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Bullying: Effects and Intervention Mary Zoulis Final Action Research Project and Presentation ED 7201.T- Dr. O’Connor-Petruso.

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Presentation on theme: "Bullying: Effects and Intervention Mary Zoulis Final Action Research Project and Presentation ED 7201.T- Dr. O’Connor-Petruso."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bullying: Effects and Intervention Mary Zoulis Final Action Research Project and Presentation ED 7201.T- Dr. O’Connor-Petruso

2 Table of Contents Introduction- Slide 3 Statement of the Problem- Slide 4 Review of Related Literature- Slides 5-10 Statement of Hypothesis- Slide 11 Method: Participants and Instruments- Slide 12 Appendices: Consent Form A & B, Surveys & Questionnaires- Slides 13, 14, 15, 16 References- Slides 17-19

3 Introduction: Almost everybody can tell a story or two about having been victimized by a bully in school. Victims of bullying tend to be unpopular and rejected by their peers, have low self-esteem, anxiety and poor social skills. Bullying has serious effects for both bullies and victims. Both bullies and victims are both at risk for negative future outcomes such as suffering from depression, academic problems, absenteeism, loneliness, and loss of friends (Barone, 1997; Farrington, 1993; Milsom & Gallo, 2006; Olweus, 1995; Siris & Osterman 2004; Guerra et al. 2011; Smith et al. 2005).

4 Statement of the Problem Bullying is a serious social problem affecting many schools around the world. As a result of bullying, victimized children tend to suffer from depression and anxiety, as well as want to keep to themselves. Another serious effect that bullying has is interrupting classroom environment, and creating an uncomfortable and hostile environment where students cannot focus on their learning. Furthermore, their academic performance is hindered as well (Barone, 1997; Cross, et al., 2011; Farrington, 1993; Olweus 1995, Siris & Osterman 2004; Guerra et al., 2011; Smith et al., 2005).

5 Review of Related Literature Generally, bullying occurs especially at places and times when adult supervision and surveillance is minimal (Farrington, 1993). Students who witness bullying report helplessness and vulnerability. They may require support similar to children who are victimized (Beran & Shapiro, 2012; Polanin et al.,2012). A lack of empathy for one’s peers is considered to be one major cause for bullying occurrences. Teachers have the power to teach students how to listen to others, develop and show empathy, as well as support people who they see are being bullied (Roland et al., 2009; Beran & Shapiro, 2005; Jenson et al., 2007, Smith et al., 2005).

6 There is usually a power imbalance between bully and victim (Olweus 1995, Smith et al ). Bullying is no longer viewed simply as a dyadic interaction between a perpetrator and a victim. Other peers often play a role in bullying such as assistants, reinforcers, and onlookers (Smith et al., 2005). There are several types of bullying which occur in schools daily. This includes physical bullying, verbal bullying, relational bullying, and reactive bullying. (Milsom & Gallo, 2006). Whole-school intervention approaches to bullying which involve parents, students, teachers, and staff have proved to decrease bullying occurrences (Cross et al., 2011; Jenson, et al, 2007; Graham, 2010; Guerra, et al., 2011, Smith et al., 2005). Review of Related Literature

7 Review of Literature Cont. Bullying is often referred to as the “silent nightmare,” because many bullying incidents are neither reported by victims or witnesses to bullying. Students are often reluctant to tell a teacher that they have been bullied, and often feel more comfortable telling a friend or parent (Atlas & Pepler, 1998; Oliver & Candappa, 2007). The Youth Matters Program promotes the healthy development of youth by stressing how to be a good friend, empathy, asking for help, making better choices, how to stand up for yourself and others, and how to cope with bullying (Jenson & Dieterich, 2007). Character education when implemented correctly can be effective in improving academic achievement, prosocial behavior, bonding to school, self-esteem, social skills, respect, and moral reasoning. When students feel comfortable in their classroom, and feel like they belong, they are less likely to become victims or bullies (Berkowitz & Bier, 2004).

8 Review of Literature Theorists Erling Roland of Norway Intervention Suggestions Read alouds about bullying to make students aware of the negative effects of bullying and reflect on their bullying experiences through writing. Role playing allows students to reverse the roles of bully and victim in order to understand how the other person is feeling. Builds empathy in children for their peers (Barone, 1997; Quinn et al., 2003). Zero Programme calls for zero tolerance to bullying. This program encourages teachers, parents, and faculty to work together to fight against bullying. The goal of the program is to make students develop empathy towards their peers. Teachers meet with the victim, and with every bully involved in the incident individually to discuss the situation. In addition, parents are notified about the incident immediately. (Roland et al.,2009).

