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DEFINING PARADIGMS Codified knowledge (source, acceptance, truth) –Scientific Knowledge –Other Scholarly Publications –Documentation Codified knowledge.

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Presentation on theme: "DEFINING PARADIGMS Codified knowledge (source, acceptance, truth) –Scientific Knowledge –Other Scholarly Publications –Documentation Codified knowledge."— Presentation transcript:

1 DEFINING PARADIGMS Codified knowledge (source, acceptance, truth) –Scientific Knowledge –Other Scholarly Publications –Documentation Codified knowledge (socially constructed) –Location in Space and time –Different interpretations and their distribution within and organisational context Personal Knowledge (enables though and action) –Codified knowledge in use –Knowledge acquired through acculturation –Knowledge constructed from experience, social interaction and reflection –Episodes, impressions, images –Skills –Combinations of the above

2 KNOWLEDGE IN AN APPLIED FIELD Own tradition of codified knowledge based on: -Theories and concepts from scientific disciplines -Research, theories and concepts specific to the applied field -Elaboration of practitioner maxims and principles -Ideology of occupation justifying its purposes and espoused practices Theory-practice divide is based on: -Different views of knowledge -Espoused practice versus observed practice

3 A TYPOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE ACQUIRED IN UNIVERSITIES Theoretical Knowledge constructed in the context of either a subject discipline or an applied field. This introduces concepts and theories to help students to explain, understand, and critique occupational practices and arguments used to justify them; and to appreciate new thinking about the role of the occupation and proposed new forms of practice. Methodological Knowledge about how evidence is collected, analysed and interpreted in academic contexts and in occupational contexts; and the procedural principles and theoretical justifications for skills and techniques used in the occupational field

4 Practical skills and techniques acquired through skills workshops,laboratory work, studio work, project work etc… Generic Skills claimed to be acquired during Further and/or Higher Education, either through direct teaching, or more often, as a side effect of Academic work. These include: Basic skills in number, language and information technology Modes of interpersonal communications Skills associated with learning and thinking in an academic context Self-management skills General knowledge about the occupation, its structure, modes of working, cultural values and career opportunities


6 Figure 4: Summary of Dreyfus Model of Skills Acquisition Level 1 NOVICE Rigid Adherence to taught rules or plans Little Situational perception No discretionary judgement Level 2 ADVANCED BEGINNER Guidelines for action based on attributes or aspects Situational perception still limited Attributes and aspects treated separately with equal importance Level 3 COMPETENCE Coping with crowdedness Begins to appreciate longer-term goals Conscious deliberate planning Standardised and routinised procedures Level 4 PROFICIENT See situations holistically rather than in terms of aspects Sees what is most important in a situation Perceives deviations from the normal pattern Decision-making less laboured Uses maxims for guidance, whose meaning varies with the situation

7 Tacit knowledge appears in three different form: Situational understanding is being developed through all five stages, based largely on experience and remaining mainly tacit Standards, routinised procedures are developed through to the competence stage for coping with the demands of work without suffering from information overload. Some may have begun as explicit procedural knowledge then become automised and increasingly tacit Increasingly intuitive decision-making, in which not only pattern recognition but also rapid responses to developing situations are based on tacit knowledge. The status of this knowledge could be that: a) it is capable of post-hoc explanation b) it used to be capable of explanation but that capability has atrophied through lack of use c) It was acquired uncritically and never was explainable by the owner

8 Types of Professional Activity Assessing clients and situations (sometimes briefly, sometimes involving a long process of investigation) and continuing to monitor their condition; Deciding what, if any, action to take, both immediately and over a longer period (either on one’s own or as a leader or member of a team); Pursuing an agreed course of action, modifying, consulting and reassessing as and when necessary; Managing oneself, one’s job and one’s continuing learning in a context of constrained time and resources, conflicting priorities and complex inter-and intra professional relationships.

