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College Board research for the National Coalition for Core Arts Standards (NCCAS)

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Presentation on theme: "College Board research for the National Coalition for Core Arts Standards (NCCAS)"— Presentation transcript:

1 College Board research for the National Coalition for Core Arts Standards (NCCAS)

2 R ESEARCH O VERVIEW

3 I. International Arts Education Standards Standards of fifteen countries/regions were analyzed: What are the standards and benchmarks of each country individually? What are the trends and commonalities among the group as a whole? Ireland Canada Finland New Zealand Australia Singapore United States United Kingdom Japan China Austria Netherlands Scotland Sweden Venezuela

4 International Arts Education Standards The 2010 draft of the standards was built around framework of: Generating Realizing Responding Australia: The 2011 final version of the standards simplified this to two components instead of three: Making Responding

5 International Arts Education Standards

6 CountryDanceMusicTheatreVisual ArtMedia ArtsOther Australia Austria Textile and technical design; graphics; fashion Canada China “fine art” and “art” mentioned separately Finland Ireland Japan handicrafts Netherlands New Zealand Scotland design, craft Singapore Sweden crafts United Kingdom United States Venezuela

7 International Arts Education Standards Trend or Theme # Countries Which ones Generating 14 All except Venezuela Expressing/Realizing 14 All except Venezuela Responding/Appreciating 14 All except Venezuela Social Skills 10 All except Japan, Netherlands, Singapore, Sweden, Venezuela National Cultural Heritage/ Cross-cultural knowledge 10 All except Austria, Ireland, New Zealand, Singapore, Venezuela Cross-curricular Connections 9 Australia, Austria, Canada, China, Finland, Ireland, Sweden, U.K., U.S. ICT/Media Arts 9 Australia, Austria, Canada, Finland, Ireland, New Zealand, Singapore, Sweden, U.S. Visual Culture 7 Austria, Canada, Finland, New Zealand, Singapore, Sweden, U.S. Environmental Awareness 6 Austria, Canada, China, Finland, Sweden, U.K., U.S. Awareness of Cultural Institutions 6 Australia, Austria, Finland, Netherlands, Singapore, Sweden Connections to Communities 6 Australia, Austria, Finland, Ireland, Netherlands, U.S. Awareness of Prof. Opportunities 3 Australia, Ireland, U.S.

8 International Arts Education Standards Trend or Theme # Countries Which ones Generating 14 All except Venezuela Expressing/Realizing 14 All except Venezuela Responding/Appreciating 14 All except Venezuela Social Skills 10 All except Japan, Netherlands, Singapore, Sweden, Venezuela National Cultural Heritage/ Cross-cultural knowledge 10 All except Austria, Ireland, New Zealand, Singapore, Venezuela Cross-curricular Connections 9 Australia, Austria, Canada, China, Finland, Ireland, Sweden, U.K., U.S. ICT/Media Arts 9 Australia, Austria, Canada, Finland, Ireland, New Zealand, Singapore, Sweden, U.S. Visual Culture 7 Austria, Canada, Finland, New Zealand, Singapore, Sweden, U.S. Environmental Awareness 6 Austria, Canada, China, Finland, Sweden, U.K., U.S. Awareness of Cultural Institutions 6 Australia, Austria, Finland, Netherlands, Singapore, Sweden Connections to Communities 6 Australia, Austria, Finland, Ireland, Netherlands, U.S. Awareness of Prof. Opportunities 3 Australia, Ireland, U.S.

9 To what extent do the current U.S. National Standards for Arts Education align with the 21 st Century Skills Map in the Arts? II. Arts Standards and 21 st Century Skills

10 Arts Standards and 21 st Century Skills 21 st Century Skills MapNational Standards: Visual Art Alignment SkillOutcomeGradeContent Standards Does it align? Comments Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Exercising sound reasoning in understanding Making complex choices and decisions Understanding the interconnections among systems Identifying and asking significant questions that clarify various points of view and lead to better solutions Framing, analyzing, and synthesizing information in order to solve problems and answer questions. K-4Content Standard #1: Understanding and applying media, techniques, and processes Yes The National Standards for this grade level indicate that students are to: Describe how different materials, techniques, and processes cause different responses Use different media, techniques, and processes to communicate ideas, experiences, and stories Use art materials and tools in a safe and responsible manner These goals relate to the P21 outcomes of making complex choices and decisions, understanding the interconnections among systems, and framing, analyzing and synthesizing information in order to solve problems and answer questions.