9 Review of Theorists The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program by Dan Olweus Designed to prevent or reduce bullying in elementary, middle, and junior high school students from 6-15 years old. The program works with interventions at three levels: school wide interventions, classroom-level interventions, and individual-level interventions. Olweus administered the bully/victim questionnaire to students to be filled out anonymously. To combat bullying, Olweus believed in holding individual meetings with children who bully, individual meetings with students who are targets of bullying, and with the parents of the bullies and victims (Olweus, 1995).

10 Review of Literature Theorists (Continued) Cletus R. Bulach believes that educators should make every attempt to model positive character behaviors such as forgiveness, sympathy, and kindness(Bulach, 2002). O’Sullivan believes that integrating character education with the curriculum can influence student behavior for the better. Reading stories to students can provide rules and morals for students to live by. Students can reflect on the positive behavior traits of the characters, as well as the negative traits they see conveyed in each story. Bulach uses Cinderella as an example teachers can use to model positive character traits/behavior. Students can use a venn diagram to compare and contrast Cinderella with her stepsisters. (O’Sullivan, 2004; Hillsberg & Spak, 2006).

11 Research Hypothesis Implementing role playing and reading stories about character education to six, first grade students at Private School X in Jamaica, Queens, three times a week, for 50 minutes over a three week period during late morning, will improve classroom environment and decrease bullying occurrences.

12 Method Participants: Six first grade students, 4 boys and 2 girls (4 Caucasian students, 1 African American student, and 1 Asian student). One principal, and one teacher Instruments 2 consent forms 1 survey before intervention, and 1 survey after intervention, student-made role playing skits, observations/journal logs of behavior over the three week period.

13 Appendices Consent Form A (To Principal) As you are probably well aware of, I am presently completing my graduate program in Childhood Education (1-6) at Brooklyn College. This semester I have been asked to conduct an action research project within the classroom. The research project is designed to reduce the amount of bullying incidents that occur within my classroom and to improve classroom environment. I plan to pass out surveys and questionnaires to my first grade students in order to gain a better understanding of what their experiences with bullying are, and to learn about what they already know about bullying. The surveys and questionnaires require that I choose a few students, and after acquiring parental permission, gather information from them regarding bullying. Students are to complete the surveys and questionnaires over a three week period. To preserve their privacy, the actual names of the individuals will not be used, and the school’s name will not be used either. These surveys will in no way affect my duties as an educator but rather the information acquired may prove useful in helping me understand and be able to implement various ways to reduce the occurrences of bullying within my classroom. Thus, improving classroom environment and preserving academic excellence. I am asking for your consent to conduct these surveys within our school. Thank you in advance for your support in this endeavor. Sincerely, Mary Zoulis I ___________________________ have read and understand the information provided above. I Principal Signature willingly agree to allow my school to participate in this research project.

14 Consent Form B (To Parents) Dear Parent(s)/Guardian(s), I am currently a graduate student at Brooklyn College, and am in the process of completing an action research project. I would like to invite your child to participate in a Comparative Research Study that will be conducted during the school year over a three week period. The research project is designed to reduce the amount of bullying incidents that occur within my classroom and to improve classroom environment. I plan to pass out surveys and questionnaires to students in order to gain a better understanding of what their experiences with bullying are, and to learn about what they already know about bullying. The surveys and questionnaires require that I choose a few students, and after acquiring parental permission, gather information from them regarding bullying. Students are to complete the surveys and questionnaires over a three week period. To preserve their privacy, the actual names of the individuals will not be used, and the school’s name will not be used either. Therefore, I would deeply appreciate if you would grant your child permission to participate in this research study. I would like to assure you that if you decide to allow your child to participate, any information that is obtained in connection with this study will remain confidential and will not be disclosed. The participants and their school will remain anonymous. If you have any questions or concerns, please feel free to contact me via at Thank you in advance for your cooperation and support. Sincerely, Mary Zoulis

15 Surveys/Questionnaires Bullying is a problem in our school a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Somewhat agree d) Do not agree I have been bullied at school. a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Somewhat agree d) Do not agree 3. When I am bullied, I should go tell the teacher or another adult right away. a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Somewhat agree d) Do not agree There are NO rules against bullying in our school. a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Somewhat agree d) Do not agree If I am bullied, I believe one of my classmates will step in and help me. Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Somewhat agree d) Do not agree If I see someone being bullied, I will step in to help them. Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Somewhat agree d) Do not agree I have stepped in to help a person being bullied before. a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Somewhat agree d) Do not agree There is someone at home I can talk to if I am bullied or have seen someone being bullied. Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Somewhat agree d) Do not agree There are NO adults at school I can talk to if I am bullied. a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Somewhat agree d) Do not agree Teasing and bullying are the same thing. a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Somewhat agree d) Do not agree

