Risks of high blood pressure Heart failure Heart attack Stroke Kidney failure In diabetes increases risk of microvascular complications: retinopathy, nephropathy etc.
You find out his BS control is poor (HbA1C 12%) How can poor control lead to high blood pressure?
Hypertension and DM Poor diabetic control damages the kidneys (glomerosclerosis). Eventually this results in diabetic nephropathy and diabetic renal failure Diabetes is the most common disease responsible for renal dialysis and transplantation in the UK
How would you find out if his kidneys were damaged?
Signs of diabetic nephropathy Proteinuria <20mg in 24h- normal 20-200mg microalbuminuria >200mg diabetic nephropathy N.b. if blood glucose control improved and blood pressure control achieved can slow or even stop progression
The fundus in hypertension: Grade I – mild narrowing or sclerosis of retinal arteries and they are more tortuous. This is called copper wiring or sometimes silver wiring. Grade II – thickening of the small arteries pushes on the veins so that the veins appear nipped as they cross the arteries. This is also called A-V nipping Grade III – in addition to A-V nipping there are haemorrhages or cotton wool spots. The latter are exudates Grade IV – is papilloedema which is swelling of the optic nerve head. It is rarely seen these days and may be associated with the severe headache of hypertensive encephalopathy
ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers drugs of choice Evidence that blocking the renin- angiotensin system is treatment of choice in diabetic nephropathy- get more renal protection for same fall in b.p. compared to other drugs.
Aim for… 140/80 or less. In patients with known renal involvement aim for 130/70
What other drugs might you add to achieve the target, and what are the problems?
Other drugs: May need 3-4 types of drug as a combination Diuretics potentiate action of ACE or A2 receptor blockers- used as “second-line” “third-line” beta-blocker or calcium channel blocker
Potential problems: Diuretics cause…. Diuresis Thiazides may cause hyperglycaemia, precipitate gout and increase LDL cholesterol Beta-blockers block warning signs of hypoglycaemia and may make peripheral vascular disease worse. They also have an adverse effect on lipid profile and can potentiate bronchospasm in asthmatics. Can cause ankle oedema 10-20%
On examination… Pulse normal at the wrist but femoral pulses felt weak and delayed compared to wrist or carotid Apex beat displaced to left Continuous machine-like murmer across precordium and back Palpable thrill over patients back Fundi:
Coarctation of the aorta Means “narrowing”- distal to ductus arteriosus Occurs around 1:10,000 people More common in Turner’s syndrome; male: female 4:1 Presents with high blood pressure in arms and low pressure in legs CXR shows rib-notching from collateral vessels May be treated with surgery or balloon angioplasty
Blood pressure determined by Cardiac output X peripheral resistance
Primary “Essential” most common. Cause unknown Positive family history. May be associated with age, obesity and alcohol Secondary: Renal disease Renal artery stenosis Conn’s syndrome (aldosterone secreting tumour)