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12 21 st Century Skills Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Communication Collaboration Creativity Innovation Information Literacy Media Literacy Information, Communication, & Technology Literacy Flexibility and Adaptability Initiative and Self-direction Social and Cross-cultural Skills Productivity and Accountability Leadership and Responsibility Arts Standards and 21 st Century Skills: Key Findings The P21 skills with the highest instances of alignment with the standards were Critical Thinking and Problem Solving, Communication, and Creativity.

13 21 st Century Skills Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Communication Collaboration Creativity Innovation Information Literacy Media Literacy Information, Communication, & Technology Literacy Flexibility and Adaptability Initiative and Self-direction Social and Cross-cultural Skills Productivity and Accountability Leadership and Responsibility Arts Standards and 21 st Century Skills: Key Findings The P21 skills that were least aligned with the standards were Collaboration, Information, Communication, & Technology Literacy, and Productivity and Accountability. The P21 skills with the highest instances of alignment with the standards were Critical Thinking and Problem Solving, Communication, and Creativity.

14 Consider areas of overlap between P21 skills: Arts Standards and 21 st Century Skills: Recommendations for NCCAS Creativity Innovation Media Literacy Information, Communication, and Technology Literacy Information Literacy

15 Consider skills related to work habits/work ethic: Productivity and Accountability Leadership and Responsibility Initiative and Self-direction The current standards cover what is to be learned and, often, how it is to be learned, but don’t often reference the qualities and characteristics students should exhibit while getting there. Arts Standards and 21 st Century Skills: Recommendations for NCCAS

16 Consider the role of technology-oriented skills in the revised standards: Information, Communication, and Technology literacy Media Literacy Information Literacy Arts Standards and 21 st Century Skills: Recommendations for NCCAS

17 III. College-level Standards in the Arts Phase I of the research involves the following components : Textbook analysis Reviews of AP course goals and course descriptions Analysis and summary of accreditation standards Goal: To understand current standards and expectations for college-level instruction in the arts affecting students who are arts majors as well as non-majors.

18 College-level Standards in the Arts: Phase I Findings: Accreditation Standards Review of accreditation standards Accreditation Standards Performance/Production/Studio Progressively building skill in at least one area Area of concentration within the discipline Familiarity with elements, principles, and discipline-specific techniques Performance, exhibition, critique History and theory Basic knowledge of history and repertoires Skills of analysis and evaluation Ability to place work in historical, cultural, and stylistic contexts Teaching Included in dance standards only Technology Working knowledge of technology related to area of specialization Synthesis Students should be able to work independently, drawing on their knowledge of performance, technique, analysis, and history Results Professional, entry-level competence Ability to form and defend value judgments Recommendations Understanding of the nature of professional work in the field Exploring areas of individual interest Business or entrepreneurial skills

19 College-level Standards in the Arts: Phase I Findings: AP course goals and structure AP Studio Art Course GoalsPortfolio Structure Investigation of formal and conceptual issues Informed and critical decision making Development of technical skills Students as independent thinkers Quality Concentration Breadth

20 College-level Standards in the Arts: Phase I Findings: Textbook Analysis Most textbooks for each arts discipline fit into one of four categories: Technique HistoryTheory Criticism and Analysis

21 College-level Standards in the Arts: Phase I Findings: Textbook Analysis O VERALL FINDINGS : More resources in the history category than for any other Fewest textbooks in categories related to artistic production With the exception of music theory, studies of history and practice in the arts appear to be dealt with entirely separately.

