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1Thank you (Dr.) Dinesh D. Harsolekar for taking the time to come an attend our presentation. We appreciate your presence on a Sunday and ill do our best to keep up with the standard of quality education IES has been providing us.Lets get started…
2The Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881 We wil be covering the Negotiable Instruments Act which was established in 1881.Under this we will be covering :-1) Promisary Note (Section 4)2) Bill of Exchange (Section 5)3) Cheques (Section 6)The Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881
3The Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881 Definition:Section 13 of the Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881, defines a negotiable instrument as: “A negotiable instrument means a promissory note, bill of exchange or cheque payable either to order or to bearer.”Meaning :Negotiable means transferable. Instrument means document. Negotiable instrument, therefore, means a transferable document. The law relating to negotiable instruments is contained in the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 Explanation:The Act narrows down the meaning of instrument. It regulates only three types of instruments, viz., Promissory Notes, Bills of Exchange and Cheques.A negotiable instrument is one which entitles the holder to the receipt of money. It gives him the right to transfer the same by mere delivery or endorsement thereon. The negotiability of the instrument continues till its maturity.(Page 6)The Act came into force on 1st March 1882 and prior to that the provision of the Act was based on English common Law and cutoms & usages relating to the negotiable instrument act.Documents like Bill of lading, Railway receipts are not recognized under Negotiable Instrument act and hence not covered.NI Means and transferable document which creates right in favour of a certain person.It is a piece of paper which entitles a person a certain sum of money mentioned there in and which can be transferred from one person to another by delivery or by endorsement of delivery. The person to whom it is so becomes entitled to the amount mentioned in the document and the right to further transfer it. In addition to this right he also has a right to file a suit on the basis on the document in his own name in the event of his failure to receive the amount mentioned in the document.Thus a bonafied transfer
4The Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881 Characteristics\Features of Negotiable InstrumentProperty (does not exactly give possession of the instrument, but right to property)Good Title to the Instrument (gets the instrument free from all defects of any previous holder.)Rights of Holder in Due Course (not affected by certain defences which might be available against previous holder, for example, fraud, criminal, smugglers, to which he is not a party)Writing & Signature (it must be written and signed by all the parties according to the rules )Payment (A negotiable instrument may be made payable to two or more payees)Payable by legal Tender Money of India (The liabilities of the parties of negotiable instruments are fixed in terms of legal tender money only.)No Need of giving Notice(Page 8,9)Property : The possessor of the instrument is the holder and owner thereof. A negotiable instrument does not exactly give possession of the instrument, but right to property.Good Title :The holder in good faith and for value called the ‘holder in due course’ gets the instrument free from all defects of any previous holder.Right of Holder in Due Course : The holder in due course is not affected by certain defences which might be available against previous holder, for example, fraud, criminal, smugglers, to which he is not a party.Writing & Signature:According to the Rules of Negotiable Instrument, it must be written and signed by all the parties according to the rules relating to the promissory notes, bills of exchange, and cheques.Payment:A negotiable instrument may be made payable to two or more payees jointly, or it may be made payable in the alternatives to one or two, or some of several payees [Sec. 13(2)].Payable by legal Tender Money of India:Negotiable Instruments are payable to legal tender money of India. The liabilities of the parties of negotiable instruments are fixed in terms of legal tender money only.No Need of giving Notice:It is not necessary to give notice of transfer of a negotiable instrument in his own name for the recovery of the amount mentioned therein. Consideration in the case of a negotiable instrument is presumed.
5The Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881 Promissory Notes (Section 4) Definition:Section 4 defines a promissory notes as under: “A ‘promissory note’ is an instrument in writing (not being a bank-note or a currency-note), containing an unconditional undertaking, signed by the maker, to pay a certain sum of money only to, or to the order of a certain person, or to the bearer of the instrument.”
6The Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881 Promissory Notes (Section 4)Essentials Characteristics of a Promissory NoteAll kinds of negotiable instruments, including a promissory note, must be in writingThe instrument must contain an express or unconditional promise to payUnconditionalThe promissory note must be signed by the maker, otherwise, it is incomplete and of no effect with free consentBoth the drawer and the payee must be indicated or designated with certainty on the face of the promissory noteSpecific SumPromise to pay must be money onlyStamping
7The Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881 4 Types of Promissory Notes Promissory notes payable on demand;Promissory notes payable after date;Joint promissory notesJoint and several promissory notes
8The Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881 Case Study on Promissory Note: A lady called Gangabai was entitled, by endorsement, to a Government promissory note, which she had acquired through a broker named Acharya. Subsequently Acharya obtained possession of the note from Bai Gangabai, and he forged her endorsement on the note to himself. Subsequently he endorsed the note over to the defendants, the Bank of India, Ltd. The Bank sent the note, with other notes, to the Government Securities Department with a request for its renewal, and the note was in due course renewed by the prescribed officer of the Government Securities Department. When it was ultimately established that the signature of Bai Gangabai on the note had been forged by Acharya, Bai Gangabai sued the Secretary of State for the value of the note, and she recovered judgment for the amount due on the note with interest and costs.In this suit the Secretary of State sues the Bank of India, Ltd., and claims that the Bank is liable to indemnify him against the loss which he incurred by acting on the request of the Bank for the renewal of the note. Alternatively he claims that the renewed note, or the value thereof, may be returned to him on the basis that it was issued without consideration, or under a mistake of fact.
