Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Audio Visual Media: media attributes and impact This presentation is designed to introduce you to a range of audio visual communication media, and to demonstrate.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Audio Visual Media: media attributes and impact This presentation is designed to introduce you to a range of audio visual communication media, and to demonstrate."— Presentation transcript:

1 Audio Visual Media: media attributes and impact This presentation is designed to introduce you to a range of audio visual communication media, and to demonstrate how media may vary but the information and even the form of the information may remain the same. This lecture is backed up with more detailed information that has been placed at the course web-site:

2 Audio Visual Media: media attributes and impact The story so far: Pavlov introduced the idea that animals (including human beings) were born with certain innate reflexes that enabled them to deal with their environment, but that they extended their repertoires of behaviour through the process of conditioning. Watson extended this idea, suggesting that appropriate scheduling of conditioning can turn any child into “surgeon, beggar or thief”. Thorndike proposed a number of laws of learning that could be applied to the classroom to make education more efficient.

3 Audio Visual Media: media attributes and impact The story so far: Thorndike also suggested that a teacher was such a valuable resource that s/he should not be used when “a couple of sheets of paper or a phonograph record” would do the job. He also suggested that a machine should be constructed that would only move on to page 2 when the pupil had completed the tasks given on page one. This idea was extended by Skinner in 1954, with the development of programmed learning. The techniques evolved by the Programmed Learning movement were shown to be highly effective. Many of these techniques can still be found in modern computer- based programmes.

4 Audio Visual Media: media attributes and impact The story so far: Thorndike was also a supporter of the audio-visual approach to learning, which involved realistic presentations using phonographs, slides and films.

5 Audio Visual Media: media attributes and impact The following movie clip illustrates a variety of different media: as you watch the film clip, make a note of the different media used, and think about how such media have changed (or remained the same) in the classrooms of today. Having watched the clip, produce a simple method for classifying media.

6 Click here to go to next slide Audio Visual Media: media attributes and impact Click the image to start the movie

7 Audio Visual Media: media attributes and impact What are the different media used, and how have such media changed (or remained the same) in the classrooms of today? Is it possible to produce a simple method for classifying media?

8 Click here to go to next slide Audio Visual Media: media attributes and impact When viewing the next sequence think about how this differs from the previous approach, and how it fits into a classification scheme for media. Click the image to start the movie

9 Click here to go to next slide Audio Visual Media: media attributes and impact Again, when viewing the next sequence think about how this differs from the previous approach, and how it fits into a classification scheme for media. Click the image to start the movie

10 Audio Visual Media: media attributes and impact Summary: The first sequence with the young children is a teacher paced lesson using a filmstrip projector and tape recorder; the lesson also uses the “flannel” board and real objects. It is an interactive lesson, under the direction of the teacher, and places a great deal of emphasis on oral communication, with pictorial support; text is not important in this lesson. There are opportunities for individualised learning, but this is limited.

11 Audio Visual Media: media attributes and impact Summary: The second sequence with the older children is, again, a teacher paced lesson mainly using tape recordings; the lesson could also use overhead projector transparencies (although this is not shown in the clip) for visual support. It is an interactive lesson, under the direction of the teacher, and the emphasis is on oral communication, with little pictorial support. There are more opportunities for individualised learning or small group learning.

12 Audio Visual Media: media attributes and impact Summary: The final sequence with the adults is also a teacher paced lesson using tapes and, where necessary, visual support from OHPs. It is a highly interactive lesson, under the direction of the teacher, and the emphasis is on oral communication with extensive opportunities for individualised learning.

