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Archaeology and the New Testament Apologetics Part IV

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1 Archaeology and the New Testament Apologetics Part IV

2 Luke’s choices of words & titles They claim that two duumuirs ruled in Philippi. Luke uses the term praetor. Findings have shown that Romans used the title praetor for magistrate of that colony. His use of the term proconsul is verified by an inscription in Delphi Luke calls Publius, the chief man in Malta, the “first man of the island.” An inscription has been found that uses that same term for Publius.

3 New Laws Discovered Slab of stone discovered in 1878 contains a decree from Emperor Claudius (41-54 AD) that anyone violating a tomb be put to death. Always before there had been fines in place for such activities, but never the death penalty. This would indicate that the Romans were taking seriously the rumor that the Christians had stolen Jesus’ body and claimed He rose from the dead.

4 Quirinius: Objections There was no census Quirinius was not governor of Syria at that time everyone did not have to return to his ancestral home.

5 Quirinius: Findings Roman did take census for tax purposes every 14 yrs. Augustus began the practice in either 23-22 B.C. or 9-8 B.C. (this was Luke’s ref). Josephus states that Quirinius was governor in 6AD. According to an inscription found in Antioch, Quirinius was governor in 7 BC. He held the position twice. Papyrus scrolls found in Egypt instruct residents to return to their places of family origin where they are registered

6 Papyrus Document-Egypt 104 AD Contains instructions to constituents to return to their traditional homes

7 Quirinius Luke 2:1-3 In those days Caesar Augustus issued a decree that a census should be taken of the entire Roman world. (This was the first census that took place while Quirinius was governor of Syria.) And everyone went to his own town to register.

8 Erastus Paul mentions a treasurer called Erastus in Romans. Excavations revealed a pavement which has engraved in Latin “Eratsus, curator of the public buildings laid this pavement at his own expense.” It dates to the 1st century

9 Erastus

10 Pilate

11 Ephesus In Acts, Luke describes a riot in Ephesus concerning the silver idols to Artemis. The assembly did in fact take place in the theatre described by Luke. An inscription was found giving instructions that the silver statues of Artemis be placed in the “theatre during a full session of the Ecclesia.” (translated “assembly”) Excavation revealed that there was room for 25,000 people.

12 Ephesus

13 1.Pool of Siloam: there were 2 possible candidates for it: (1) the “lower” pool collected water from the Gihon Spring east of the city, (2) the “upper” pool collected water from the same spring but it came through an underground tunnel cut by Hezekiah around 701. BC.

14 The Upper Pool: water from the Gihon spring enters via a tunnel cut through solid rock by King Hezekiah in 701 BC

15 New Discoveries 1.In 2004, however, a previously undiscovered pool was found in a nearby area known as the King’s Garden. Coins dating to 90 BC and 63 AD show that the pool was in use during Jesus’ day. The pool has a 3-tiered stairway leading down to it and one side of it is 225 ft long. There is no doubt that this is the pool in which Jesus healed the blind man.


17 Ossuaries Inscribed on the ossuary were the words "Yehosef bar Kayafa," translated as " Joseph, son of Caiaphas. Matthew, Luke and John each identify Caiaphas as the high priest that presided over the arrest and trial of Jesus. The historian Josephus also identifies “Joseph Caiaphas” as the Jewish high priest from 18 to 36 AD (Jewish Antiquities 18:35). Josephus also refers to him as “Joseph who was called Caiaphas of the high priesthood” (Jewish Antiquities 18:95).

18 Caiaphas

19 Ossuaries Ossuary of James the brother of Jesus (this part is emphatic)

20 Temple of Pan, Caesarea Philippi

21 Cave entrance is 49 feet high and 65 feet wide The springs of the Jordan river arise from a crack below the entrance Before an earthquake in 1837, the spring came from the floor inside the cave Because the Cave of Pan seemed to reach into the very depths of the earth, it came to regarded as the entrance to the underworld, the abode of Hades the god of the lower regions, and home to the disembodied spirits of the dead. Temple of Pan, Caesarea Philippi

22 The cliff that abuts Mt. Hermon is referred to as the Rock of the Gods




26 Matt 16:13-18 When Jesus came to the region of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, "Who do people say the Son of Man is?" They replied, "Some say John the Baptist; others say Elijah; and still others, Jeremiah or one of the prophets." "But what about you?" he asked. "Who do you say I am?"

27 Matt 16:13-18 Simon Peter answered, "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God." Jesus replied, "Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah, for this was not revealed to you by man, but by my Father in heaven. And I tell you that you are Peter, (Peter means rock.) and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it.


29 Archaeology and the Old Testament Apologetics Part III





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