9The Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881 Bills of Exchange (Section 5) Definition:“Section 5 defines a bill of exchange as an instrument in writing containing an unconditional order, signed by the maker, directing a certain person, to pay a certain sum of money only to, or to the order of a certain person, or to the bearer of the instrument.”Essentials\Characteristics of Bill of ExchangeWritingPartiesDrawee and AcceptorOrder to PayAn Unconditional Order to PaySigned by DrawerPayee must be certainStamping
10The Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881 5 Types of Bills of Exchange Bill of exchange payable on demandBill of exchange payable after dateInland bill of exchangeForeign bill of exchangeAccommodation bill of exchange
11Difference between Promissory Note and Bill of Exchange The Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881Difference between Promissory Note and Bill of Exchange
12The Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881 Case study on Bill of Exchange:An exporter recently approached AIB Trade Finance Services with a common problem. The company was spending a lot of time chasing their debtors for payment. The Financial Director complained that despite having delivered their goods to the buyer, they were incurring considerable expense in staff time and communication costs in order to chase their moneyThe exporter had agreed to sell on an open account basis and was sending the shipping documents directly to the buyer to enable them to take possession of the goods prior to receiving payment. This meant that once the shipment had been made there was no control over when payment would be received.Despite the buyer's agreement to pay at the end of the month following the invoice date, the exporter found that payment was actually received 30 to 60 days later. In addition the time spent chasing the payment was creating additional costs as well as increasing the time spent on the account by the credit control functionCAN THE EXPORTER REGAIN CONTROL?AIB Trade Finance Services advised the company to consider using a Documentary Collection to obtain payment, or a commitment to pay from the buyer. This meant the exporter was encouraged to send their shipping documents to the buyer through the banking system accompanied by a Bill of Exchange* drawn on the buyer with a payment date at the end of the month following the date of shipment.The exporter instructed AIB Trade Finance Services, who in turn instructed the buyer's bank, to only release the shipping documents to the buyer against their acceptance of the Bill of Exchange and their agreement to make the payment on the due date. In addition AIB Trade Finance Services was able to instruct the buyer's bank to hold the accepted Bill of Exchange and present it to the buyer for payment on the due date.
13The Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881 Cheques (Section 6)Definition:The negotiable instrument act of 1881 defines cheque as, “A cheque is a bill of exchange, drawn on a specified banker and not expressed to be payable otherwise than on demand.”Types of ChequeBearer cheque: Those which are uncrossed are popularly known as “bearer” or open chequesCrossed ChequesA cheque is always drawn on a bank and therefore in a cheque drawee is always a bank, it can only bedrawn on the specified bank with whom the drawer has an account like BOE, a cheque also contains anunconditional order to pay & it involves three parties viz., drawer, drawee (bank) & payee.However, unlike a BOE a cheque does not require any acceptance on the bank on whom it isdrawn, because drawing of a cheque simply amounts to giving a direction to the bank who is thecustodian of the money of the drawer to pay the amt. of the cheque to the payees out of the funds of theFor Private Circulation Only 4drawer. The bank on which it is drawn i.e. the drawee bank cannot be liable if the cheque isdishonoured. Thus cheque is the special kind of BOE and though it is similar to BOE in many aspects itdoes differ from BOE but all BOE are not cheques.A cheque is always payable on demand & it cannot be made payable after a fixed period of time. Acheque is valid for a period of 6months from the date on which it is drawn, if the payee fails to presentthe cheque within the period of 6months as stated above he cannot there after receive the amt. of thecheque from the bank.A cheque can be crossed generally or specifically or it may be a bearer cheque. A cheque maybear past, present or future date. A cheque with a past cheque, with a past date is known as antidated cheque, cheque with a future date is known as post dated cheque.
14The Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881 ESSENTIAL features of a cheque:- A cheque is a ‘Bill’ of exchangeIt contains an unconditional order to pay a certain sum of money onlyA drawee is always a bankIt must be signed by the drawerThe order must be to pay money onlyA cheque involves three parties viz., drawer, drawee and payeeA cheque is always payable on demand and it cannot be made payable after a fixed period of timeAcceptance of the cheque by the bank is not required14
15The Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881 Difference between cheque and bill exchange15
16The Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881 Case study on Bill of Exchange:In Canara Bank vs. Canara Sales Corporation and Others[(1987)2 Supreme Court Cases 666]The company has a current account with the bank which was operated by the Company’s Managing Director. The Company’s account in whose custody the cheque book was, forged the signature of the Managing Director in 42 Cheques totaling Rs over a period of time. This was detected by another accountant. The company immediately on detected of the fraud demanded the amount from the bank. The bank refused payment and therefore the company files a suit against the bank. The bank lost the suit and took the matter up to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court dismissed the appeal of the bank and held thatSince the relationship between the customer and the bank is that of a creditor and debtor, the bank had no authority to make payment of a cheque containing a forged signature. The bank would be acted against the law in debiting the customer with the amount of the forged cheque as there would be no mandate on the bank to pay. The Supreme Court pointed out that the document in the cheque form on which the customer’s name as drawer was forged was a mere nullity. The bank would succeed only when it would establish adoption or estoppels. In dealing the case the Supreme Court relied on its earlier judgment in Bihta Cooperative Development and Cane Marketing Union Ltd vs. bank of Bihar (AIR 1967 Supreme Court 389)16
17The Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881 Question and Answers
18The Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881 Thank You and Wish you All the best in your presentation