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Andreas Kleinschmidt INSERM U992 CEA NeuroSpin Saclay, France Mind Reading - Can Imaging Tell What You Are Thinking?

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Presentation on theme: "Andreas Kleinschmidt INSERM U992 CEA NeuroSpin Saclay, France Mind Reading - Can Imaging Tell What You Are Thinking?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Andreas Kleinschmidt INSERM U992 CEA NeuroSpin Saclay, France Mind Reading - Can Imaging Tell What You Are Thinking?

2 Cognitive Neuroscience In Humans – Many Modalities One Imaging Modality – Many Signals

3 Trait vs. State - Structural and Functional Abnormalities in Adolescents with Conduct Disorder r = -5.4 p = Voxel-based morphometry in 12 adolescents with conduct disorder compared with 12 controls (Sterzer et al., NeuroImage 2007) (Sterzer et al., Biol. Psychiatry 2005, Stadler et al., J Psych Res 2006) Different responses to affective stimuli

4 Reversing the Direction of Inference – From Brain Mapping to Mind Reading (Dehaene et al., Nature Neuroscience 1998)

5 From Simple Actions to Cognitive Categories From Single Voxels or Regions of Interest to Multi-Voxel Patterns Classification (Decoding) (Norman et al., 2006)

6 From categories to exemplars and invariance from Op de Beeck et al., 2008 = ≠ (Eger et al. J Neurophysiol, 2008) Training and Testing the Classifier (SVM)

7 (Miyawiki et al., Neuron 2008) Decoding Images From Visual Cortex Activity

8 Decoding: From Individual Natural Images to Individual Art Painters (Yamamura et al., Neuroreport 2009)

9 Thoughts are forms created in the mind, rather than the forms perceived through the five senses. Thought and thinking are the processes by which these imaginary sense perceptions arise and are manipulated. Cognitive psychology: Mental processes which mediate between stimulus and response, including the psychology of reasoning, and how people make decisions and choices, solve problems, as well as engage in creative discovery and imaginative thought. Developmental psychology (Piaget): Thought evolves from being based on perceptions and actions at the sensorimotor stage to internal representations. Subsequently, representations are gradually organized into logical structures which first operate on the concrete properties of the reality, in the stage of concrete operations, and then operate on abstract principles that organize concrete properties, in the stage of formal operations. From Actions and Images to Thoughts

10 Decoding Untrained Items (Mitchell et al., Science 2008)

11 Sample numerosities: either item size, or overall luminance matched between sample numerosities Delayed number comparison task: Sample stimulus 200 ms + Delay period 4-7 s Match stimulus 200 ms -> response: smaller or larger number? (50 % difference) Measuring signals from individual numerosities high-res fMRI 1.5 mm voxels at 3T

12 Eger et al., Curr Biol 2009 Supra-modal representation of individual numbers

13 From Classification of Noisy Evoked Response Patterns To Predictions from Noise (Norman et al., 2006)

14 Spontaneous local variations in ongoing pre-stimulus neural activity bias perceptual decisions (Hesselmann et al., PNAS, 2008) right hMT+ z = 3 *** [46 ± 4, -69 ± 6, 2 ± 3] coherent random (Hesselmann et al., J Neurosci, 2008) t 100x 355ms motion 20 – 40s static (ISI)

15 The Brain builds a Predictive Model of the World (Friston, Trends Cogn Sci, 2009) Thinking allows beings to model the world and to represent it according to their objectives, plans, intentions and desires. (Wikipedia)

16 Brain Imaging and Its Impact on Society Who has the right to know? What are we thinking? CooperationConsent

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