Second Great Awakening Revival Utopian Communities Mormons/ Latter Day Saints Joseph Smith/ Brigham Young Brook Farm Temperance Movement/ Lucretia Mott Shakers Henry David Thoreau Dorthea Dix Horace Mann William H. McGuffey / McGuffeys Readers

23 Andrew Jackson ( ) I. Biographical Information A. He was born in S. Carolina, a son of an Irish Immigrant. B. He was elected our 7 th President. John C. Calhoun was chosen as Vice President. C. He grew up on the N.C. frontier, a redneck D. His father died before he was born, and his mother died when he was 14 years old. E. He taught himself to read, write, and become a lawyer in Tennessee. F. He became known as an Indian Killer. G. He is known for his victories at the Battle of New Orleans, Horseshoe Bend, and the Seminole War. H. He was appointed governor of the Florida Territory. I. His home in Tennessee was called the Hermitage. J. Because of his toughness as a military leader, he was given the nickname, Old Hickory.

24 K. He was known for his brawls and duels. His most famous duel was with Charles Dickinson. L. He married Rachel Donelson Robards in 1791, but she had not been legally divorced. M. Rachel would die a few days before Jacksons inauguration. N. Jackson became bitterly ill after Rachels death blaming it on the National Republican Party. O. Adams would defeat Jackson in the Election of 1824, even thought Jackson won more electoral votes – Corrupt Bargain. P. He established the Democratic Party (Jackson Democrats). P. He established the Democratic Party (Jackson Democrats). II. Events A. Election of Jackson would run for President for the Common Man. 1. Jackson would run for President for the Common Man. 2. Jackson would easily defeat Adams and become our 7 th President. 2. Jackson would easily defeat Adams and become our 7 th President. Q. He bought 20 spittoons for the East Room for $12.50 each. Q. He bought 20 spittoons for the East Room for $12.50 each.

25 B. He would establish the Spoils System – to the victor goes the spoils! 1. He replaced govt. workers with his own loyal supporters. 2. He cleaned house replacing most of the National Republicans. 3. His advisors would be nicknamed his Kitchen Cabinet. C. He appointed Martin Van Buren as his Sect. of State. D. (1830) – Jackson approves the Indian Removal Act – it approved the forcing of all Native Americans west of the Mississippi River. E. (1831) - Nat Turner Slave Rebellion 1. Turner (a slave) led 75 armed followers in a rebellion against slavery. 2. Before they were subdued, they had killed whites. F. The Oregon Trail becomes the main route to the West.

26 Oregon Trail (1843) Oregon Trail (Modern Map)

27 G. Jackson and the National Bank 1. Clay had re-chartered the bank from Clay had re-chartered the bank from Jackson claimed that the bank was undemocratic – it only benefited the wealthy northeasterners. 3. Clay pushed to re-charter the bank again in 1832, but Jackson vetoed it. 3. Clay pushed to re-charter the bank again in 1832, but Jackson vetoed it. 4. Jackson believed that a privileged few were making money form the bank that should have benefited all citizens, so he created pet banks. 4. Jackson believed that a privileged few were making money form the bank that should have benefited all citizens, so he created pet banks. - Jackson moved the money from the national bank back to the state banks. Nicholas Biddle, the banks president was corrupt, and he would be bias toward the northern businessmen. 5. Jackson also issued the Specie Circular (Coinage Act) of It required payment of public lands be in gold and silver (specie). 5. Jackson also issued the Specie Circular (Coinage Act) of It required payment of public lands be in gold and silver (specie). 1. It was issued to protect the settlers who were being forced to pay much higher prices for land.

