NDJ / IA / Learning Strategies Being aware of others needs Being open to new ideas Concentrating Embracing difference Hypothesising Reviewing to remember Perceiving patterns Classifying Persevering Plan learning Self-assessing/self- correction Working with others Taking risks Problem solving Predicting
NDJ / IA / Cognitive strategies Perceiving patterns Reviewing (memory) Problem solving Concentrating Predicting
NDJ / IA / Socio-affective strategies Adapting to new ideas Embracing difference Persevering Taking risks Working with others –Pair and / or group work Being aware of others needs Being open to new ideas
NDJ / IA / Meta-cognitive strategies Knowing about knowing Being in control of your own learning Learning how to learn effectively Knowing how and when to apply your knowledge
NDJ / IA / Meta-cognitive strategies: definition “beyond, beside, or with the cognitive … meta-cognitive strategies are actions which go beyond purely cognitive devices and which provide a way for learners to co-ordinate their own learning process” (Oxford, 1990:136)
NDJ / IA / Meta-cognitive strategies CAPE-able Centring learning Overview of a task Linking task to known Hypothesising Paying attention Focus on listening Arranging and Planning Organising Setting goals/objectives Identifying purpose Planning for a task Practising Evaluating learning Self-monitoring Self-evaluating Rebecca Oxford, 1990: 137
NDJ / IA / Questions teacher should consider Does the child see the purpose of what he/ she is doing? Does the child feel in control of the process of learning? What strategies does the child adopt when he/she does not understand the meaning of something?
NDJ / IA / Training children 1/2 Have I thought it through? –Stop and think! Think before you ink! Have I made a plan? –PLAN Prepare Learning Actions Now Do I know what to do? –Re-read, re-think the instructions. Check, double- check Fisher, R. (1990:121)
NDJ / IA / Training children 2/2 Is there anything more I need before I begin a language task? What do I know which will help me? –Everything is like something. What problem is this like? Fisher, R. (1990:121)
NDJ / IA / Suggested reading Brewster, J, Ellis, G and Girard, D. (1992). The Primary Teacher’s Guide. Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd. 2002, New Edition. Part 2; Chapter 5. Chou Hare, V. and Smith, D. C. (1982). ‘Reading to Remember: Studies of Metacognitive Reading Skills in Elementary School-Aged Children’ Journal of Educational Research, 75:3 pp: (1982:Jan./Feb.) Fisher, R. (1990). Teaching Children to Think. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes Publishers Ltd. Reprint Goh, C. and Taib, Y. (2006). "Metacognitive instruction in listening for young learners" ELT Journal. 60/3 p.p Kyriacou, C. (1997). Effective Teaching in Schools: Theory and Practice. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes Ltd. Part I; p.p O’Mallet, J.M. and Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: CUP. Oxford, R.L. (1990). Language Learning Strategies. USA: Heinle and Heinle Publishers.