22 College-level Standards in the Arts Phase 2 Analysis of foundation-level college arts curricula surveying and interviewing college arts educators and administrators nationwide reviewing course descriptions and syllabi.

23 Research currently in progress

24 Review of recently revised state arts education standards Part I: Review and summarize standards documents Part II: Follow-up interviews with state arts education representatives Goals: Identify themes/trends in frameworks and overall structure of standards Identify themes/trends in guiding philosophies or goals addressed in the revision of the standards State Standards in Arts Education

25 Colorado Florida Michigan New Jersey New York City North Carolina Tennessee Washington State Standards in Arts Education States/districts reviewed:

26 Key findings: Structure of Standards State Standards in Arts Education Standards/Strands/Big Ideas: Broad goal statements OR broad categories that more specific standards will fit within Grade Level (or grade band) expectations: Age- and grade-appropriate recommendations for what students should know, understand, and be able to at different stages Evidence Outcomes/ Performance Indicators: How you will know when the grade level expectations have been met.

27 High School standards High school standards were most often addressed as a single grade band, while earlier levels are dealt with grade-by-grade. In several states, high school standards are addressed in multiple tracks or pathways Colorado: Fundamental Pathway and Extended Pathway North Carolina: Beginning, Intermediate, and Advanced State Standards in Arts Education

28 21 st Century Skills State Standards in Arts Education Key Findings: Pedagogical themes or trends

29 Michigan Standards: Grades 9-12, Music Standard 1: PERFORM: Apply skills and knowledge to perform in the arts BenchmarkP21 links Sing and play with expression and technical accuracy a large and varied repertoire of vocal and instrumental literature with a moderate level of difficulty, including some selections performed from memory. I.3, I.4, I.5, I.6, II.1, II.7, III.3, III.4, III.10 Sing written music in four parts, with and without accompaniment I.3, I.4, I.5, II.1, III.4, III.6 Perform an appropriate part in large and small ensembles, demonstrating well-developed ensemble skills I.4, II.5, III.3 Perform music using instruments (traditional and non-traditional) and electronic media I.1, I.2, II.2, II.3, II.5, III.2 State Standards in Arts Education Key Findings: Pedagogical themes or trends

30 Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy State Standards in Arts Education Key Findings: Pedagogical themes or trends

31 References to NAEP Framework Example: New Jersey standards Standard NAEP Alignment Standard 1: The Creative Process All students will demonstrate an understanding of the elements and principles that govern the creation of works of art in dance, music, theatre, and visual art Creating Standard 2: History of the Arts and Culture All students will understand the role, development, and influence of the arts throughout history and across cultures Creating Standard 3: Performing All students will synthesize skills, media, methods, and technologies that are appropriate to creating, performing, and/or presenting works of art in dance, music, theatre, and visual art Performing Standard 4: Aesthetic Responses and Critique Methodologies All students will demonstrate and apply an understanding of arts philosophies, judgment, and analysis to works of art in dance, music, theatre and visual art Responding State Standards in Arts Education Key Findings: Pedagogical themes or trends

32 Washington The NAEP language of creating, performing, and responding connects the skills and concepts associated with all disciplines. State Standards in Arts Education Key Findings: Pedagogical themes or trends

33 Understanding by Design influence Example: Florida State Standards in Arts Education Key Findings: Pedagogical themes or trends Big IdeasEnduring Understandings Critical Thinking and Reflection Enduring Understanding 1: Cognition and reflection are required to appreciate, interpret, and create with artistic intent Enduring Understanding 2: Assessing our own and others’ artistic work, using critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making skills, is central to artistic growth Enduring Understanding 3: The process of critiquing works of art lead to development of critical thinking skills transferable to other contexts Skills, Techniques, and Processes Enduring Understanding 1: The arts are inherently experiential and actively engage learners in the processes of creating, interpreting, and responding to art. Enduring Understanding 2: Development of skills, techniques, and processes in the arts strengthens our ability to remember, focus on, process, and sequence information. Enduring Understanding 3: Through purposeful practice, artists learn to manage, master, and refine simple, then complex, skills and techniques

