1. List-Brainstorm 7 words that you think of when you think about the Viet Nam War. 2. (At your table)Get into groups of 4 and work together to combine your individual lists into a common one. As you create your list, think of ways your words could be categorized. 3. Label your categories. 4. Share out. List-Group-Label
Essential Questions Why is it so important to spend time on words in the different content areas? How do coaches plan with teachers to make this happen?
Exposed to 1,800,000 words per year Exposed to 282,00 words per year Exposed to 8,000 words per year <1 minute4.6 minutes20 minutes Time spent reading each day Reading – Vocabulary Connection Shaywitz, S. (2003). Overcoming Dyslexia. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
What does SES have to do with it? Cumulative Vocabulary Experiences Family Status Words heard per hour Words heard per 100-hr. week Words heard per 5200-hr. yr. Words heard in 4 years Welfare 61662,0003 million12 million Working Class 1,251125,0006 million26 million Professional 2153215,00011 million45 million Hart and Risley, 1997
Why teach vocabulary? Research suggests teaching vocabulary is synonymous with teaching background knowledge. Knowledge of any topic is encapsulated in the terms students know that are relevant to that topic. Understanding some content vocabulary is critical to comprehending a text.
Content Vocabulary Although the events of m____ usually proceed accurately, sometimes ___________ fail to separate correctly. The failure of __________ ___________ to separate properly during m______ is called non___________. Recall that during m________, one __________ from each __________ pair moves to each ____ of the cell. In non___________, both ___________ of a __________ pair move to the same ____ of the cell.
Content Vocabulary Although the events of meiosis usually proceed accurately, sometimes chromosomes fail to separate correctly. The failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis is called nondisjunction. Recall that during meiosis I, one chromosome from each homologous pair moves to each pole of the cell. In nondisjunction, both chromosomes of a homologous pair move to the same pole of the cell.
How Much Vocabulary Do They Need to Know? Independent Level: 95% of the text Instructional Level: 90-95% of the text Frustration Level: below 90% of the text Partnership for Learning, 2001
Instruction… If students had opportunities to read, write and talk to each other about content in every class, every day, achievement would soar. Use collaborative pairs every day. Assign something to read every day. Have students write something every day.
Learning, as a language-based activity, is fundamentally and profoundly dependent on vocabulary knowledge. (Baker, Simmons, & Kame’enui, 1998)
Vocabulary deficiencies… Contribute to the achievement gap. Appear early and increase over time if not addressed. Are evident unless a student knows 95% of the words he or she reads.
Chances of Learning New Words in Context Source: Based on information from Swanborn & de Glopper, 1999 ModeratorLevel of Moderator Chances of Learning Word AbilityLow8% Medium12% High19% Grade Level4 th 8% 11 th 33% Text Density 1 new word for every 10 words 7% 1 new word for every 75 words 14% 1 new word for every 150 words 30%
Word Sorts Pre-reading: Formative assessment of student background knowledge of words and concepts Post-reading: Review/assessment of student knowledge May be open or closed sorts Teacher provides words and students sort and categorize Teacher provides words and categories Provide opportunities for practice
How do I teach vocabulary? 1. Provide frequent and varied opportunities for students to think about and use words. 2. Provide direct instruction on words that are critical to new content. 3. Teach strategies for learning words independently. 4. Provide time for reading.
