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Tzu-ning Rachel Kao (Graduate student) Wen-chi Vivian Wu (Associate professor) The.

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1 Tzu-ning Rachel Kao (Graduate student) Wen-chi Vivian Wu (Associate professor) The Department of English Providence University Taichung city, Taiwan

2 Vocabulary-memorization is one of the biggest problem in the process of learning English. Students star to learn English when they are aged 11 or 12 in Taiwan. They have to lean mother language and foreign language at same time.

3 This study was an attempt to examine the effects of the use of mnemonic learning on increasing vocabulary memorization.

4 Introduction The ways of vocabulary-memorization The traditional instruction (TI) Mnemonic learning (ML)

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8 The finding report by Wyra, Lawson and Hungi (2007),which examined the effects on students using mnemonic keyword method to learned Spanish words, revealed that the keyword method was a useful procedure for acquisition of vocabulary in FL learning.The finding report by Wyra, Lawson and Hungi (2007),which examined the effects on students using mnemonic keyword method to learned Spanish words, revealed that the keyword method was a useful procedure for acquisition of vocabulary in FL learning. Systematic over the past 20 years has documented the effectiveness of Atkinson’s (1975) mnemonic keyword method for facilitating acquisition of vocabulary word meanings (Levin, 1993). documented the effectiveness of Atkinson’s (1975) mnemonic keyword method for facilitating acquisition of vocabulary word meanings (Levin, 1993).

9 Oxford (1990) pointed out that language learners typically have significant difficulty on remembering a large amount of vocabulary simultaneously.Oxford (1990) pointed out that language learners typically have significant difficulty on remembering a large amount of vocabulary simultaneously. Wilkins argued (1972) that “Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.

10 A quasi-experimental design Effects of the use of mnemonic learning (ML) Six segments: 1. Participants 2. Material 3. Training of ML teacher 4. Procedure 5. Testing procedure and data collection 6. Scoring

11 5 6 6th-grade elementary school students 2 6 ML condition Experimental group 3 0 TI condition Control group 2. Material 3. Training of ML teacher 4. Procedure 5. Testing procedure and data collection 6. Scoring 1. Participants

12 Word selection:15 vocabulary words Auxiliary pictures 3. Training of ML teacher Video One-hour meeting 4. Procedure Two classes were taught by the same teacher  vocabulary  grammar

13 Pretest: 1 week before the instruction Posttest: end of the lesson Testing session: 15 mins Types of testing: matching, connecting, spelling 6. Scoring Matching: 10 Connecting: 10 Spelling:10 Fish house ( ) thus search piano d c de im g ne 尋找 因此 鋼琴 決定 想像 a e i

14 Results : Repeated measures analysis indicated that mnemonic learning did not have an effect on mnemonic learning did not have an effect on vocabulary memorization. vocabulary memorization. Table 1 Mean and standard deviation (SD) scores of student’s vocabulary memorization and the ability of word spelling and the ability of word spelling.. Group Mean SD n. Group Mean SD n. WS TI condition WS TI condition ML condition ML condition VM TI condition VM TI condition ML condition ML condition Note: VM= vocabulary memorization and WS= word spelling Note: VM= vocabulary memorization and WS= word spelling

15 Repeat measures analysis.. F p. F p. pre-posttest effect.278 pre-posttest effect.278 Interaction within group effect.001. Interaction within group effect.001. Figure 1 Figure

16 Group A X Group B WS: word spelling VM: vocabulary memorization WS VM WS VM WS VM WS VM

17 Students in the control group performed better than their counterparts in the ability of word spelling Table 3 Mean and standard deviation (SD) scores of student’s ability of word spelling Group Mean SD n. Group Mean SD n. WS TI condition WS TI condition ML condition ML condition Table 4 T test results of student’s ability of word spelling Levene’s test for T test for equality of means Levene’s test for T test for equality of means quality of variance. quality of variance. F p t p mean difference F p t p mean difference WS equal variance assumed WS equal variance assumed ML condition Experimental group 30 TI condition Control group.002 Word Spelling

18 Group A X Group B WS: word spelling VM: vocabulary memorization WS VM WS VM WS VM WS VM

19 Students in the control group outperformed their counterparts in the amount of vocabulary words memorized Table 3 Mean and standard deviation (SD) scores of student’s vocabulary memorization Group Mean SD n. Group Mean SD n. VM TI condition VM TI condition ML condition ML condition Table 4 T test results of student’s vocabulary memorization Levene’s test for T test for equality of means Levene’s test for T test for equality of means quality of variance. quality of variance. F p t p mean difference. F p t p mean difference. VM equal variance assumed VM equal variance assumed ML condition Experimental group 30 TI condition Control group.001 Vocabulary memorization

20 Group A X Group B WS: word spelling VM: vocabulary memorization WS VM WS VM WS VM WS VM

21 Table 5 Mean and SD scores of the control group’s word spelling test. Mean SD n. Mean SD n. Pretest Pretest Posttest Posttest Table 6 Paired T test results of students’ word spelling test of the pretest and posttest Paired variance difference Paired variance difference Mean SD t p. Mean SD t p. Paired pretest-posttest Paired pretest-posttest Table 7 Mean and SD scores of the control group’s vocabulary memorization test Mean SD n. Mean SD n. Pretest Pretest Posttest Posttest Table 8 Paired T test results of students’ vocabulary memorization test Paired variance difference Paired variance difference Mean SD t p. Mean SD t p. Paired pretest-posttest Paired pretest-posttest TI condition Control group

22 Group A X Group B WS: word spelling VM: vocabulary memorization WS VM WS VM WS VM WS VM

23 Table 9 Mean and SD scores of the experimental group’s word spelling test. Mean SD n. Mean SD n. Pretest Pretest Posttest Posttest Table 10 Paired T test results of students’ word spelling test of the pretest and posttest Paired variance difference Paired variance difference Mean SD t p. Mean SD t p. Paired pretest-posttest Paired pretest-posttest Table 11 Mean and SD scores of the experimental group’s vocabulary memorization test Mean SD n. Mean SD n. Pretest Pretest Posttest Posttest Table 12 Paired T test results of students’ vocabulary memorization test Paired variance difference Paired variance difference Mean SD t p. Mean SD t p. Paired pretest-posttest Paired pretest-posttest ML condition Experimental group.327

24 Word spelling Vocab. memorization

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26 1.Unequal level of English proficiency 2. Unfamiliar with the teaching method & teaching materials in one lesson 3. The memory strategy instruction 1. The same level of English proficiency 2. A great amount of weekly lessons 3. Relevant knowledge 4. Investigating the effects of mnemonic learning in adults Limitations Future Directions

27 Mnemonic learning is one of complementary approaches which provides learners an option to learn vocabulary words. 來去遊行 ! 因為哇愛 台灣啦 !! 嗯 ?? 遊行哦 ! 頗累的 ~ 每日一字 : Parade

28 Thank you


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