34 State Standards in Arts Education Synthesis of Key Findings Influenced the language and ideas of the standards P21Bloom’s Directly influenced the structure of the standards NAEPUbD

35 Media Arts Standards Review of media arts standards in the United States: LAUSD Minnesota New York City (the Moving Image category of the NYC Blueprint for the Arts) South Carolina Goals: Identify similarities and differences in definitions of media arts, and approaches to instruction

36 Media Arts Standards State/District5 th Arts Discipline Media addressed LAUSDMedia Arts Digital imaging, cinema, animation, interactive web and game design, virtual 2D and 3D design, and digital sound production. MinnesotaMedia Arts Photography, film or video, audio, computer or digital arts, and interactive media New York CityMoving ImageFilm, television, animation South CarolinaMedia Arts Animation, film studies, graphic design, sound design and recording, digital photography

37 Media Arts Standards PrimaryIntermediateMiddleHigh School Developing basic technical skills to develop and present media art works. Drawing from their imaginations, experiences, or the exploration of ideas and feelings Learning how to generate, capture, manipulate, produce, and present information Working collaboratively Focusing on the ability to create as well as find meaning in and understand the impact of media arts Building an understanding of the personal, cultural, and historical contexts of media Focusing on the use of original imagery and sound in new combinations and multiple formats Developing an understanding of media art, beyond mass media imagery, and use tools of production for their own personal expression Expanding technical base of knowledge Focusing on the development of skills and abilities for extended interaction with various genres of the media arts Particular emphasis on using one or more genres to demonstrate creativity, problem solving, and collaboration skills in complex works. Students expertise and expression should be developed through more in-depth review, interpretation, and evaluation of their work and the work of others. Example: Minnesota

38 Media Arts Standards From conversations with writers of Media Arts standards: Importance of writing standards that can evolve as technology does; standards cannot be too technology- focused. Emphasis should be on the process, not necessarily the specific tools that are being used. Media literacy as a component of media arts, the way that responding to works of visual or performing arts are elements of the standards in dance, music, theatre, and visual art

39 What are best practices in arts education as they relate to the social, emotional, and cognitive development of children from the pre-K to college levels? Child Development and Arts Education

40 Discipline-specific literature reviews divided by age/grade bands, addressing: Child Development and Arts Education Developmental characteristics of students at this age Students’ abilities and interests in this particular discipline at this age Hallmarks of best practices in arts instruction for learners of this age

41 Sample Recommendations: Dance Early Childhood (PreK-2) Elementary (3-5)Middle (6-8)High School (9-12) Classes should include high energy movements, as well as repetitive movement phrases and patterns that include stillness. Encourage expression of feelings in movement explorations including imagery, stories, sounds, words, and games that build articulation and confidence by making connections with peers Introduce and repeat basic dance skills including gross and fine motor skills Deepen movement awareness through explorations that include diagonals, curves and twists, moving into asymmetry. Students of this age should be able to execute isolated as well as coordinated dance movements, maintaining alignment and balance Teach through repetitions to increase strength and coordination Facilitate kinesthetic explorations that require improvisation of movement phases Importance of creating a supporting, challenging, yet non-judgmental environment Introduce, practice, and master basic techniques in ballet, modern, jazz, etc. Challenge students to create their own dances with peers Address more lengthy and complex movement phrases that include rhythmic and muscular understanding. Include time for composition and choreography to incorporate social and emotional challenges. Dance projects that support social and emotional development include opportunities to initiate, plan, and produce independently, but in coordination with others. Using critical analysis and comparison, students are able to articulate their impressions and critiques of dances they observe as active, informed audiences. Students at this level are able to understand the linkages between dance and other disciplines, literacy, other cultures, and its performance and social aspects.

42 Find College Board/NCCAS research online The College Board: Arts at the Core National Coalition for Core Arts Standards Nancy Rubino, Senior Director, Office of Academic Initiatives Amy Charleroy, Associate Director, Office of Academic Initiatives,


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