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Background The Self: Strongly influences cognition and behaviour [1,2,3] Directs our attention [1] Triggers elaboration of information [2,3] Is this elaboration.

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Presentation on theme: "Background The Self: Strongly influences cognition and behaviour [1,2,3] Directs our attention [1] Triggers elaboration of information [2,3] Is this elaboration."— Presentation transcript:

1 Background The Self: Strongly influences cognition and behaviour [1,2,3] Directs our attention [1] Triggers elaboration of information [2,3] Is this elaboration process effortful? Discussion DA mostly affects self-owned item memory at study: self-cue induced elaboration requires effort But elaboration still can take place with reduced resources at study (ownership effect with Easy DA). Perhaps self-elaboration is partially spontaneous? What happens at test? Retrieval of the rich memory representation of self-owned items requires effort Shallower levels of processing (less semantic) are engaged under Divided Attention (DA) conditions [4] If elaboration in response to a self-cue is effortful, DA at encoding may reduce self-memory biases If self-memory biases are encoding-based, DA at retrieval may leave self-memory biases intact Results 2 (Locus) x 3 (DA) x 2 (Ownership) mixed ANOVA for Remember and Know responses No significant effects for Know responses (all p’s >.1) Remember responses (see graph): Main effect of locus, F(1,54) = 5.323, p =.025, indicating recollective recognition is more impaired by DA at study than by DA at test Interaction of locus x attention x ownership, F(2,54) = 4.950, p =.011, reflecting: Only self-owned item memory was negatively affected by DA at study, but not memory for other-owned items No DA: better memory for self-owned than for other- owned items Easy DA at study: ownership effect Easy DA at test: no ownership effect Contact: Mirjam Brady-Van den Bos, School of Psychology, Kings College, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, AB24 8UB. Current experiment Participants: 60 undergraduate students (38 females, mean age 18.9 years) Stimuli: 144 pictures (72 targets, 72 distractors) of shopping items for sale in large supermarket Design Ownership (within-subjects): Items were assigned either to self or to another person DA (between-subjects): Easy DA: Report number of even digits after every 6 th digit Hard DA: Report sequence of last 6 digits None: Ignore the digits Locus: DA (Easy, Hard, None) either at encoding or at test (between-subjects) At both encoding and test, the DA task was linked to each trial. A response deadline ensured similar conditions for encoding and test. Recognition Test 2-step Remember-Know-Guess recognition task Remember: recollective experience, elaborative memory Know: strong sense of familiarity, intra-item memory Remember Hit rates (corrected for False-Alarm rate) Spontaneous But Not Effortless: The Ownership Effect in Recollective Recognition Is Affected by Divided Attention at Encoding. Mirjam Brady-Van den Bos¹, Martin A. Conway², & David J. Turk¹, ¹University of Aberdeen, UK ²University of Leeds, UK References [1] Bredart et al. (2006). The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59, [2] Symons & Johnson (1997) Psychological Bulletin, 121, [3] Van den Bos et al. (2010). The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, [4] Anderson et al. (2000). Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12, s ISI Ownership phase: 1.5 s to respond ENCODING 1.5 s Yes or No 2 s to respond 5 TEST If ‘yes’, RKG screen If ‘no’, next item appears 3 8 R = Remember K = Know G = Guess


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