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TimeLine of Toffler’s Waves By Na-Ajele Williams-Buffonge.

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1 TimeLine of Toffler’s Waves By Na-Ajele Williams-Buffonge

2 Time Line of the Waves

3 Agricultural Era 8000 b.c  This phase took about a 1000 years to phase out.  Today’s society no longer emphasises on the agriculture revolution. However, a few tribal population such as New Guinea, and South America still practices this (Toffler,1980,p 13).  The possession of land equated to power, structure of family unit, culture, life, politics and the basis of economy (Toffler 1980,p. 21).  Community produced their desired food and the economy was decentralized(Toffler,1980,p. 21).  Family unit was huge and was required to work on the land.  Education was limited and the communication used was the oral tradition.

4 Industrial Age  This is a major era. This is the transition from producing food to making and selling everything.  The era facilitated in constructing buildings, mills, railroads and the construction of plants to make cars. It was a mechanical era and the emphasis was placed on constructions, factories, and assembly line(Toffler,1980,p.24).  This era required families to be smaller and be able to mobile(Toffler,1980,p.25)  School was not conducted by priests, children now have to go school and learn how to read, write, and math.  Families change from producing food themselves to the concept of sale, barter, and exchange (Toffler, 1980,p.39).  Communication stem from oral and written.  Innovations in this era are the typewriter, telephone, and transportation

5 Informational Era ( )  A period that is still ongoing.  It moves from industrial work to the age of computers and electronic community.age of computers  It can be seen as the media age.  Family no longer have to be moving all over the place. A nuclear family is not the only family unit that is accepted. Single family is now accepted.  Embraces new literacies.

6 4 th Wave ???? Communication Technology ( )  We are in the 4 th wave.4 th wave  Communication technology is the next wave.  Embraces technology and new literacies.  It supports all family units.  Embraces computers and the internet.  This period is driven by information technology(cell phones, IPod, media.  Changes how education is conducted. Media, and internet are embraced.  New Literacies skills.

7 Strand 2- Technology  Learning about the Technological Decades that made us what we are today.

8 Technological Timeline  The invention of the first Brownie Camera. This period allowed to take pictures. This was the first black box that captured images that could be used for journalism.Brownie Camera  1901 Invention of Shavers. King Camp Gillet was a salesman who traveled within Wisconsin. He risked shaving himself of the new double edge shaver. By 1904 he sold of “90,000” razors (Bellis,2009).. King Camp Gillet  the discovery of the vacuum cleaner by Hubert Booth. This discovery would have been a house cleaners dream to assist with cleaning(Bellis, 2009).  Air conditioning invention. Willis Carrier design the first air condition unit that could control the humidity. Today millions of offices are kept cool and can’t work without this wonderful invention (Bellis,2009).Willis Carrier  Airplane flight. Brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright discover the ability to travel from one distance to another in a shorter distance of time. This impacted the world for long journey were done by boats which took weeks and possible months. Through the transportation of plane these journeys took hours (Bellis,2009).Airplane flight  1908-Henry Ford introduces the concept of mass production through the introduction of the Model T automobile. This assisted and advance manufacturing for it is a concept we still use today.

9  The invention of motion pictures with sound which was a huge change from silent films. Inventor is Thomas Edison.  Charles Kettening developed the electrical cash register. The device increased gasoline car. No longer needed to be started by crank shaft(Bellis,2009).  One of the main ways of dying in fires is smoke. During World War the discovery of the gas mask was invented by a man named Morgan. It was used by firefighter to assist them in putting out firesgas mask  The invention of the Radio tuner so that listeners can listen to various station. This tool was used in ww1 to bring about information and propaganda (Bellis,2009).  The Superheterodyne radio tuner was another invented by Edwin Armstrong. This was just the beginning for dissemination music, messages, across the airwaves (Bellis,2009).Superheterodyne

10  In the invention of the traffic signal was discovered by Garett Morgan(Bellis,2009).traffic signal  The discovery of being able to freeze food and sell it frozen came about by Clarence Birdseye. This has a huge impact on people today for many of us go to the supermarket and grab and go (Bellis,2009).Clarence Birdseye  The invention of the mechanical television was invented by John Logie Baird (Bellis,2009).  Discovery of Antibiotics/Penicillin Made. This medicine helps to fight infections that derives through sickness. Invented by Alexander Fleming (Bellis,2009).Discovery of Antibiotics/Penicillin

11  John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry built the first electronic digital computer. This invention was the start of the introduction into computers (Bellis,2009).John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry  1945 Vannevar Bush proposes hypertext. HTML- the authoring language used to created documents on the world wide web (Bellis,2009).hypertext  1946 the microwave developed by Percy Spencer. This invention assist parents with the ability to warm food without having to use the stove (Bellis,2009).  Mobiles phones first invented. However, not sold commercially until 1983.