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29 H. Jackson and the Tariff Controversy 1. The North still pushed protective tariffs on imported goods. 2. As a result, much of the paper money was devalued and the economy would result in another recession – Panic of The South was still hurt by the tariffs. 2. The South was still hurt by the tariffs. 3. Jacksons Vice President, John C. Calhoun, from S.C. urged nullification if the tariffs continued. 3. Jacksons Vice President, John C. Calhoun, from S.C. urged nullification if the tariffs continued. 4. (1832) – Congress, with the approval of Jackson, passed another high tariff. 4. (1832) – Congress, with the approval of Jackson, passed another high tariff. 6. S.C. nullified the tariff and threatened to secede from the Union if they were forced to pay. 6. S.C. nullified the tariff and threatened to secede from the Union if they were forced to pay. 7. Jackson supported the tariffs and sent in troops to collect the taxes. 7. Jackson supported the tariffs and sent in troops to collect the taxes. 8. A compromise was made by Henry Clay temporarily ending the hostilities – lowering the taxes. 8. A compromise was made by Henry Clay temporarily ending the hostilities – lowering the taxes. 9. Calhoun then resigned as V.P. replaced by Van Buren. 9. Calhoun then resigned as V.P. replaced by Van Buren. 5. Force Bill of 1833 authorized President Andrew Jackson's use of whatever force necessary to execute laws. It was intended to suppress South Carolina's nullification of tariffs. South Carolina in turn nullified this Bill. Henry Clay's Compromise Tariff passed the same day, satisfying John Calhoun and South Carolina, making nullification unnecessary in any event.

30 I. Because many in the South felt like Jackson betrayed the Democratic Party, the party would split and the southern democrats would become known as the Whigs in J. Webster-Hayne Debate (1830) - dealt with the tariff question and the issue of states rights. J. Webster-Hayne Debate (1830) - dealt with the tariff question and the issue of states rights. 1. Senator Robert Hayne of S.C. debated Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts. 1. Senator Robert Hayne of S.C. debated Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts. 2. Hayne spoke in favor of states rights and the right of nullification. 2. Hayne spoke in favor of states rights and the right of nullification. 3. Jackson, even though a southerner, supported the federal govt. and the tariff. 3. Jackson, even though a southerner, supported the federal govt. and the tariff. K. Cherokee Nation (Worcester) verses Georgia Case - K. Cherokee Nation (Worcester) verses Georgia Case - 1. The Cherokee nation tried to win just treatment through the U.S. legal system. 1. The Cherokee nation tried to win just treatment through the U.S. legal system.

31 2. John Marshall ruled that the Cherokee Nation was a distinct political community, and that Georgia was not entitled to regulate the Cherokee or invade their lands. 2. John Marshall ruled that the Cherokee Nation was a distinct political community, and that Georgia was not entitled to regulate the Cherokee or invade their lands. 3. This violated Jacksons Indian Removal Act. 3. This violated Jacksons Indian Removal Act. 4. Marshall believed that the Cherokee should not be forced by the govt. to leave their lands, but should voluntarily cede if they chose to do so. 4. Marshall believed that the Cherokee should not be forced by the govt. to leave their lands, but should voluntarily cede if they chose to do so. 5. Jackson felt that the Indians would be protected from white settlers if they were moved west of the Mississippi. 5. Jackson felt that the Indians would be protected from white settlers if they were moved west of the Mississippi. 6. Jackson refused to abide by Marshalls decision saying, John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it! 6. Jackson refused to abide by Marshalls decision saying, John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it! 7. In 1835, the Cherokee would sign the New Enchota Treaty giving the federal govt. their land in exchange for $5 million and land west of the Mississippi. 7. In 1835, the Cherokee would sign the New Enchota Treaty giving the federal govt. their land in exchange for $5 million and land west of the Mississippi. 8. The remaining Cherokee who refused to leave in 1838 were forced to leave by the govt. as part of the Trail of Tears. 8. The remaining Cherokee who refused to leave in 1838 were forced to leave by the govt. as part of the Trail of Tears. 9. In 1834, the govt. would establish the Indian Territory of Oklahoma for all Native Americans to live. 9. In 1834, the govt. would establish the Indian Territory of Oklahoma for all Native Americans to live.

