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NM 4103 Section II Instruments & Radiopharmaceutical Production.

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Presentation on theme: "NM 4103 Section II Instruments & Radiopharmaceutical Production."— Presentation transcript:

1 NM 4103 Section II Instruments & Radiopharmaceutical Production

2 Gas Filled Detectors  Ionization chambers  Operate on V  Dose Calibrator  Geiger-Muller counters  Operate around 1000V  Ionization chambers  Operate on V  Dose Calibrator  Geiger-Muller counters  Operate around 1000V

3 Dose Calibrator  Sealed chamber  Filled with argon & halogen  Operating voltage around 150 V  Used for measuring activity of radiopharmaceuticals  Sealed chamber  Filled with argon & halogen  Operating voltage around 150 V  Used for measuring activity of radiopharmaceuticals

4 Geiger-Muller Counter  Used to detect beta and gamma radiations  Usually operates as a ratemeter  Readings can be given in:  uR/hour  mR / hour  R / hour  Cpm Used for area survey (contamination) Calibrated annually with 226 Ra or 137 Cs  Used to detect beta and gamma radiations  Usually operates as a ratemeter  Readings can be given in:  uR/hour  mR / hour  R / hour  Cpm Used for area survey (contamination) Calibrated annually with 226 Ra or 137 Cs

5 Scintillation Detectors  Well counter  Thyroid probe  Gamma camera  Gamma rays interact in the sodium iodide detector and light photons are emitted.  Well counter  Thyroid probe  Gamma camera  Gamma rays interact in the sodium iodide detector and light photons are emitted.

6 Detectors  Sodium iodide crystals (most common)  Light generated in the crystal is then directed at the PM tube  Sodium iodide crystals (most common)  Light generated in the crystal is then directed at the PM tube

7 Collimators  Covers the sodium iodide detector  Purpose is to limit the field of view  Made of lead  Holes of different shapes and sizes  Increased number of holes = increased sensitivity (but loss of resolution)  Covers the sodium iodide detector  Purpose is to limit the field of view  Made of lead  Holes of different shapes and sizes  Increased number of holes = increased sensitivity (but loss of resolution)

8 Thyroid Probe Collimator  Single bore  Cylinder shaped  One PM tube  Single bore  Cylinder shaped  One PM tube

9 Scintillation Camera Collimators  Parallel : most common  Diverging : organ larger than the size of the detector  Pinhole : small organs/areas (thyroid)  Converging : organ smaller than the size of the detector  Parallel : most common  Diverging : organ larger than the size of the detector  Pinhole : small organs/areas (thyroid)  Converging : organ smaller than the size of the detector

10 Parallel-hole Collimator  Can be high-resolution, all purpose or high-sensitivity  Size and number of holes the same, change thickness  Can be high-resolution, all purpose or high-sensitivity  Size and number of holes the same, change thickness

11 Photomultiplier Tube  Fixed to the sodium iodide crystal  Photocathode / series of dynodes / anode (all in a vacuum glass tube)  Fixed to the sodium iodide crystal  Photocathode / series of dynodes / anode (all in a vacuum glass tube)

12 Cyclotron  Charged particles are accelerated in circular paths under vacuum by an electromagnetic field  Radionuclides are usually neutron deficient and decay by  + emission or electron capture  Examples:  Gallium-67  Iodine-67  Indium-111  Thallium-201  PET radiopharmaceuticals (Carbon-11,Nitrogen-13,Oxygen-15,Fluorine-18)  Charged particles are accelerated in circular paths under vacuum by an electromagnetic field  Radionuclides are usually neutron deficient and decay by  + emission or electron capture  Examples:  Gallium-67  Iodine-67  Indium-111  Thallium-201  PET radiopharmaceuticals (Carbon-11,Nitrogen-13,Oxygen-15,Fluorine-18)

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14 Reactor  Constructed with fuel rods that undergo spontaneous fission  Radionuclides are usually neutron rich and decay by  - emission  Examples:  Iodine-131  Molybemum-99  Xenon-133  Cesium-137  Constructed with fuel rods that undergo spontaneous fission  Radionuclides are usually neutron rich and decay by  - emission  Examples:  Iodine-131  Molybemum-99  Xenon-133  Cesium-137

15 Specific Activity  Radioactivity per unit mass  Expressed in mCi / mg  Accurate only at the date and time of calibration  Radioactivity per unit mass  Expressed in mCi / mg  Accurate only at the date and time of calibration

16 Concentration  Radioactivity per unit volume  Expressed in mCi / ml  Accurate only at the date and time of calibration  Radioactivity per unit volume  Expressed in mCi / ml  Accurate only at the date and time of calibration

17 Generator  Long lived parent radionuclide continually decays to a shorter lived daughter radionuclide  Chemical properties must be different, so they can be easily separated from one another  Generator must be sterile and pyrogen-free  Long lived parent radionuclide continually decays to a shorter lived daughter radionuclide  Chemical properties must be different, so they can be easily separated from one another  Generator must be sterile and pyrogen-free

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19 Parent/Daughter relationship  Daughter grows as a result of the decay of the parent until equilibrium is reached  Daughter activity is eluted, leaving the parent on the column  After elution, the daughter activity starts to grow again  Daughter grows as a result of the decay of the parent until equilibrium is reached  Daughter activity is eluted, leaving the parent on the column  After elution, the daughter activity starts to grow again

20 99 Mo - 99m Tc Generator  99 Mo has a half-life of 66 hours & decays by  - emission  99m Tc has a half-life of 6 hours & decays by isomeric transition  Liquid or solid column  99 Mo has a half-life of 66 hours & decays by  - emission  99m Tc has a half-life of 6 hours & decays by isomeric transition  Liquid or solid column

21 Solid column generator  Alumina oxide on a column (encased in lead)  99mTc builds up until the maximum activity is reached (usually 4 half-lives)  Wet or dry column generators  Dry : after elution, the leftover saline in the column is drawn out with vial  Alumina oxide on a column (encased in lead)  99mTc builds up until the maximum activity is reached (usually 4 half-lives)  Wet or dry column generators  Dry : after elution, the leftover saline in the column is drawn out with vial

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23 ~QC testing ~ 99 Mo Breakthrough  Radionuclide purity  Molybdemum contamination in the elution  Limit:  0.15 uCi of 99 Mo / 1 mCi of 99m Tc  Radionuclide purity  Molybdemum contamination in the elution  Limit:  0.15 uCi of 99 Mo / 1 mCi of 99m Tc

24 ~QC testing~ Aluminum Breakthrough  Aluminum contamination  Limit  10 ug Aluminum ion / ml 99m Tc eluate  Aluminum interferes with tagging sulfur colloid and RBC’s  Aluminum contamination  Limit  10 ug Aluminum ion / ml 99m Tc eluate  Aluminum interferes with tagging sulfur colloid and RBC’s

25 ~QC testing~ pH  Should be between 4.5 and 7.5


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