12  Special thanks goes out to Ralph Schneider who created the Diner’s card. One no longer needed to walk with cash to purchase item. With one swipe purchases were made (Bellis,2009).to Ralph Schneider  The introduction of birth control pills made the forefront. No longer would woman have to multiple children due to lack of protection. However, the oral contraceptive became a huge controversy especially in the Catholic church where it was believed that women should be fruitful and multiply (Bellis,2009).The introduction of birth control pills

13  The invention of the audio cassette. This was a tool to record or place music on. Today this is obsolete and has been replaced by Compact Disk. This invention was made by the Phillips company (Bellis,2009).The invention of the audio cassette  The Video Disk was invention that people can record motion picture on and place in the VCR to seen the pleasurable moments. Today it has been replaced by DVD’s while VCR’s are replaced by DVD player (Bellis,2009).  The invention of the Compact Disks was developed by James Russel. Though it was not as popular as it is today these disk were used to put music or information on instead of cassettes. However, Compact Disc reached its true potential in the 1980’s (Bellis,2009).  The invention of the Computer Mouse. The inventor is Douglas Engelbat. The mouse helps computer user to maneuver around the site instead of using a cursor (Bellis,2009). Douglas Engelbat

14  The invention of the Floppy Disc was created by an IBM team lead by Alan Shugart. This storage device was used to save information found on the computer (Bellis,2009).Floppy Disc  1973-The discovery of Ethernet which is the networking of computers through use of software was discovered by Robert Metcalfe and Xerox (Bellis,2009), (Stoy,2010).discovery of Ethernet Reference Stoy,A. (2010). Bright Hub. The invention of the Ethernet. Retrieved from:

15  The creation of the Apple Macintosh computer was invented. Today Apple is one of the leading operator with the Ipad, Ipod, as well as the Iphone (Bellis,2009). Macintosh computer  As the computer world begins to excel Microsoft Programs invented by Microsoft becomes the new interface of PC (Bellis,2009).Microsoft Programs

16  World Wide Web- the creation of world wide web was created by Tim Berners Lee. This creation changed the world forever. People today are able to do research, collaborate and download information based on this invention (Bellis,2009).World Wide Web-  The Pentium Processor. The Pentium Processor was invented by Vinod Dham. The processor increased the speed and efficiency of the computer. Today the Pentium is replaced by dual core or Quad Core (Foster,2012).Pentium Reference Foster,D. (2012) History of Pentium 4. Retrieved from:

17  Invention of IPod. Apple released the IPod which is a portal for downloading music on. Today, this gadget is used by people all over the world while they listen to podcasts, videos and music (Bellis,2009).Invention of IPod  2005-Youtube an online video sharing was created by Steve Cen, Chad Hurley and Jared Karim. It provided a platform to watch movies, upload movies or post information (Bellis,2009).Youtube

18 Strand 3 – The nature of Work – Business and Corporate Philosophies  Business & Corporate Developments

19  Ford the leading car manufacturing company is founded. /Ford /  Warner brothers had their first showing of a film at their home in Ohio. Warner brothers today is a well known film producers today.Warner brothers  Invention of Kelloggs Cornflake, which is very popular cereal today.Kelloggs Cornflake

20  1913-Ford introduces assembly line. The assembly line is used in many factories today(Bellis,2009).assembly line  1919 General Electric forms radio Corporation of America (RCA).RCA

21  Disney brother forms Disney Brothers Studios which later becomes Disney(Bellis,2009).Disney Brothers Studios  1928-NBC (National Broadcasting Company) is formed. It is part owner with General Electric(Belli,2009).NBC

22  Earl Tupper forms Earl S. Tupper Company which later form into what is known today as Tupperware which is made from plastic(Bellis,2009).Tupperware  David Packard and William Hewlett forming Hewlett-Packard. Today this is corporation is the leading computer company(Bellis,2009).David Packard and William Hewlett

