Presentation on theme: "World History Advanced Placement Review Time Period Two 600-1450 C.E. Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High School Jacksonville, FL 32258."— Presentation transcript:
World History Advanced Placement Review Time Period Two C.E. Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High School Jacksonville, FL 32258
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Change over Time Little change in gender roles, although elite women suffered the most (veiling, foot- binding) Long distance trade grew a great deal The Europeans start to emerge with world trade by the end of the time period and China begins to isolate themselves
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Slides based on the Ethel Wood Study Guide Ordering information: (10 book minimum for orders)
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL 600 – 1450 C.E. Introduction Change over time occurs for many reasons, but three phenomena that tend to cause it are: 1.Mass migrations 2.Imperial conquests 3.Cross-cultural trade and exchange Widespread contact brings new goods, ideas, and customs to all areas involved
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Major Events & Developments That Characterized This Era –Older belief systems become much more important. Christianity, Hinduism, Confucianism, & Buddhism –Two nomadic groups Bedouins and Mongols huge impact on the course of history during this time frame –Islam –began in the 7 th century and spread rapidly throughout Western Asia (Middle East), N. Africa, Europe, & S.E. Asia
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Major Events & Developments That Characterized This Era –Islam forms and spreads rapidly throughout the world. –Generally, Europe was not a major civilization area before 600 CE. By 1450, it was connected to major trade routes and some of its kingdoms assert their world power. –Major empires grow in South America (Inca) and Mesoamerica (the Maya and Aztec.) –China had supremacy over many areas of Asia and became one of the largest and most prosperous empires of the time. –Long distance trade continued to develop, and became much more complex
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Major Shifts and Continuities The Islamic World Impacted political and economic structures. Shaped the development of arts, sciences and technology. Interregional networks and contacts Expansion of trade and cultural exchange. Mongols first disrupted, then promoted long- distance trade throughout the world. Chinas internal and external expansion Saw China taken over by the Mongols and then returned to Han Chinese under the Ming Dynasty.
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Major Shifts and Continuities –Developments in Europe Feudalism was developed. Christianity splits into two. Catholic Church in the west and Eastern Orthodox Church in the east. Both cases, the Church gains a great deal of power. –Social, cultural, economic patterns in the Amerindian world Maya, Aztec, and Inca all grow into empires. –Urbanization continues.
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL The Islamic World The founding of Islam –Founded in Mecca by Muhammad. –Believed to be the last of the prophets. –Followers were called Muslims. People who submitted to the will of Allah. –City leaders forced Muhammad to flee Mecca in his famous flight to the city of Yathrib Known as the Hijrah. –Changed the citys name to Medina or city of the Prophet Called the community the umma. Came to refer all Muslim believers.
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Islamic Beliefs and Practices Five Pillars of Faith Faith – Declaration of Faith. Prayer – Pray five times a day. Alms – Give money to the poor. Fasting – Fast sunup to sundown during the month of Ramadan. Pilgrimage – Make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetime. The Quran Most important source of religious authority. Believed to be the actual words of Allah.
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Islamic Beliefs and Practices Sunna Muhammad's life is seen as the best model for a proper living. Law of the sharia Body of law which regulates the family life, moral conduct, business, and community life of Muslims. In the early days, the sharia brought a sense of unity to all Muslims.
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Reasons For The Spread of Islam Religious zeal Well-disciplined armies Weakness of the Byzantine and Persian Empires Treatment of conquered peoples Forbid forced conversions.
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL The Sunni-Shia Split Sunni Most Muslims accepted the Umayyads rule. Believe the caliph should be chosen by leaders of the Muslim community (majority sect) Shia This group believe the caliph should be a relative of the prophet. Rejected the Umayyads rule (Majority in Iran & Iraq)
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL The Changing Status of Women The Patriarchal system characterized most early civilizations Islamic women had rights some other women did not have: –Could inherit property, divorce husbands, engage in business –But, the Quran allowed men to follow Muhammads example to take up to four wives, and women could only have one husband
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL The Changing Status of Women Muslims also adopted the long-standing custom of veiling women –Upper class women in Mesopotamia wore veils as early as the 13 th century B.C.E. This practice had spread to Persia and the entire Mediterranean long before Muhammad lived. –As Islam spread, so to did the custom
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Arts, Sciences, and Technologies dar al Islam: Lands ruled by Islamics –Islam was always a missionary religion –By the 10 th century C.E, higher level schools known as madrasas had appeared –By the 12 th century these schools were supported by the wealthy and a flowering of arts, sciences, and new technologies spread throughout the Islamic world
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Arts, Sciences, and Technologies When Persia became part of the caliphate, the conquerors adapted much of their rich culture: –Literary, artistic, philosophical and scientific traditions –Persian became the language of literature, poetry, history, and political theory
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Arts, Sciences, and Technologies Islamic states in northern India also adapted mathematics from the people they conquered Hindi numerals were later called Arabic numerals by the Europeans –This number system also included a symbol for zero
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Arts, Sciences, and Technologies Muslims are credited with the origins of algebra, and were interested in Greek philosophy, science, and medical writings Ibn Khaldum (14 th century Moroccan) wrote a comprehensive history of the world Nasir al-Din- studied and improved the cosmological model of Ptolemy (al-Dins work was later used by Copernicus).