Impact of Direct Vocabulary Instruction 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 50 62 83 Percentile Rank on Test No Vocab. Instruction Direct Vocab. Instruction Direct Vocab. Instruction on Content Words Source: Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986
The Facts… 1. A high performing 1 st grader knows about twice as many words as a low performing one. (Hirsch, Jr.) 2. By 12th grade the high performer knows about 4 times as many words as the low performer (Hirsch, Jr.) 3. Adequate reading depends on a person already knowing between 90-95% of the words. (Nagy) 4. A well educated 12 th grader knows an enormous number of words; most learned incidentally (Hirsch, Jr.) 5. There are more meanings than words (Biemiller)
The Facts… 1. Domain knowledge (a threshold knowledge about the topic being studied) enables readers to makes sense and select from multiple meanings (Hirsch, Jr.) 2. Domain knowledge is necessary to give meaning to otherwise confusing sentences. 3. Some conceptual understanding must occur before an individual can recall and use a word. 4. A reader’s general vocabulary knowledge is the single best predictor of how well that a reader can understand text. (Nagy)
So many words - So little time rare words limited to a specific domain taught when need arises Tier 3 Words important for comprehension characteristic of mature language users used across topics Tier 2 Words basic words Tier 1 Words clock count squares anticipate scheme adapt isotope peninsula microbe What are they?Examples
Choosing words based on Tiers Tier 3: Low-frequency words, usually specific to an academic domain & best learned in the related content area, such as isotope, photosynthesis & psychologist. Tier 2: High-frequency words that are important for capable language learners to have in their vocabulary, such as remorse, capricious, distinguished, & devious. Tier 1: Basic words that rarely need to be taught, such as hair, always, dress, & laugh. Beck, I., McKeown, M., & Kucan, L. (2002) Tier 3Tier 2Tier 1
Let’s Practice Choosing the Words Select 8 words for explicit instruction discreet*imputation^modest ravages*parsimony^prudence chaste*flat^ (apartment)laboriously cascade*mendicancy squad^ecstatic meretricious*Queen of Sheba^duplicate instigate*Coney Islandconception Reading level: 8 th *Words selected for instruction in manual Source: ‘Gift of the Magi’ ^Words defined in text
Let’s Practice Choosing the Words Select 8 words for explicit instruction obstacledistrictamplify writinggorgeimperial piersminiatureemerged executionerdefeatedinsult immortalsdesperationdeposited emperorsupervisingdeadline Reading level: 8 Series: Prentice Hall Passage: Reader’s Bridge Words: highlighted in manual
Your Turn: Prioritize Your Vocabulary 1. Look at your list of Viet Nam War words. 2. Decide how you would classify each word (Tier 1, 2, or 3). 3. Share out by putting one post-it on each chart paper.
Implications for Teachers Model the importance of vocabulary by allocating daily time for instruction. Teach vocabulary skills as well as vocabulary meanings. Consider contextual factors Subject specific vocabulary Multiple meaning words Opportunities to utilize vocabulary across multiple contexts
Vocabulary Casserole Ingredients Needed: 20 words no one has ever heard before in his life 1 dictionary with very confusing definitions in it 1 matching test to be distributed on Friday 1 teacher who just wants students quiet on Mondays copying words Mix 20 words onto blackboard. Have students copy each word and then look them up in the dictionary. Make students copy down all the definitions. For a little spice, require that students write words in sentences. Leave alone all week. Top with a boring test on Friday. Perishable. This casserole will be forgotten by Saturday afternoon. Serves: No one Source: 8 th grade student as written in When Kids Can’t Read, pg. 177
Vocabulary Treat Ingredients Needed: 5-10 great words that you really could use 1 thesaurus map colors and chart paper 1 game like jeopardy or bingo 1 teacher who thinks learning is supposed to be fun Mix 5 to 10 words into the classroom. Have students test each word for flavor. Toss with a thesaurus to find other words that mean the same. Write definitions on chart paper and let us draw pictures of words to remind us what they mean. Stir often all week by a teacher who thinks learning is supposed to be fun. Top with a cool game on Fridays like jeopardy or bingo to see who remembers the most. Serves: Many Source: 8 th grade student as written in When Kids Can’t Read, pg. 177
So… Your recipe for success? Create a recipe for working with chosen teachers on changing vocabulary instruction.
Resources Inside Words: tools for teaching academic vocabulary. Allen,J. Stenhouse. 2007 Building Academic Vocabulary. Marzano,R. and Pickering,D. ASCD. 2005 Word Wise and Content Rich. Fisher, D. and Frey, N. Heinemann.2008 When Kids Can’t Read: What Teachers Can Do. Beers,K. Heinemann. 2003