23  1945 The cooperation of the Uhaul was established. The concept of a movable trailer that could move from point A to point B allowed moving to be cheaper for movers and easier to relocate(Bellis,2009).Uhaul  Richard and Maurise Mc. Donald's open the first fast food restaurant. This chain is the favourites to many adults and children today(Bellis,2009).Mc. Donald's

24  Bank of America launces first credit card. No longer is it necessary to have cash, money is stored on the card and customers can access their money through the swipe of the card.credit card  Berry Gordy launches Motown Record Labels. This record label is popular and signed on many famous artist such as the Jackson 5’s.Berry Gordy launches Motown References Cruz,G. (2009). Time Entertainment. A Brief History of Motown. Retrieved from: Woolsey,B and Gerson, S. (2012). Credit cards.Com. The History of Credit Card. Retrieved from: history-1264.php.

25  The first WalMart stores open in Arkansas. The low prices store began opening up chains all over Canada and United stated. The store became so popular it eventually sent Kmart, Zellers into bankruptcy.stores  Children Television Workshop Broadcasting unit broadcast the famous children educational channel such as Sesame Street. This station helped children to learn educational concepts.Children Television Workshop Reference Walmart Corporate Website (n.d). History Timeline. Retrieved from:http://www.walmartstores.com/AboutUs/7603.aspx.

26  One of the leading Coffee Shop Starbucks came to being. This coffee served many Americans and are found in many of the books stores today. Starbucks  Bill Gates and Paul Allen form Microsoft Software and personal computer. Microsoft Software References Bellis,M. (2009) The Universal History of Microsoft Windows. Retrieved from: /od/mstartinventions /a/Windows.htm

27  1985-Home Shopping Network - Customers no longer have to go into the store to buy they can now purchases item from home by watching TV using their credit card. Today you can order online (Bellis,2009) Home Shopping Network watching TV  Apple introduces Macintosh computer  1985 Windows release their first version of Window 1.0. This changed the computer world forever and set the stage for other Windows releases to come. It is through the platform of windows the MS Dos became obsolete(Bellis.2009).platform.

28  Dream Work production came into being from the partnership of Katzenverg,Spielberg and Geffin (Dream Works, 2010).Dream Work production  1995-The creation of Jeff Bezos of amazon.com was a genius. You can now order books online, access a digital copy of the book within in minutes at a cheaper price(Webley,2010).amazon.com

29  Camera Phone- The introduction of Camera phone took off to the world of mobile with the invention of the Camera Phone. Today people can use the internet, video tape and watch movies on their phone (Bellis,2009).  The invention of the IPhone form Apple (Bellis,2009).IPhone  Amazon Kindle- the invention of the Kindle a device that stores eBooks so that you can read and store PDF files.eBooks

30 Reference  Information for this section was taken from Encyclopedia of Business (2012).http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/businesses/A- F/Timeline-of-http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/businesses/A- F/Timeline-of- American-Business.html

31 Strand 4: Education  Education, Learning Theories and Influential Educational Events.

32  Thorndike Law of Effect. This law demonstrates that stimuluses' and responses will become greater or lessen depending if the respondent is content, or discontent with the response. Habits are formed when the response is pleasurable. Behaviour becomes suppressed when the actions are painful Thorndike Law of Effect  The essays of the Theory of Sexuality was written by Sigmund Freud. This essay focused on the importance of having a stable and emotional environment during the stages of childhood(Morrison,2004).  The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching is founded. The Carnegie Unit is responsible for the equation of seat time as well as the credit system at secondary schools(Morrison,2004).  The first preschool was established in Rome by Maria Montessori. This preschool has influenced preschool today due to the beliefs that children learn best through manipulation, by themselves and in a prepared environment (Morrison,2004).Maria Montessori

33  1912-Werhmer- founder of the Gestalt movement. Publishes papers on the Visual perceptions of the movement.  The book Educational Psychology: The psychology of learning is published. The books look at how human learns through the connection of stimuli. The author of the book Edward Lee Thorndike.  The American Federation of Teachers as well as the American Educational Research Association is founded.  John Dewey a well renown theorist publishes Democracy and Education. This book point out the views of Progressive education. This theory is taught in many education program today.John Dewey  Kilpatrick Project Methods – Philosopher of Progressive Education. He systematize projects into education. Projects brings about four things: planning, executing, judging, and meaning/purpose. He believed that “projects was a method and not a complete curriculum theory. He further believed in curriculum organization.Kilpatrick Project Methods