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Interregional Networks and Contacts Contacts between the Middle East (West Asia), the Indian sub-continent, and Asia (long distance trade) increased a great deal between 600 – 1450 C.E. –Via the Indian Ocean and the Silk Roads Venice and Genoa eventually tied into this network by way of the Mediterranean Trans-Saharan African trade became more important as major civilizations began to develop south of the Sahara
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL African Societies & Empires Until about 600 C.E. most African societies based their economies on foraging or simple agriculture and herding The family was the center of political and social life, and none had a centralized government The spread of Islam began to change all of this, the unifying forces of religion and the sharia helped Africa to develop centralized states This gradual, nonviolent spread of Islam was very conducive to trade, especially due to gold south of the Sahara
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL West African Empires:(600 – 1450 CE) Ghana c.a. 700s CE By the 700s the Soninke, a farming people, created an empire called Ghana (war chief) They taxed goods traders brought through their area (the Berbers and Arab merchants) They also had gold & controlled its supply /price from the Niger River that they traded for salt from the Sahara people An impressive army Many converted to Islam, but native religions also remained, conquered by the Almoravids of N. Afr.
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL West African Empires:(600 – 1450 CE) Mali 13 th century CE People south of Ghana move in and enlarged the former empire of Ghana, it became known as Mali Larger, richer and more powerful Gold was the base of their wealth Sundiata- First great ruler who inspired an epic poem, the other was Mansa Musa of hajj fame
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL West African Empires:(600 – 1450 CE) Mali 13 th century CE Mansa Musa Famous hajj Gold price drops due to his journey Malis capital city, Timbuktu, became a world center of trade, education, and sophistication
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL East Africa :(600 – 1450 CE) The Swahili States Politically independent trade cities along Africas east coast, very sophisticated Collectively known as the Swahili, based on the language that they spoke which was a combination of Bantu & Arabic They were an important link for long distance trade. Most were Muslims and very talented sailors able to manipulate the Indian Ocean to India, and other areas of the Middle East via the Red Sea
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL The Crusades (late 11 th – 13 th Centuries) By the late 13 th century, the Crusades had ended, with no permanent gains made for Christians. The Crusades DID unite Europeans, and opened up new trade routes putting them squarely into the major trade networks of the world.
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL The Mongols Were they a great civilization, carriers of great civilizations, or a combination of both? Great example of pastoralists that disrupted trade routes The Rise: Temujin unified clans, and went on to be called Chenghis (Genghis) Khan leading his people for the next twenty-one years –One of the most talented military minds in history –They were finally stopped in Eurasia by the death of Ogodai the son of Chenghis
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Two Travelers Marco Polo: 13 th century, from Venice he travelled East eventually meeting and working for Kublai Khan for 17 years (Yuan Dynasty/China) Ibn Battutu: 14 th century, from Morocco travelled mainly within the vast Islamic Empires. He also wrote of his travels
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Chinas Regional Hegemony: The Golden Age of the Tang & Song Hegemony: (Hih-gem-o-nee) Dominance over others (political, economic, social and cultural influence) Between 600 – 1450 CE it was impossible for one empire to dominate the entire world
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Strengths of the Tang (618 – 907 CE) Buddhism became fully established in China Received a warm welcome at first from Daoists, as they seemed to have much in common –They both have priests and monasteries and some structure of an organized religion (lacking in Confucianism) –Both interested in spells, charms and breathing exercises
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Tang Accomplishments 1.The Grand Canal and a maintained system of roads, including inns, postal stations, and stables 2.The Equal-field system of land distribution, controlled the amount of land powerful families could own 3.A merit-based bureaucracy (originally developed during the Han Dynasty)
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Tang Dynasty Religious Problems Confucian and Daoist supporters took note of Buddhisms growing influence, and became jealous –Confucianism emphasized duties owed to ones society, its highest value on order, hierarchy, and obedience to superiors –Buddhism encouraged its supporters to withdraw from society and concentrate on personal meditation
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Tang Dynasty Religious Problems Finally in the 9 th Century, Confucian scholar- bureaucrats conspired to convince the emperors to take lands away from the Buddhist monasteries through the equal-field system Buddhism was also attacked for encouraging women in politics. –Wu Zhao, a woman, seized control of the government Favored Buddhists and Daoists in her court system Some worried about barbarians ruining society. Many pointed to Buddhism as evidence of foreign evil.
