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Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 1 Lecture plan Outline of DB design process Entity-relationship model –Entities and attributes –Relationships.

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Presentation on theme: "Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 1 Lecture plan Outline of DB design process Entity-relationship model –Entities and attributes –Relationships."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 1 Lecture plan Outline of DB design process Entity-relationship model –Entities and attributes –Relationships

2 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 2 DB design process [1] Requirements collection and analysis –Users’ data requirements –Users’ functional requirements (using software engineering tools, e.g. data flow diagrams)

3 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 3 DB design process [2] Conceptual design –Creation of conceptual schema Concise description of users’ data requirements Uses high-level conceptual data model, e.g. Entity- relationship model –Data model operations used to specify user operations from functional analysis –Compatibility check and possible modification

4 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 4 DB design process [3] Logical design / data model mapping –Uses implementation data model, e.g. relational data model –Conceptual schema transformed from high- level data model to implementation data model

5 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 5 DB design process [4] Physical design –Internal storage structures, access paths, file organisation specified –Application programs designed and implemented

6 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 6 Entity-relationship model High-level conceptual modelling technique for DB applications DB application = DB + associated programs Application programs need to be designed, implemented and tested ER model used for conceptual design of DB applications

7 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 7 Entities and attributes An entity is an object with a physical or conceptual existence Attributes are the particular properties which describe the entity An individual attribute has a value

8 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 8 Simple vs composite attributes Composite attributes –Can be divided into smaller subparts which Represent more basic attributes with independent meanings Can form a hierarchy –Useful if attribute must be handled sometimes as a unit and sometimes as components Simple (atomic) attributes are not divisible

9 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 9 Single- vs multi-valued attributes Single-valued attributes have a single value for a particular entity Multi-valued attributes –Have a set of values for a particular entity –May have lower/upper bounds on the number of values allowed

10 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 10 Stored vs derived attributes Derived attributes –Are related to another attribute –Are derivable from a stored attribute –May be derivable from related entities Stored attributes –Are not derivable from any other source

11 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 11 Null attribute values Used to denote value of an attribute for a particular entity which is –Non-applicable –Unknown Exists but is missing Not known if it exists or not

12 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 12 Complex attributes Composite attributes –Components grouped between parentheses () –Components separated by commas Multi-valued attributes –Displayed between braces {} Composite and multi-valued attributes can be nested in an arbitrary way

13 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 13 Entity types and sets [1] An entity type is –A collection (set) of entities with the same attributes but different values for the attributes –Schema / intension for a set of entities which share the same structure

14 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 14 Entity types and sets [2] An entity set –A collection of all entities for a particular entity type –Extension of the entity type Entity type and associated entity set have the same name

15 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 15 Entity types and sets [3] EMPLOYEE Name, Age, Salary e1 (John Smith, 55, 80K) e2 (Fred Brown, 40, 30K) e3 (Judy Clark, 25, 20K)

16 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 16 Key attributes [1] Also called uniqueness constraint Value of key attribute –Identifies each entity uniquely –Must be distinct for each entity in the collection –Unique for every extension of the entity type

17 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 17 Key attributes [2] Composite key –Combination of attribute values form the key –Must be minimal (no superfluous attributes) Entity type may have –More than one key attribute –No key attribute - a weak entity type

18 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 18 Value sets of attributes Also called “domain” of attributes The set of values which may be assigned to that attribute for each individual entity Not displayed in ER diagrams

19 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 19 Relationships Implicit relationships between attributes can be converted to explicit relationships An attribute of one entity type refers to another entity type

20 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 20 Relationship types and sets Relationship type defines set of associations (relationship set) among entities Relationship type and set have same name Relationship instance associates exactly one entity from each participating entity type

21 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 21 Relationship degree Number of participating entity types: –Relationship type of degree two is binary –Relationship type of degree three is ternary –Higher degree relationships are more complex

22 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 22 Relationships as attributes Two entity types A and B, where –Attribute a 2 of entity type A indicates a link to a particular entity of entity type B Binary relationship may be considered as: –Value set of attribute a 2 is set of all B entities –Additional multi-valued attribute b 3 for entity type B, whose value for each entity is the set of all A entities matching on attribute a 2

23 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 23 Role names Explains what the relationship means Indicates the role that a particular entity plays in a relationship instance Necessary for recursive relationships –same entity type participates more than once in a relationship type in different roles

24 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 24 Relationship type constraints [1] Structural constraints which limit combination of entities in relationship set –Cardinality ratio Number of relationship instances an entity can participate in Possible ratios - 1:1, 1:N, N:1, M:N

25 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 25 Relationship type constraints [2] –Participation constraints Indicates if existence of an entity depends on its being related to another entity by relationship type Total (existence dependency) - every entity in the total set must be related Partial - some entities in the total set must be related

26 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 26 Relationship type attributes Similar idea to entity type attributes Attributes of 1:1 relationship types can be migrated to one of participating entities Attributes of 1:N (or N:1) relationship types can be migrated to entity type at N side Attributes of M:N relationship types cannot be migrated

27 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 27 Weak entity types [1] Does not have a key attribute Identified by a combination of –Relationship to specific entities from another entity type (identifying/owner entity type) Identifying relationship of weak entity type Weak entity has total participation constraint –Some (or all) of its attribute values

28 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 28 Weak entity types [2] Normally has partial key (discriminator) Can sometimes be represented as complex (composite, multi-valued) attribute –Not if it participates independently in other relationship types

29 Jane Reid, BSc/IT DB, QMUL, 7/1/02 29 ER conceptual design Schema design is iterative and may involve refinement: –Attribute may be refined into relationship if attribute is a reference to another entity type –Attribute that exists in several entity types may be refined into an independent entity type –Inverse refinement to above –Specialisation/generalisation


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