34 Cont’s  The Progressive Education Association is founded. This association goal is to help restructure the present education system in America.Progressive Education Association  1919-Dalton Plan- This was first developed by Helen Parkhurst. In this plan students sign a contract with their teacher and work according to phases. Students work according to their on pace. This is a form of individualized instruction. In Toronto, we have two schools that operates in this manner. Teachers become more of guides (Saettler,2004,p.65)Dalton Plan-

35  John Watson along with his counter part conducted their experiments using classical conditioning with children. This study is referred to as the Little Albert Study. Today this study would not be allowed do to the ethical policies and regulation that we have.John Watson  1925-Tennessee vs. John Scopes also know as the monkey trial. This biology teacher was charged for teaching his students about evolution.  The theorist Jean Piaget`s published The Child`s Conception of the World. Piaget believes in Cognitive Development and Genetic Epistemology. This theory has influenced educational developmental psychology. Piaget believes cognitive development has four models: sensory-motor, preoperational, concrete operation and formal operation (Saettler,2004,p.74),(Cherry,2012).Cognitive Development and Genetic Epistemology Reference Cherry,K. (2012) About.Com Psychology.Com. Jean Piaget Biography. Retrieved from McLeod, S. A. (2008). Classical Conditioning. Retrieved from

36  Court case of Alvarez vs. Board of trustees of the Lemon Grove School districts. This was the first school that won the desegregation case in United States. This case forbids Mexican American children from going into an all white schools.  Horkheimer introduces what is known as the Critical Theory. This theory is the examination of how society and culture is influenced by knowledge.Horkheimer  1938-B.F. Skinner- This theory looks a behaviour modifications. The theorist believes the positive behaviour will occur through positive reinforcement and will continue. Bad behaviour will cease or lessen when the person is presented with displeasure or pain (Cherry,K,2012).. Skinner- Reference: Held,D. (1980). Introduction to Critical Theory: Horkeimer to Habermans University of California Press. Retrieved From:http://books.google.com.ag/books?id=ezBYaJAU8A4C&dq=traditional +critical+theory+horkheimer+summary&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s. McLeod, S. A. (2007). B.F. Skinner | Operant Conditioning. Retrieved from

37  Kurt Lewin- This theorist develops Experiential Learning theories through testing hypothesis through T-Groups. His theory also works on motivational problems.Kurt Lewin  Edgar Dale – He developed the Cone of experience. He quotes that after two weeks we remember only 10% of what we read, but we remember 90% of what we do!”(Percepsys,n.d). He believes that simulations allow the learner to get involved hence, allows them to remember.one of experience Reference Cherry,K. (2012). About.Com Psychology. Kurt Lewin Biography. Retrieved from: /od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/bio_lewin.htm Percepsys (n.d). Human capital Management Elearning. Retrieved from:

38  Norman Crowder developed a programmed instruction. This program was like a tutor text that had limited amount of information with multiple choice questions. If the learner answer is incorrect the program is designed to take the learner back to the required information and shows where the mistake occurred (Saettler,2004,p295).Norman Crowder  Burrhus Frederic Skinner’s Science and Human Behaviour is published. This book speaks about behaviourism and what is know as classic operant conditioning. This theory is widely acknowledge in education today. Classic Conditioning focuses on a behaviour which is positive is increased through positive reinforcement. Behaviour that is negative will lessen through reinforcement that is displeasurable.  The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The classification of Educational Goals: Handbook is published. Blooms divides the cognitive domain into six levels. These includes knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis.Taxonomy Reference Atherton J S (2011) Learning and Teaching; Bloom's taxonomy [On-line: UK] retrieved 14 August 2012 from Saettler,P. (2004). The Evolution of American Educational Technology. Retrieved from: =bl&ots=yGWzqXhCTe&sig=woGAxKuQ1OzceZ6aubta6S6piqw&hl=en&sa=X&ei=9_EqUFepwOgB4r- AGA&ved=0CEwQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=Norman%20Crowder&f=false

39  1962-the theorist Lev Vygotsky’s book Thought and Language is published in English. Vygotsky ideas regarding social aspects of learning is known as the Constructivist Theory. Vygotsky is known for his belief of Zone of Proximal Development.  Bruner introduces Discovery Learning. This theory has four components. The learner draws from their own experiences and pull from prior knowledge. Students manipulate objects in order to discover through learning.Bruner introduces Discovery Learning  Keller Plan- this plan was developed from F.S Keller who is a behavioral psychologist. His plan consists of 5 basic steps. That learners go at their own pace, lectures and demonstration are vehicles of motivation, written words, and teacher and student’s communications are important, and students only advance through mastery(Settler, 2004).Keller Plan- References Herzberg, (n.d). The Keller Plan: 25 years of Personal Experience: Retrieved from Experience1.pdf Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2012, August). Discovery Learning (Bruner) at Learning- Theories.com. Retrieved August 15th, 2012 from theories.com/discovery-learning-bruner.htmlhttp://www.learning-