32 Trail of Tears

33 L. (1835) - The first assassination attempt made on a President took place against Jackson, but it failed. M. (1836) - Texas Revolution 1. Many of the settlers in Texas were Americans, but it was still owned by Mexico. 1. Many of the settlers in Texas were Americans, but it was still owned by Mexico. 2. (1810) - Mexico declared its independence from Spain. 3. The Mexican War for Independence would drag on for 12 years until on September 27, 1821, the Treaty of Cordoba was signed between Mexico and Spain officially recognizing Mexicos independence. 4. In 1835, the Mexican govt. restricted American immigration and outlawed slavery in Texas. 4. In 1835, the Mexican govt. restricted American immigration and outlawed slavery in Texas. 5. A war would result between Texas and Mexico. 5. A war would result between Texas and Mexico. 6. Mexican dictator, Santa Anna, would defeat the Texans at the Alamo – Spanish Mission – in San Antonio. - The Texans held out for 13 days until 1,800 Spanish soldiers stormed the old Mission killing all 189 of its defenders - The Texans held out for 13 days until 1,800 Spanish soldiers stormed the old Mission killing all 189 of its defenders

34 Antonio López de Santa Anna ( ) The Alamo

35 7. Sam Houston was the overall commander of the Texas Army who did not send troops in time to help. 7. Sam Houston was the overall commander of the Texas Army who did not send troops in time to help. 8. Commanding officers at the Alamo killed were Jim Bowie and William Travis. 8. Commanding officers at the Alamo killed were Jim Bowie and William Travis. 9. American frontier hero Davy Crockett was also killed. 9. American frontier hero Davy Crockett was also killed. 10. The Texans would use the rally cry of, Remember the Alamo to stir them to victory in the Battle of San Jacinto led by Sam Houston. 10. The Texans would use the rally cry of, Remember the Alamo to stir them to victory in the Battle of San Jacinto led by Sam Houston. 11. The Republic of Texas – The Lone Star Republic is established in 1836, but Mexico still refused to recognize it. 11. The Republic of Texas – The Lone Star Republic is established in 1836, but Mexico still refused to recognize it. 12. Sam Houston was elected as its first President. 12. Sam Houston was elected as its first President.

36 N. Alexis de Tocqueville - a Frenchman who came to America for the purpose of studying the U.S. prison system. 1. He was also intrigued with the notion of American democracy. He spent 9 months traveling throughout America in search of Americas essence. 1. He was also intrigued with the notion of American democracy. He spent 9 months traveling throughout America in search of Americas essence. 2. The book that resulted from his journey set the stage for discussions about democracy that are still discussed today. 2. The book that resulted from his journey set the stage for discussions about democracy that are still discussed today. 3. His only concerns centered around the inequality of women and slaves. He believed that these two issues would tear democracy part. 3. His only concerns centered around the inequality of women and slaves. He believed that these two issues would tear democracy part. 4. Much of his study focused around Jacksons new emphasis on the common man and Jacksonian democracy. 4. Much of his study focused around Jacksons new emphasis on the common man and Jacksonian democracy.

37 Martin Van Buren ( ) I. Biographical Information A. He became the 8 th President of the U.S. B. He chose Richard Johnson as his Vice President. C. He was the first President to be born under the U.S. flag. D. He was born in 1782, a son of a farmer and tavern keeper in New York. E. He was hand-picked by Jackson to succeed him from the Democratic Party. F. He remained loyal to Jacksonian principles while President. G. He had been Jacksons Sect. of State and became his V.P.. In H. He was known for his sophistication, high style, and exquisite dress. I. His wife, Hannah, died 18 years before he entered the White House. J. The name of his home was Lindenwald. K. He was hated by the Whig Party. L. The saying, OK originated with Van Buren. - It stood for Old Kinderhook meaning everything was alright. - It was used during his election campaign of 1836.