9 Figure 2: Interactions between Time, Mode of Cognition and Type of Process Type of Process Mode of Cognition Instant/ Reflex Rapid/ Intuitive Deliberative/ Analytic Reading of the situation Pattern recognition Rapid Interpretation Review involving discussions and/or analysis Decision – Making Instant response IntuitiveDeliberate with some analysis or discussion Overt activityRoutinised action Routines punctuated by rapid decisions Planned actions with periodic progress reviews MetacognitiveSituational awareness Implicit monitoring. Short, reactive reflections Conscious monitoring of thought and activity. Self-management. Evaluation

10 ARGUMENT FOR DELIBERATION Outside normal experience Strategic thinking about long-term problems for users Teamwork and consultation Consultation with users essential for user-centred practice Fallibility of routines Decay over time Periodic renewal Need for critical control Learning from experience enhanced by deliberative reflection

11 TRANSFER AS A LEARNING PROCESS Understanding the new situation Recognising which areas of Educational knowledge are relevant to the new situation Desituating Educational knowledge in preparation for use Focusing more precisely on what knowledge is needed for a particular assessment, decision or action Interpreting and/or transforming that knowledge to suit the new situation and context Integrating the various relevant aspects of knowledge and skill prior to and/or during performance

12 Conclusions Learning to use theory in practical situations is a major learning challenge in its own right – it is not a natural consequence of learning theory on its own and practice independently of any critical theoretical questioning of its appropriateness and effectiveness. Such learning requires both time and support. Learning programmes rarely allocate any time to this form of learning, but just assume (wrongly) that it will occur spontaneously. Not only has little thought been given to the kind of support needed for this kind of learning, but there is rarely any clarity about who is responsible for providing it.

13 Personal Knowledge Used at Work Task Performance Speed and fluency Complexity of tasks and problems Range of skills required Communication with a wide range of people Collaborative work Awareness and Understanding Other people: colleagues, customers, managers, etc. Contexts and situations One’s own organisation Problems and risks Priorities and Strategic issues Value issues Personal Development Self evaluation Self management Handling emotions Building and sustaining relationships Disposition to attend to other perspectives Disposition to consult and work with others Disposition to learn and improve one’s practice Ability to learn from experience Teamwork Collaborative work Facilitating social relations Joint planning and problem solving Ability to engage in and promote mutual learning Role performance Prioritisation Range of responsibility Supporting other people’s learning Leadership Supervisory role Delegation Handling ethical issues Coping with unexpected problems Crisis management Keeping up-to-date Academic Knowledge and Skills Use of evidence and argument Accessing formal knowledge Research-based practice Theoretical thinking Knowing what you might need to know Using knowledge resources (human, paper- based, electronic) Learning how to use relevant theory (in a range of practical situations) Decision Making and Problem Solving Dealing with complexity Group decision making Problem analysis Accessing relevant knowledge and expertise Generating, formulating and evaluating options Managing the process within and appropriate timescale Decision making under pressurised conditions Judgement Quality of performance, output and outcomes Priorities Value issues Levels of risk The LiNEA Project at the Universities of Sussex and Brighton Learning During the First Three Years of Postgraduate Employment (in Nursing, Engineering and Accountancy)

14 Project LiNEA – Learning in Nursing, Engineering and Accountancy Learning in the First Three Years of Post-Graduate Employment Michael Eraut, Stephen Steadman, Judith Furner: University of Sussex Institute of Education Fred Maillardet, Amer Ali: University of Brighton Faculty of Science and Engineering Carolyn Miller, Claire Blackman: University of Brighton Institute of Nursing and Midwifery Learning at Work: Our Current Map of the Domain What is Learned Task Performance Awareness and Understanding Personal development Teamwork Role performance Academic knowledge and skills Decision making and problem solving Helping the Process Local capacity for learning support Support for learning Learning processes Learning sources The Affecting Factors Antecedents Transitions Feeling re job Own work Working context Contact Details: Accountancy & General: 01273 87 7794 Engineering: 01273 642396 Nursing: 01273 644050 Project secretary: 01273 877021 Web site:

15 Demands of the Process in Some Situations Mode of use of Scientific Knowledge Simple Application Situational Adaptation Problem Solving Appreciating the Relevance Understanding and Interpreting the Knowledge R1 - R2 U2 R3 U3 The Coding System for Mode of Knowledge Use


17 Framework for Deciding Priority Areas of Knowledge Context for thought and action Relevant areas of knowledge EmergencyShort-term Action Medium to Long-term Outcomes Review of Practice Embedded in Assessment Decisions Behaviour Explicit influence on Assessment Decisions Behaviour

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