40  1970-Jean Piaget’s book “The Science of Education” published. This book exposed the concept of discovery based teaching Jean Piaget’s  Michael Hart who is the founder of Project Guttenberk develops what is known as an Ebook. Ebooks allows you to access books via the internet. Which lessens delivery fees and are much cheaper than regular books.  1978 Vygotsky: The theory of Social Development was discovered by Vygotsky. The theory argues that social collaboration and interaction leads to positive development.Vygotsky References McLeod, S. A. (2009). Piaget | Cognitive Theory. Retrieved from McLeod, S. A. (2007). Vygotsky - Social Development Theory. Retrieved from

41  Robert Gagne conditions of learning theory. This theory stimulates that there are different levels that are needed to learn. Each levels need specific levels of instructions. There are five types of instruction needed they are cognitive, motor, attitude and intellectual skills Verbal information as well as cognitive instructions are vital.learning theory  This was the year of the United Nations Convention. In this convention the adoption of the Rights of the child was adopted by the UN AssemblyRights of the child

42  The Rights of the Child came into effect in the year 1990 and was signed by twenty nations. The signage protects the rights of children and prevents them from Exploitation.The Rights of the Child  Pavio Dual Coding TheoryPavio Dual Coding Theory His theory is known as an influential cognitive theory. The theories believes that Paivio proposes that “the human mind operates with two distinct classes of mental representation (or “codes”), verbal representations and mental images, and that human memory thus comprises two functionally independent (although interacting) systems or stores, verbal memory and image memory. Imagery potentiates recall of verbal material because when a word evokes an associated image (either spontaneously, or through deliberate effort) two separate but linked memory traces are laid down, one in each of the memory stores”(Thomas, 2007) o 1991 Lave- Situated Learning “Lave argues that learning is situated; that is, as it normally occurs, learning is embedded within activity, context and culture. It is also usually unintentional rather than deliberate. Lave and Wenger (1991) call this a process of “legitimate peripheral participation”(Learning Theories Knowledge base,2012).Situated Learning  The introduction of the White Boards are introduced into the classroom. This technology has began to replace the blackboard, and teachers no longer have to be messed up from the chalk.

43 Jeroen Merrieboer- Instructional DesignInstructional Design Developed the four component of Instructional Design. Developed the 4c/ID model which focuses on “integration and coordinated performance of specific skills instead of knowledge type, context, delivery media or presentation. This program design normally is followed by training. David Wiley- Learning Object design and Sequencing Theory.Learning Object design and Sequencing Theory. This theory and is combination of Elaboration Theory, Work model Synthesis, Domain Theory, and the Four Components. Instructional Design Model is also supported by taxonomy and design guidance for students.

44 References Cherry,k (2012) About.com Psychology. Jean Piaget Biography. Retrieved from Retrieved from Cherry,K. (2012). About.com Psychology. Kurt Levin Biography Retrieved from : /od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/bio_lewin.htm Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2012, August). Situated Learning Theory (Lave) at Learning-Theories.com. Retrieved August 13th, 2012 from lave.html McLeod, S. A. (2008). Classical Conditioning. Retrieved from Morrison,G. Early Childhood Education Today. Ninth Edition. University of North Texas. Pearson. Wiley,D. (2000). Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory. Retrieved form. Woolfolk,A. Educational Psychology. Tenth Edition. Boston. Pearson Publishing.

45 Strand 5: Society and Culture  Understanding how Society and Culture developed who we are today.

46 ’s  This was a decade for great change within the United States who was considered the World Leader of all time.  Issues that were occurring during this time were poverty, labour issues, child labour problems as well as the escalation of immigration.

47 Historical Events Progressive Era known as the era for great change. This era was also know for social activism, political reform, as well as and effort to improve the society.Progressive Era Cultural Event and Important Dates Freud writes the book of interpretations of Dreams Pacassa’s Blue PeriodPacassa’s Death of Queen Victoria’s death Einstein’s relativity Jim Crow Laws which promoted segregation in the national base ball league. Reference

48  Labour Union growth  Triangle Shirtwaist factory Fire which killed 145 females.  Introduction of minimum age wage.  America becomes highly industrialized.  Mass production of cars.  Popular culture – Jazz era and Ballroom Decade, rag time and the blues.