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Founding of the Song Emphasized civil administration, industry, education, and the arts over the military. Never established hegemony over as much area as the Tang because of this. –Political disunity was a constant threat as long as the Song held power. Presided over Chinas Golden Era which was characterized by prosperity, sophistication, and creativity. –Expanded the government based on merit. Accepted more candidates to bureaucratic posts than Sui and Tang.
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Problems Under the Song Finances – Government expenses skyrocketed. Raised taxes. –Two major rebellions responded in protest. Military – Led by scholar bureaucrats with little knowledge in leading armies. –The Jurchens, a nomadic group with a strong military, overran northern China and captured the Song capital. –Southern part of the Song empire would eventually be conquered by the Mongols. (1279 CE)
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Economic Revolutions of the Tang and Song Dynasties Increasing agricultural production Increasing population Urbanization Technological innovations –Porcelain, iron and steel, gunpowder, movable type, and magnetic compass. Financial inventions –Paper money, flying cash and checks
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Neo-Confucianism Neo-Confucians became familiar with Buddhist beliefs. Li –A concept that defined a spiritual presence similar to the universal spirit of Hinduism and Buddhism. Reconciled Confucianism with Buddhism. Influenced philosophical thought in many Asian areas. i.e. China, Korea, Vietnam, and Japan
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Patriarchal Social Structures Elites insured the purity of their lines by further confining women to the home. Foot binding became very popular. –Women generally could not walk except with canes. Indicated female subservience to their male guardians.
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Kublai Khan, The Yuan Dynasty, and The Early Ming ( CE) Kublai Khan captured the capital and set up a new one in Beijing and named it Khanbaluk – city of the Khan. –Marco Polo described his city as the finest and richest in all the world. China was unified under Kublai Khan. Khan clearly respected Chinese customs and innovations. –Kublai Khan elevated the merchants status.
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Problems in the Yuan Dynasty Too few military to protect too many borders. Increased tributes and established tax farming –Led to corruption. Gap between urban rich and the rural poor also grew. Plague spread through the population. Confucian scholars led a revolt and established the Ming Empire.
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Early Ming Dynasty Zhu Yuan Zhang located the capital in Nanjing. –Also tried closing off trade relations with Central Asia and the Middle East. –Reasserted Confucian ideology. Turned internal. –It was possible to do this because of the great distance between other empires. China could be left alone and no one can do much about it.
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Korea 7 th century Korea saw the Silla Dynastys king recognize the Tang as his overlord. –Tang forces withdrew from peninsula. –Silla rulers retained a great deal of autonomy. Built a new capital modeled on the Tang capital. –Confucian schools were founded. –Buddhism sparked a lot of interest. Korea never developed a bureaucracy based on merit.
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Japan Chinese armies never invaded Japan. –Even Kublai Khans great forces could not overcome the straits that lie between Korea and Japan –Kamikaze (from Kami - "god" and kaze - "wind") means 'divine wind' in Japanese. It refers to the typhoon which saved Japan from a Mongol invasion fleet in 1281
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Japan Some Chinese influence made it to Japan: –Confucianism, Buddhism, and Chinese writing characters But Japan also remained unique in two ways: Shintoism- native religion, venerated ancestors was not replaced by the Chinese belief systems The Japanese Emperor from was a figurehead, families and military people had the real power at this time not the Emperor
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Japanese Feudalism A system of feudalism developed whereby loyalty was the key 1.Shogun 2.Daimyos 3.Samurai (loyal) and Ronin (mercenary type) Bushido (code), and seppuku (suicide) 4.Peasants (the great Majority) 5.Merchants (last in many Asian systems)
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Europe 500 – 1450 CE Fall of Rome 476 CE Fall of Constantinople 1453 CE Fall of Rome leads to decentralized rule in the west Germanic tribes: Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, Goths, Angles, Saxons, etc… Greco-Roman, Judaea-Christian (now add Germanic influence to W. Civ.)