38 A. Election of 1836 A. Election of Jackson chose to retire and he hand- picked Van Buren to take his place. 1. Jackson chose to retire and he hand- picked Van Buren to take his place. 2. The Whig Party tried to align Van Buren with the policies of King Andrew, but Van Buren easily won the election. II. Events B. Most of his presidency was consumed with the Panic of 1837 that did not end until The situation created by the unsound practices of private banks and the specie circular sent the economy in a tailspin. 2. Results: banks would close, prices fell, land sales fell sharply. 90 % of the industries in the east were closed. 3. Van Buren proposed an independent treasury to manage the nations money. Private banks would no longer be used to store its currency. It was approved in C. John Deere invented the steel-tipped plow in D. The first postage stamp is invented in 1840.

39 William Henry Harrison ( ) I. Biographical Information A. He was the 9 th President of the United States. B. He became famous for being a war hero in the Battle of Tippecanoe against the Indians. C. He was known for serving the shortest term in office as President. D. He was known for giving the longest inaugural address that lasted one hour and forty minutes. E. He caught a cold that led to pneumonia, and he died thirty days later. F. He became the first Whig Party Candidate to become President. G. He was born in Virginia in H. His father, Benjamin, was one of the signers of the Dec. of Independence. I. He ran on the campaign slogans, Tippecanoe and Tyler Too! and Van, Van is a used up Man!. J. He chose John Tyler as his Vice President. II. Events A. Election of Known as Harrisons Log Cabin and Cider Campaign

40 B. The Second Great Awakening 1. A religious revival that swept through the U.S. 2. The ideas of the preacher Charles Finney ignited it. 3. Finney encouraged Christians to separate from the sinners and create Utopian communities – perfect communities with a religious emphasis.

41 - Mormons - Latter Day Saints first established in America by Joseph Smith, but brought to the West by Brigham Young to a place located near the Great Salt Lake in Utah. - Brook Farm - A Utopian community founded in Massachusetts based on Unitarian and Transcendentalists beliefs. C. Reform Movements developed out of the Great Awakening 1. Transcendentalists - Originated in Massachusetts. Put more of an emphasis on reasoning; man is divine and can rely on himself, not in God. - Believed that man should live closer to nature. Ex. Trans. Writer Henry David Thoreau. He lived alone in nature for two years at Walden Pond. - They also preached Civil Disobedience – peaceful actions to protest unjust laws. Later used by Ghandi and Martin Luther King, Jr. - Shakers - United Society of Believers - They originated in England in 1736, and were founded by Ann Lee. They set came to America to escape persecution and established a Utopian society near Albany, New York.

42 2. Womens Reform Movement - Seneca Falls, New York Convention (1848) - the first womens rights convention to advocate the rights of women. It was organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott. 3. Temperance Movement - anti-drinking movement led by Lucretia Mott and supported by women who were tired of how alcohol affected their husbands behavior, and how it resulted in abuse. She also spoke against slavery and was part of the Seneca Falls Convention. 4. Abolitionist Movement - the movement to end the evils of slavery. D. Formation of Labor Unions 1. Unions began to organize in major cities as early as the 1790s and increased in number as the factory system took hold. - Many skilled workers (shoemakers and weavers) had to seek employment in factories. - Long hours, low pay, poor working conditions, led to widespread discontent among factory workers. There prime goal was to reduce the workday to 10 hours. - Obstacles: immigrant replacement workers, state laws outlawing unions, frequent economic depressions with high unemployment. - The National Trades Union is formed in Organized in cities to unite trade unions in order to get better working conditions. It lasted until Cult of Domesticity - a belief that married women should restrict their activities to their home and family. - By 1850, one in ten single women worked outside the home earning about half the pay men received for the same job. - Sarah and Angela Grimke – famous womens rights reformers who were sisters and daughters of a South Carolina Slaveholder. - They spoke in favor of the abolition of slavery. They published An Appeal to Christian Women of the South calling for women to overthrow the institution of slavery. - Declaration of Sentiments - a detailed statement of grievances composed by the women into a document modeled after the Declaration of Independence.