49  This era is known as the Roaring twenty’s.  Industrial age.  1920-Harlem Renaissance era- black artists and writers begin to develop paintings and begin to write.Harlem Renaissance era-  Introduction of the Charleston  Racial tensions were in place due to migration into America.  1920-Klu Klux Klan becomes very active with discrimination against non- whites (Kenney,2009).Klu Klux Klan  Technology contributions are- television, radio’s and movies.  1929-Stock Market Crash- this brought on the great depression which closed down banks. This crash impacted the world. No body believed that the stock market could crash (Rosenbery,2012).Stock Market Crash-

50 Cont’d  Formulation of Gangs  First Transatlantic Flights  Air Flying to Transport mail.  1913 Federal Segregation promoted government segregation within the work place this movement was promoted by the Wilson administration. Theater/Film radio First Talking Pictures Premiere of Broadway Introduction of Oscars Radio Network begins NBC and CBC

51  This era is known as the great depression. This was a very sad time and life changed for a lot of people. People began migrating in order to work in agricultural fields. The economy had been shattered by Wall street Crash. Art- American Gothic 1931 Completion of the Empire State Building which was the world tallest building as well as Chrystlers Buildings and Rockerfeller Center was constructed.Empire State The national anthem of America is created “the Star Spangled Banner”(Rosenberg,2012).The national anthem

52  This era was the time of World War II. The world power of solely the United States changed to the addition of USSR as well European artist fled to the USA from Hitler and the Holocust. Women had the opportunity to work and not stay at home since the men were at war. The development of penicillin and the revolutionization of medicine. Automobile production has increased Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasak. This was one of the saddest days in history. Hundreds Thousands of people lost their lives innocently due to Americans new autonomic bombs. Three days after that they bombed Nagasak taking out another set of casualty.Hiroshima and Nagasak. Television made its debut The International Monetary Fund is formed after an international conference at Bretton Woods. This is an agency that will assist countries who find themselves in financial difficulties aid and place the country on a plan to build back the economy.The International Monetary Fund Bretton Woods 1945-Digital computer named ENIAC United Nations Founded. Art- Abstract Expressionism Music- Classical dissonance. References

53  ’s known as the fabulous 50’s.  1950-President Harry Trumen is against Communism and begin his campaign for anti-communism.  Rosa Parks refuses to give her seat to a white man and was arrested in Montgomery. This later lead to the boycotting of the bus system.Rosa Parks  1955 Vaccination for Polio  Art-Abstract Expressionism  Music- Rock and Rolls Blues and Gospel music. Music were played on the portable radio.  Elvis Presley is known as the king of rock and roll. Was the young girls idol. This young man was not only a singer but a handsome young actor who served in the army. Unfortunately, he died of a drug overdose.Elvis Presley  Literature arts Tennessee Williams and Arthur Miller.

54  Known as thee age of youths. This is the era known as the baby boom age of revolutionary ideas. This era we see the beginning of tall buildings such as sky scrapers as well as racial ideas that would soon be halted by the Supreme Court.  The term black was replaced by the word Negroes.  Hispanic American tripled in America.  Assassination of John F. Kennedy, who only served 3 years in his presidency.Assassination of John F. Kennedy, who only served 3 years in his presidency  1963– Women’s Liberation formed. A movement that supports women’s right so that they are discriminated against.Women’s Liberation formed  The rise of the Black Panther.Black Panther  Assassination of Martin Luther King a Civil Rights activist.  Hippie era

55  This era we see delusional government, changes with racial discrimination. The culture of American began to flourish.  Art- The art for this decade was known as earth art which combined the environment and minimal idea.  Social movements  Mandatory busing to achieve racial school integration  Congress guaranteed equal educational access to the handicapped with the education of all handicapped children act of  first Gay pride March this was known as the GLBT movement. This movement made an impact on many places around the world. Today is accepted to get married in various countries. Laws also opposes discrimination of the GLBT movement.GLBT  Richard Nixon faces impeachment charges and is forced to give up his position due to the Watergate scandal.  Legalization of abortion.  Introduction of affirmative action.  1978-Jim Jones and American cult leader and 900 people commits suicide in Guyana.900 people commits suicide in Guyana.