16 Survey after Intervention I have learned a lot about bullying after reading stories and role playing. Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Somewhat agree d) Do not agree If I see someone being bullied, I will step in to help the student. Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Somewhat agree d) Do not agree If I see someone being bullied, I will let a teacher or an adult know. Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Somewhat agree d) Do not agree I think about people’s feelings and do not want to do anything/say anything to hurt them. Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Somewhat agree d) Do not agree I have noticed a decrease in bullying in our classroom. Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Somewhat agree d) Do not agree I believe I should be kind to everyone. Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Somewhat agree d) Do not agree I should respect everyone in the classroom. Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Somewhat agree d) Do not agree I know what to do in a bullying situation. Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Somewhat agree d) Do not agree I know ways to handle being bullied. Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Somewhat agree d) Do not agree

17 References Atlas, R. S., & P. D. J. (1998). Observations of bullying in the classroom. The Journal of Educational Research, 92, Retrieved from Barone, F. J. (1997). Bullying in school: It doesn't have to happen. Phi Delta Kappa International, 79(1), Retrieved from Beran, T., & Shapiro, B. (2005). Evaluation of an anti-bullying program: Student reports of knowledge and confidence to manage bullying. Canadian Journal of Education, 28(4) Retrieved from Berkowitz, M. W. & Bier, M. C. (2004). Research- Based Character Education. American Academy of Political and Social Science, 591, Retrieved from stable/ http://www.jstor.org/ stable/ Bulach, C. R. (2002). Implementing a character education curriculum and assessing its impact on student Behavior. The Clearing House, 76, Retrieved from Caravita, S. S., Di Blasio, P., & Salmivalli, C. (2009). Unique and interactive effects of empathy and social status on involvement in bullying. Social Development, 18(1), doi: /j x Farrington, D. P. (1993). Understanding and preventing bullying. The University of Chicago Press, 17, Retrieved from Guerra, N. G.,Williams, K. R., Sadek, S. (2011). Understanding bullying and victimization during childhood and adolescence: A mixed methods study. Child Development, 82(1), Hillsberg, C., & Spak, H. (2006). Young adult literature as the centerpiece of an anti-bullying program in middle school. Middle School Journal, 38(2), Retrieved from Jenson, J., & Dieterich, W. (2007). Effects of a skill- based prevention program on bullying victimization among elementary school children. Prevention Science, 8(4), Jenson, J., & Dieterich, W. (2007)program on bullying victimization among elementary school children. Prevention Science, 8(4),

18 References Continued... Joliffe, D., & Farrington, D.P. (2006). Examining the relationship between low empathy and bullying. Aggressive Behavior, 32(6), doi: /ab Milson, A. & Gallo, L. L. (2006). Bullying in middle schools: Prevention and intervention.Association for Middle Level Education, 37(3), Retrieved from Muñoz, L. C., Qualter, P., & Padgett, G. (2011). Empathy and bullying: Exploring the influence of callous-unemotional traits. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 42(2), doi: /s Oliver, C., & Candappa, M. (2007). Bullying and the politics of telling. Oxford Review of Education, 33(1), Retrieved from Olweus, D. (1995). Bullying or peer abuse at school: Facts and intervention. Association for Psychological Science, 4(6), Retrieved from O’Sullivan, S. (2004). Books to live by: Using children’s literature for character education. The Reading Teacher, 57(7), Retrieved from Polanin, J. R., Espelage, D. L., & Pigott, T. D. (2012). A meta-analysis of school-based bullying prevention programs' effects on bystander intervention behavior. School Psychology Review, 41(1), Roland, E., Bru, E., Midthassel, U. V., Vaaland, G. S. (2008). The zero programme against bullying: Effects of the programme in the context of the norwegian manifesto against Bullying. Social Psychology of Education, 13(1), Rigby, K., & Slee, P. (2010). Bullying among australian school children: Reported behavior and attitudes toward victims. The Journal of Social Psychology, 131(5), Siris, K., & Osterman, K. (2004). Interrupting the cycle of bullying and victimization in the elementary classroom. The Phi Delta Kappan, 86(4), Retrieved from

19 References Continued... Smith, J. D., Cousins, B. J., Stewart, R. (2005). Antibullying interventions in schools: Ingredients of effective programs. Canadian Journal of Education, 28(4), Smith, J. D., Cousins, B. J., Stewart, R. (2005). Antibullying interventions in schools: Ingredients of effective programs. Canadian Journal of Education, 28(4), Williams, K., & Kennedy, J. H. (2012). Bullying behaviors and attachment styles. North American Journal Of Psychology, 14(2), Williams, K., & Kennedy, J. H. (2012). Bullying behaviors and attachment styles. North American Journal Of Psychology, 14(2),


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