43 Angela GrimkeSarah Grimke Lucretia Mott Elizabeth Cady Stanton We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights governments are instituted, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. Preamble to Declaration of Sentiments

44 E. School and Prison Reforms 1. Dorthea Dix - she was am important prison reformer, especially in the area of mentally ill prisoners who were housed with the general population at the time. - Dix persuaded nine southern states to set up public hospitals for the mentally ill between She emphasized the idea of rehabilitation to reform the mentally ill. 2. Before the Civil War, Massachusetts and Vermont were the only states to pass a compulsory school attendance law. - Classrooms were not divided by grade, so younger and older pupils were thrown together. Few children continued beyond the age of ten. - Horace Mann - a leader of the public school reform movement from Massachusetts. If we do not prepare children to become good citizens … If we do not enrich their minds with knowledge, then our republic must go down to destruction, as others have gone before it. - Other states soon followed Massachusetts and Pennsylvanias good example. By the 1850s, every state had provided some form of publicly funded elementary schools. - McGuffeys Readers - most popular grade-school reading book in the 1830s. It sold nearly 60 million copies by It taught reading, writing, and arithmetic, as well as moral lessons to live by. - It was published by William H. McGuffey, a teacher and preacher from Ohio.

45 Dorthea Dix Horace Mann William McGuffeyMcGuffey Reader

46 1. Second Great Awakening - Northeast and West mainly involved. 2. Charles Finney 3. Baptists and Methodists 4. Circuit Preachers/ Peter Cartwright 6. Mormons/ Latter-Day Saints 5. Millennialism/ William Miller - Joseph Smith - Brigham Young - New Zion - Great Salt Lake City, Utah - Polygamy 1. Transcendentalists 2. Mystical, intuitive thinking 4. Ralph Waldo Emerson – best known Transcendentalists 3. Essence of God through nature 5. The American Scholar 6. Self-reliance and Independent thinking 7. Henry David Thoreau - Walden (1854) - On Civil Disobedience – non-violent protests - Mohandas Ghandi and Martin Luther King, Jr. 8. Brook Farm – communal experiment in Transcendentalism - (1841) – George Ripley/ Utopia – perfect community 1. Mormons 2. Brook Farm 3. Shakers 4. New Harmony, Indiana - Robert Owens 5. Oneida Community - (1848) Oneida, N.Y. - Shared property and marriage partners. 6. Lucretia Mott an Elizabeth Cady Stanton - Declaration of Sentiments (1848) - Seneca Falls Convention, NY - Susan B. Anthony 1. Second Great Awakening 2. Abolitionism/ Abolitionists 3. American Colonization Society (1817) - Monrovia, Liberia 6. Liberty Party (1840) 4. American Anti-Slavery Society (1833) 5. William Lloyd Garrison – The Liberator 1. Husbands and wives were redefined. 2. Birth Control 3. N.Y. Female Moral Reform Society 4. Sarah and Angelina Grimke 5. Letter on the Condition of Women and the Equality of the Sexes (1837) 4. Thomas Gallaudet – school for the deaf - Classical Greek Styles 1. Genre Painting (1830s) 2. Architecture 3. Literature - Nationalism 4. Washington Irving 5. James Fenimore Cooper 6. Nathaniel Hawthorne 7. Herman Melville 1. Temperance Movement (1826) 2. Public Asylums - institutions, prisons, mental hospitals, and poorhouses 3. Dorthea Dix - James Birney 7. Frederick Douglass - The North Star 8. Underground Railroad - Harriet Tubman/ Sojourner Truth 9. Radical (violent) Abolitionists - David Walker/ Henry Highland Garnet 10. Nat Turner Slave Rebellion (1831))


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