56  The decade focused primarily on the individual. There aim was trying to gain status in society This era proved to be one with take overs, a rise of millionaires, the accessing of credit cards. This also was technological era where video games, camcorders as well as reality TV became part of their lives. Unfortunately the AIDS academic was on the rise. Famous work of paintings were auctioned. Ex. Picasso. Reading of Novels and popular fictions were being read. The rise of cable and the production of MTV which was used as promotion for albums. Development of the digital compact disc

57 Dances in this era included the Lambada and breakdaces. Music- Music for this era was Rap, Pop, country and hip hop. Rap was developed by inmates who were serving time in jail. Thy didn’t have instruments so they became poetic and rapped. Modern Art is being produced in this era. Architectural Work- Ex. Trump Towers Millionaires on the rise- Donald Trump. Broadway is on the rise and has various shows that are competing against each other. This is the area of media and Sitcom era.

58 1981  Assassination Attempt of the Pope.  Discovery of the disease AIDSDiscovery AIDS  Michael Jackson releases Thriller.  Sally Ride becomes first American in space.  Finding a hole in the ozone layer. This discovery brought huge fury and polices and plans began to form in order to lessen the hole. Environmentalist got involved. It was later found the products that we were using contributed to this dilemma.ozone layer

59  – This era is known as the Electronic Age.  World wide Web born in  This changed the way we communicated.  1989 homes had computers in their houses. There was a 200 increase of computers in the 90’s.  Introduction to the homes for the elderly.  Online books and Audio books came on stream. Online stores took off.  Saddam Hussen invasion/the Gulf war.  Nelson Mandela freed after years in jail due to Apartheid.  Aids kills many pop stars one who succumb to this illness is Freddie Mercury.  Rodney King was attacked by police officers. A passerby video taped the event and the video tape went viral. This sparked the Los Angeles riot. He died at the age of 47 in June 2012.Rodney King at the age of 47 in June  First attack on the world trade center.

60  Princess Diana killed in a car accident. The world mourns a great lost. Today her death is said to have been conspiracy.  Larry Page and Sergery Brin is the founder of Google which is one of the leading search engine today. This engine assisting searching the world wide web to capture the desired information.Sergery Brin  Y2K the world stood at a halt, wondering what would happen to all the computers since it was never programed for the year As many people began to panic, and others were waiting for the ending of the world, unfortunately, nothing happened.Y2K

61  Thousands of people lost their lives with the bombing of the World Trade Centre. This event is known as the 911 attack. This was one of the saddest birthday’s in my life. This era was known as the war on terrorism The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is approved by congress and is passed by the Bush Administration. This act holds teachers accountable for student’s achievement. Penalties are launched to those schools who don’t fulfill the appropriate tasks.NCLB

62 Reference Whitley,P. (2008). American Cultural History. Retrieved August 2012 From the Lonestar College Library Webstie: All slide have active links to reference.

63 Strand 6: Educational Policies and School Integration in the U.S  Discrimination, segregation as well as policies are an integral part of our Education System. See how these events shaped the public education system in America.

64  The Association of American University founded to promote higher standards and put University on equal playing grounds with other regions. This was founded by fourteen PhD students.Association of American University  1907-Formation of National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) 1907-Formation of National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Formed after the lynching of 2 black men in Springfield. The incident brought about concerns and polices were then sough on the best practices they could achieve so their could be equality for blacks. The group consisted of 7 whites and one black (Rosenburg,2012)  Segregation of a private school Berea College vs Kentucky. The supreme court upholds the request of a State authority to have Berea College operate on segregation principles (Rosengburg,2012)school Berea College vs Kentucky

65  Marcus Garvey Movement- The Universal Negro improved association was founded in This was an organization that was to promote black unity. He started the back to Africa Movement encouraging black Africans to go back to Africa where they will socially accepted and wont be discriminated against.Marcus Garvey Movement-  ACE American Council on EducationACE American Council on Education The ACE was founded in The ACE is a higher education organization that is an accredited degree granting institutions. This council assist in legitimizing programs in college and universities.

66  S.A.T The introduction of the SAT which stands for the Scholastic Aptitude Test is a test that predicts a students chances of success in University or College. This test today is well known as students competed to score highly in order to get into a decent college. Today the process may be absolute in many schools today.. Today the process may be absolute in many schools today.  1927-The Supreme court ruling of Gong Lum vs Rice in Mississippi.The Supreme court ruling of Gong Lum vs Rice in Mississippi The Supreme court brings forth a ruling defining that Chinese students are classified as non-white hence he will be segregated like blacks and not allowed to go to all white public school. This became very problematic due to the constant immigration of various races.

