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INTRODUCTION TO GASTRONOMY

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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO GASTRONOMY"— Presentation transcript:

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2 INTRODUCTION TO GASTRONOMY
DAY SEVEN THE TIMELINE; WHAT IS MODERN HAUTE CUISINE, ITS HISTORY AND THE ISSUES THAT SHAPE IT? Frenchlaundry.com

3 LESSON OBJECTIVES Describe Modern Haute Cuisine
Continue to develop a timeline of Haute Cuisine, beginning with La Grande Cuisine and ending with Modern Haute Cuisine Discuss contemporary cuisine and the interest in ethnic ingredients and their influence on Modern Haute Cuisine Identify popular restaurant rating systems; Discuss the influence of critics (food and wine)

4 HAUTE CUISINE TIMELINE
The progression of cuisine… La Grande Cuisine Classic Haute Cuisine Nouvelle Cuisine Cuisine Minceur Modern Haute Cuisine Avant-Garde Cuisine

5 NOUVELLE CUISINE LE NOUVEAU GUIDE GAULT-MILLAU 1972:
10 COMMANDMENTS OF NOUVELLE CUISINE “Do not overcook.” “Use fresh, quality products.” “Lighten [the] menu.” “Do not be systematically modernistic. Avoid a new orthodoxy.” “Seek out what the new techniques can bring you.” 6. “Eliminate brown and white sauces.” 7. “Do not ignore dietetics.” 8. “Do not cheat on…presentation. Simplicity instead of fakery.” 9. “Be inventive.” 10. “Do not be prejudiced.” **As quoted in Rao, Hayagreeva, Philippe Monin, and Randolphe Durand, “Institutional Change in Toque Ville: Nouvelle Cuisine as an Identity Movement in French Gastronomy,” The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 108, No. 4 (Jan., 2003), pp

6 NOUVELLE CUISINE Nouvelle cuisine does not reject classic traditions, but innovates and advances them. This picture is from Paul Bocuse’s French Cooking (1977). Does it remind you of anyone familiar? Photo source: Bocuse, Paul. Paul Bocuse’s French Cooking. New York: Random House, 1977.

7 HAUTE CUISINE TIMELINE
The progression of cuisine… La Grande Cuisine Classic Haute Cuisine Nouvelle Cuisine Cuisine Minceur Modern Haute Cuisine The Cuisine of Alice Waters, Guy Savoy, Gordon Ramsay, Thomas Keller, Marcus Samuelsson, Avant-Garde Cuisine

8 CONTEMPORARY CUISINE 1950 - 2000
“Ethnic” cuisines become more conspicuous and increasingly popular as countries like America, Australia and England welcomed large numbers of migrants from different countries and cultures in the post-war years. (particularly notable numbers from Asia) The model of nouvelle cuisine made it easier for elements of other cuisines to be incorporated into the mainstream.

9 WHY WAS ETHNIC INTERESTING?
The perception of “foreign” food in one’s home country as ‘exotic’ Increased travel, exposure to foods and cuisines of different countries; “travel stimulated “a growing cosmopolitanism, which made people receptive to foreign foods in general”. (Levenstein, 216)

10 WHAT DID IT MEAN FOR CUISINE?
Before Modern Haute cuisine, French (French-style) was the dominant cuisine in restaurants. | Guy Savoy, Alain Ducasse, Daniel Boulud, Jean Georges Vongerichten; all french chefs that have looked to other cuisines, cultures and continents to expand and perfect their art. “Fusion Food” became popular, particularly in countries trying to stand out in the culinary world as a point of difference to classic French style or Nouvelle Cuisine; Australia, England particularly prevalent

11 MODERN HAUTE CUISINE Breaking boundaries of ethnicity/nationality Development of new techniques New styles of service Cooking as advocacy, or as a political act Creating new supply chains The chef as a star

12 MODERN HAUTE CUISINE Breaking boundaries of ethnicity/nationality Rare: “exotic” foods and new foods, creative ambiance Development of new techniques New styles of service Cooking as advocacy, or as a political act Creating new supply chains The chef as a star

13 MODERN HAUTE CUISINE Breaking boundaries of ethnicity/nationality Development of new techniques Prepared by skilled cooks: new techniques and styles New styles of service Cooking as advocacy, or as a political act Creating new supply chains The chef as a star