13 Audio Visual Media: media attributes and impact Summary: So, a classification scheme could look something like this: teacher pacedindividualised instruction Visual display Audio presentation Human interaction

14 Audio Visual Media: media attributes and impact Summary: For the first clip the scheme would be: teacher pacedindividualised instruction Visual display √ Audio presentation √ Human interaction √

15 Audio Visual Media: media attributes and impact Summary: For the second clip the scheme would be: teacher pacedindividualised instruction Visual display √ Audio presentation √ √ Human interaction √

16 Audio Visual Media: media attributes and impact Summary: The third scheme would be: teacher pacedindividualised instruction Visual display √ Audio presentation √ √ Human interaction √ √

17 Audio Visual Media: media attributes and impact Summary: Rowntree, Derek (1982) Educational technology in curriculum development. London : Harper and Row. (JIB R8) Realia Pictorial Written symbols Sound recordings Human interaction

18 Audio Visual Media: media attributes and impact Summary: Rowntree, Derek (1982) Educational technology in curriculum development. London : Harper and Row. (JIB R8) Realia Pictorial Written symbols Sound recordings Human interaction (machine interactions?)

19 Click here to go to next slide Audio Visual Media: media attributes and impact What are the main attributes of the following media? Click the image to start the movie

20 Audio Visual Media: media attributes and impact What are the main attributes of the following media? Film and video have the capacity to encompass the “modes” of pictures (still and moving), text symbols and recorded sound. The particular attribute of these media, that makes them more capable of representing a closer approximation to reality, is motion. The aim of early audio visual theorists was to bring “reality” to the student because it would produce greater learning and understanding. Do you think this is the case?

21 Click here to go to next slide Audio Visual Media: broadcast media (radio) Can the programme teachers learn something while they teach the younger children? That’s a good question: we found that while the child is teaching… he is learning more as an older pupil Click the image to start the movie

22 Audio Visual Media: broadcast media (radio) Research clearly indicates that radio is effective in instruction. Experimental studies comparing radio teaching with other means or media have found radio as effective as the so-called “conventional methods”. Even though radio has been criticized for being only an audio medium, studies have shown that visual elements in learning are not uniformly important. In many educational situations visuals may be more harmful than helpful. Also, the efficiency of combined audio and visual media has been challenged by studies which show that multi-channel communications may not be inherently more effective than single channel presentations. Forsythe, R.D. (1970) Instructional Radio: a position paper. Stanford University. ERIC ED

23 Click here to go to next slide Audio Visual Media: broadcast media (satellite television) National Defence Education Act

24 Audio Visual Media: broadcast media (satellite television) National Defence Education Act: National Defense Education Act (NDEA), federal legislation passed in 1958 providing aid to education in the United States at all levels, public and private. NDEA was instituted primarily to stimulate the advancement of education in science, mathematics, and modern foreign languages; but it has also provided aid in other areas, including technical education, area studies, geography, English as a second language, counseling and guidance, school libraries and librarianship, and educational media centers. The act provides institutions of higher education with 90% of capital funds for low-interest loans to students. NDEA also gives federal support for improvement and change in elementary and secondary education. The act contains statutory prohibitions of federal direction, supervision, or control over the curriculum, program of instruction, administration, or personnel of any educational institution.

25 Audio Visual Media: broadcast media (satellite television) Jan. 31, 1958 First U.S. satellite, Explorer I, is sent into orbit. July 15, 1958 Eisenhower orders U.S. Marines into Lebanon at the request of President Camille Chamoun. July 29, 1958 Eisenhower signs bill creating the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Sept. 2, 1958 President Eisenhower signs the National Defence Education Act, providing loans for college students and funds to encourage young people to enter teaching careers. Nov to early 1959 Khrushchev indicates that he plans to sign an early peace treaty with East Germany and he calls on the western powers to withdraw their forces from West Berlin. The Big Four meet to discuss Berlin and German reunification

26 Audio Visual Media: broadcast media (satellite television) 1962: Telestar 1 launched. Transmits first live trans-Atlantic telecasts between USA and Britain.

27 Click here to go to next slide Audio Visual Media: broadcast media (satellite television)

28 Click here to go to next slide Audio Visual Media: Individualising learning (the Audio-tutorial approach: independent study session)

29 Click here to go to next slide Audio Visual Media: Individualising learning (the Audio-tutorial approach: general assembly session)

30 Click here to go to next slide Audio Visual Media: Individualising learning (the Audio-tutorial approach: integrated quiz session)

31 Audio Visual Media:

32


Download ppt "Audio Visual Media: media attributes and impact This presentation is designed to introduce you to a range of audio visual communication media, and to demonstrate."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google