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL European Feudalism A World lit Only by Fire, William Manchester Very violent times, land equaled power Feudalism (political) & Manorialism (economic) European feudal institutions revolved around political and military relationships
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL European Norman Feudalism 1.The lord* 2.A large landowner* (provided vassals with fiefs) 3.Knights* 4.Craftsmen 5.Serfs (backbone and majority number of the system) * Considered Nobles
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Christendom Although the Church officially remained tied after the fall of Rome in 476, in effect two separate churches developed: –The Eastern Orthodox Church in the East –The Roman Catholic Church in the West The schism became official in 1054 CE with the Iconoclastic controversy.
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Byzantine Empire The Eastern Roman Empire Caesaropapism – The Emperor wore two hats: secular and religious leader –6 th c. CE Justinian & Theodora –Constantinople –Built Hagia Sophia –Extended political boundaries west (temporarily) –Justinians Code-systemized Roman Law which is still used today
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Church in the West Development of hierarchy (Pope, Cardinals, Bishops, Priests) Development of wandering ministries –Franciscans, and Dominicans Establishment of monasteries & convents –Centers of scholarship (illumination), care for the poor, sick, and orphaned –Central point for Christian Communication
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Late Middle Ages CE Europe 500 – 1450 CE is known as the Middle Ages Gradual shift from manors to cities and towns/villages; and self-sufficient manorialism to a trade-based economy/revival of trade A new Agricultural Revolution –Population increases (early) followed by the plague (1340s and beyond) A commercial revolution – long distance trade Establishment of guilds, charters, universities…
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Early Russia Slavs & the Rus Viking raids and eventual assimilation Kiev & Novgorod –Eastern Orthodox Church –Feudalistic ties, Tsar (derivative of Caesar) –Arrival of the Mongolians Dark Age
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL The Amerindian World Prior to 1492, the western and eastern hemispheres had very little contact Between 600 – 1450 large Amerindian empires existed just like those in Europe, Africa, and Asia –The Maya (300 – 900 CE) –The Olmec (by 800 CE) –The Toltecs ( 900 CE) –The Aztecs (late 12 th c. CE) –The Inca (14 th &15 th c. CE)
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Demographic & Environmental Changes CE Civilizations spread geographically, covering many more parts of the world than previously. It was also a time of great migrations of people that had a wide impact on the peoples in the settled areas (This is Cultural diffusion rather than parallel invention)
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Demographic & Environmental Changes CE Arabs Middle East, Northern Africa, Southern Europe Spread of Islam Vikings From Normandy, to Mediterranean areas to Russia –Looting and raiding –Vikings founded the city of Dublin, Ireland –Led to the development of European feudalism
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Demographic & Environmental Changes CE Turks Originally Indo-Europeans –Seljuk Turks: invaded the Byzantine Empire –Ottoman Turks: Captured Constantinople (1453) –Turks also invaded India (Delhi Sultanate) and brought Islam with them with great force that it is still felt today
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Demographic & Environmental Changes CE Mongols Brutal, but were carriers of many civilizations Provided the stage for international contact –East China to Wien (Vienna), Russia to Persia Established order, Pax Mongolica
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Demographic & Environmental Changes CE Bantu-Speaking People The Bantu Migration during this period took place in Africa Originally lived south of the Sahara, in the vicinity of modern day Nigeria (West Africa) –The desert was spreading south and the area was getting overcrowded, hence the move to the south by south east direction within Africa through a variety of climatic zones
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL The Bantu ("the people") migration spread through sub-Saharan Africa (Africa south of the Sahara Desert), over some 2,000 years. The Bantu, a linguistically related group of about 60 million people living in equatorial and southern Africa, probably originated in West Africa, migrating downward gradually into southern Africa. This migration was one of the largest in human history Bantu Migration
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Bantu Migration 2000 BCE CE
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
The Plague Originated in SW China, where it had been incubating for centuries Long distance trade allowed it to eventually spread quickly during the 14 th c CE –Decline in population in China hurt the Yuan Dynasty –European population dropped by 25%-33% in most areas
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL The Plague In Egypt, population levels did not recover to pre-plague days until the 1800s Labor shortages opened opportunities for many
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Environmental Changes 600 – 1450 CE NOT a period of massive environmental changes Population growth soared, some deforestation was noticed Population density grew especially in Central America Urbanization continued (especially in the Tang & Song Dynasties, and Europe)
Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Change over Time Characterized by modification, rather than innovation (exception was in the Tang and Song dynasties) Nomadic groups reached their peak of influence on the course of world history The impact of the major migrations has never been matched (Arabic, Viking, Mongol and Turks)