67  Julius Rosewald- Julius Rosewald established the Rosewald fund to assist in constructing new schools for blacks. Money was funded by both blacks and whites so that blacks would not have to integrate into the classroom setting. The schools were run by white superintendents. This was a remarkable contribution especially knowing that he was not American.Julius Rosewald  1937-Dr. Frank Cyr- The contribution of Dr. Cyr can’t go unrecognized. He established at a teacher conference the establishment of the national school bus. His concept was that all states should have common standards in regards to transporting children to and from school Dr. Frank Cyr

68  Servicemen’s Adjustment Act GI Bill.Servicemen’s Adjustment Act GI Bill This act provides education to over 7 millions Veterans. This gave them a chance to receive higher education. It also provided these veterans unemployment, and educational grant.  Philosophy of Progressive Education. This philosophy was influenced by Dewey. It also influenced science and technology after This philosophy tried to move teachers from the traditional aspect of teaching.  Life Adjustment MovementLife Adjustment Movement This movement encouraged different modes of the curriculum in education. The movement believed that the curriculum should include life skills and should be integrated whether it was college, vocational and general skills.  Introduction to Federal Aid in EducationIntroduction to Federal Aid in Education The beginning of Federal Aid began in The program was designed to those who were Unequal in regards to educational opportunities (New York State Education Dept, 2006). Disparities between North and South as well Urban and rural (New York State Education Dept, 2006). Inequalities between black and white’s (New York State Education Dept, 2006). Teacher shortages and out dated curriculum (New York State Education Dept, 2006).

69  1954 – Brown vs. Board of EducationBrown vs. Board of Education Supreme Court unanimously overturns a ruling that was established in 1896 that promoted separating of race. It was found that segregation violated the 14 th amendments. It was also found that the verdict found that racial schools were all unequal and made students feel inferior.  National Defence Education ActNational Defence Education Act During the Cold war the space craft Spunik was launched. Policy makers felt that students were not doing well in math, science and were falling behind. The National Defence Education Act provides federal aid to schools to improve teaching for these subjects(Saettler,2004).

70  Civil Right Act Titled VICivil Right Act Titled VI This act authorizes federal government to file against school desegregation. The acts prohibits discrimination in schools assistance, and all aspects of life.  The launching of Head Start The launching of Head StartHead Start The federal program Head Start was designed to provide educational enrichment to those of low income infancy level. The goal was so that preschoolers can be of similar level when they enter elementary school.  1968-Bilingual Education Act

71  Sex Discrimination Sex Discrimination  Title IX is an amendment of The belief is that no person shall be discriminated against based on sex. It allows for equal educational opportunities for men and women.  Education for All Handicapped Children Act.Education for All Handicapped Children Act.  This act promotes that all children respective of their ailments or difficulties must receive free and appropriate education. In today’s society we practice inclusion in the school system. Educational technology, Blooms Taxonomy, as well differentiated learning helps assist in the modification of these children.

72  1981-The Education Consolidation and Improvement Act (ECIA)Education Consolidation and Improvement Act This act brought together existing federal plans for education across various state lines.  Congress put in place a national commission to assist in eliminating Infant Mortality. These policies serve as an education tool to help eliminate deaths unwarrantedly.Congress put in place a national commission to assist in eliminating Infant Mortality.

73  America 2000.America 2000 A proposal was sought for standardize testing and improved standards through curriculum development. This proposal sought by the Bush administration was not passed. However, funds was given to support voluntary national curriculum standards.  Educate America Act: Goals 2000.America Act: Goals 2000 The administration of Clinton added two goals to the National Educational Goals. These goals include professional development and training amongst teacher and parental involvement.

74  The president at the time, President Bush passes the law “the No Child Left Behind Act”. This controversial Act contains four basic principles. Teachers must be accountable for learning and results, emphasis on teaching strategies that are proven to work, standardized testing, and provide more options for parents and more local control.law  2003 – United Nations initiates what is called a Literacy Decade. This period includes The objective of this is to help reduce the world literacy rates.United Nations initiates what is called a Literacy Decade

75 Reference  Morrison,G. Early Childhood Education Today. Ninth Edition. University of Texas. Pearson.


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