Presentation on theme: "Functional Groups What is the family name?. alkanes 4 Only carbon and hydrogen 4 All single bonds CCH H H H H H Q: What should you call cyclic hydrocarbons."— Presentation transcript:
Functional Groups What is the family name?
alkanes 4 Only carbon and hydrogen 4 All single bonds CCH H H H H H Q: What should you call cyclic hydrocarbons made up o of just single bonds? A: Cycloalkanes
alkenes 4 Only carbon and hydrogen 4 A carbon to carbon double bond CC HH H H Q: What should you call a molecule with two C=Cs? A: A diene
alcohols 4 Only one oxygen 4 Has an O-H group 4 Can classify as 1º/2º/3º according to position of O-H group on carbon skeleton C C HH H HH HO Q: Why are short-chain alcohols so soluble in water? A: They can form hydrogen bonds with H 2 O molecules
phenols 4 Only one oxygen 4 Has an O-H group 4 The O-H group is directly attached to a benzene ring HO Q: The C 6 H 5 - group has a special name. What is it? A: Phenyl
aldehydes 4 Only one oxygen 4 Has a C=O group 4 C=O group is at the end of carbon chain, so is next door to a hydrogen atom CC H H O H H Q: Aldehydes can be easily oxidised to form …? A: Carboxylic acids
ketones 4 Only one oxygen 4 Has a C=O group 4 C=O group is not at the end of carbon chain, so is next door to 2 carbons CC H H O H H C H H Q: Ketones cannot easily be oxidised. Why not? A: No hydrogen atom attached to the C=O group.
carboxylic acids 4 Has 2 oxygens 4 Has O-H and C=O groups on the same carbon atom 4 This -COOH group has to be at the end of a carbon chain (why?) CC H H O O H H Q: Write an equation showing how ethanoic acid can a act as a (weak) acid. A: CH 3 COOH(aq)CH 3 COO – (aq) + H + (aq)
esters 4 Has 2 oxygens 4 One oxygen is part of a C=O bond, the other is next door, sandwiched between two carbons CC H H O O H C H H H Q: This ester can be made by reacting ethanoic acid with a an alcohol. Name the alcohol, and name the ester. A: Alcohol = methanol; ester = methyl ethanoate
ethers 4 Has 1 oxygen 4 No O-H or C=O group 4 The oxygen is sandwiched between two carbon atoms CC H HO H CH H H H H Q: Why do ethers have much lower boiling points t than their isomeric alcohols? A: No hydrogen bonds between ether molecules (why?)