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50 mV 10 ms 1 ms 50 mV 2 ms 50 mV depol n hyperpol n repol n

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extracellular intracellular [Na] 145 mM 10 mM [K] 4.5 mM 140 mM A - Nernst equation for a permeable ion (e.g.K + ) E m (mV) = 61 log 10 [K + ] o [K + ] i Assume K + is permeable E K = 61 log 10 E K = -92 mV Assume Na + is permeable E Na = 61 log 10 E Na = +71 mV 4.5 140 145 10

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action potential g Na gKgK 40 30 20 10 0 E m mV Na + influx g, mS.cm -2 +20 0 -70 EKEK E Na EKEK 0.5 ms B K + efflux

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1 ms 0 mV 50 mV relative stimulus strength Absolute refractory period Relative refractory period

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action potential - - - + + + - - - - - - - - - - - - cytoplasm action potential - - - + + + - - - - - - - - - - - - cytoplasm - - - - - - - + + + - - - - - - - - action potential A cytoplasm - - - - - - - + + + - - - - - - - - action potential cytoplasm - - - - - - - - - cytoplasm 50 mV 1 ms i) ii) iii) iv) v)

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direction of propagation + - - - - - - myelin cyto- plasm Action Potential B axon myelin sheath axon node of Ranvier

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A axon 2 mV 10 ms AP subthreshold 50 mV Axon hillock/ Initial segment AP axon APs + B temporal summation spatial summation

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1 LIU Chuan Yong 刘传勇 Institute of Physiology Medical School of SDU Tel 88381175 (lab) 88382098 (office) Website:

1 LIU Chuan Yong 刘传勇 Institute of Physiology Medical School of SDU Tel 88381175 (lab) 88382098 (office) Website:

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