14 MODERN HAUTE CUISINE Breaking boundaries of ethnicity/nationality Development of new techniques New styles of service Eaten by skilled eaters: who is the new clientele? Cooking as advocacy, or as a political act Creating new supply chains The chef as a star

15 MODERN HAUTE CUISINE Breaking boundaries of ethnicity/nationality Development of new techniques New styles of service Cooking as advocacy, or as a political act Jamie Oliver, Dan Barber, Slow Food Movement Creating new supply chains The chef as a star

16 MODERN HAUTE CUISINE Breaking boundaries of ethnicity/nationality Development of new techniques New styles of service Cooking as advocacy, or as a political act Creating new supply chains Relationships with small suppliers, using local producers and cutting out the middle man The chef as a star

17 MODERN HAUTE CUISINE Breaking boundaries of ethnicity/nationality Development of new techniques New styles of service Cooking as advocacy, or as a political act Creating new supply chains The chef as a star The advent of the Celebrity Chef, restaurants are secondary

18 WHO IS YOUR CULINARY INSPIRATION?

19 WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES AND RISKS OF CHEF STARDOM?

20 THE REVIEW! What is the role of the restaurant critic?
RESTAURANT RATING SYSTEMS What is the role of the restaurant critic?

21 REVIEWING AND CRITICISM
Earliest gastronomic evidence was in the early 19th century with Grimod whose criticism was destined for a public audience. The role of the critic? Criticism can inform, educate or evaluate and analyze for an intended audiences According to Dianne Jacobs (2005) “You help consumers make informed decisions about where to eat.” (114)

22 RESTAURANT RATING SYSTEMS
Zagat; 0-30 points Food, décor, service, cost “Zagat Survey is a business based on a simple premise – that the shared opinions of thousands of avid consumers with real experiences are inherently more accurate than the opinions of just one or two critics” (www.zagat.com).

23 THE ZAGAT GUIDE Tim and Nina Zagat Revolutionized the business of restaurant criticism; Unlike newspapers and magazine reviews, Zagat reviews is not dependent on one person’s viewpoint. | 100,000 in 45 cities completes a detailed questionnaire.

24 RESTAURANT RATING SYSTEMS
Forbes (was Mobil); 0 to 5 stars “There is a proven, time-tested gold standard for Hospitality ratings, and we invented it. Forbes Travel Guide provides travelers the most objective, most disciplined ratings for hotels, restaurants and spas in the world”. (www.forbestravelguide.com).

25 RESTAURANT RATING SYSTEMS
New York Times; 0 to 4 stars Sam Sifton: “I was able to sneak in some truly memorable dishes this year: among them, a perfect agnolotti del plin at Del Posto; a tiny piece of French toast at Momofuku Ko; a crisp and juicy truffle-stuffed chicken thigh with Medjool dates, carrot mousseline and tatsoi at Per Se.”* Sifton, Sam. “Eleven Memorable Dishes, and Not Even a Full Year.” The New York Times. Dec 30, 2009.

26 RESTAURANT RATING SYSTEMS
Le Guide Michelin; 0 to 3 stars “For restaurants, Michelin stars are based on five criteria: * The quality of the products * The mastery of flavor and cooking * The ‘personality’ of the cuisine * The value for the money * The consistency between visits”

27 THE MICHELIN GUIDE “Famously anonymous” Does this provide credibility? According to the Michelin guide, restaurants are rated based only on “what’s present on the plate, not considering interior decoration, service quality or table settings.” From a guide into an institution to judge; “little justification yet it is still one of the best selling books in France”

28 RESTAURANT RATING SYSTEMS
Gault-Millau; 0 to 4 Toques “Ratings are based in part on the seasonality and quality of the ingredients, creativity with respect to the national cuisine, as well as inspired new dishes that maintain harmony in their preparation” (www.gaultmillau.de).

29 A NEW RATING FRONTIER…

30 HOMEWORK 1) Watch Video “Hudson Valley Foie Gras: The Truth” on YouTube 2) Watch the TEDTalk video “Dan Barber: A surprising parable of Foie Gras” on YouTube 3) Watch Marije Vogelzang TedTalk “Food Love” on YouTube


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