2By the end of this lesson: 1. Explain the structure of the gov’t of the Roman Republic. Be sure to include the following terms: republic, Senate, consuls, veto, checks and balances, praetors, and censors2. “In terms of defense, trade and governing outlying districts, Rome’s location was ideal.” Do you agree with this statement? Why or why not?3. What were some social conflicts that existed because of inequality w/in the Roman empire? Outcomes?4. What factors helped Rome expand successfully?
4Physical setting Base for controlling E and W Mediterranean. Probs: vulnerable to invasion through Alps and from sea.
5Dif from Greece b/c Unity w/in region Farming: Veggies, olives, grapes, citrus
6Early people Etruscans (late 600s BC) Cultural influence: written lang later adapted by Romans.Fine clothing, pottery, jewelry, metal, wood, paved roads, drained marshes, constructed sewers.
7Etruscan Custom later adopted Parade for conquering military leaders.
8Location of Rome Protected from Sea Invasion On river’s easiest crossing, center of land trade routes.
9Roman Gov’tEst A republic: form of gov’t where voters elect officials to run the state.Vote: ONLY adult males3 main groups of citizens governed:Senate, Popular Assembly, and Officials (called magistrates)
101. Senate Most powerful of 3 governing bodies. 300 members Jobs: Controlled public fundsDecided foreign policyCould act as courtIn times of emergency: propose dictator (only ruled for 6 mo)
112. Popular AssembliesCitizens get together and vote on laws and elected officialsSome assemblies voted on war or peace, some had judicial roles.Tribunes: (10 elected officials) elected by assemblies. Job: could refuse to approve Senate bills and judged actions of public officials. (checks and balances!)
123. Magistrates Public officials 2 Consuls : Chief executives (like Presidents)Jobs:Ran gov’t and military commanders.Appointed dictatorsPowers: Could veto (Latin for ”I forbid”) acts of other consul, governed with the advice of the Senate.
13To help Consuls:Romans elected Praetors: commanded armies in times of war and oversaw legal system in peace. They also created lists of potential judges and jurors.
14The Census!Censors: Elected every 5 years only for 18mos. Job: registered citizens acc to wealth, could apt candidates to Senate, and oversaw moral conduct of citizens.
15Checks and BalancesPrevented any one part of the gov’t from becoming too powerful.
16Let’s make this more confusing! Changes were made to the composition of the assemblies and elected officials based on the common people’s attempts to win more rights.
17The Conflict of the Orders Roman Society divided b/w 2 social classes after 509 BC: patricians and plebians.Patricians: powerful aristocratic class. Controlled gov’t. Provided financial, social, and legal support in exchange for political backing and loyalty.Plebians: All other citizens.
18Plebians sufferedCouldn’t hold public office or serve in the military.Didn’t know what the laws were because they weren’t written down! Judge stated laws and inly Patricians were judges.
19Changes MadePlebians demanded change and led strikes. Eventually forced Romans to write down laws.The Twelve Tables: placed in public square.
20More rights for Plebians By 300BC, wealthy Plebians AND Patricians joined to form Roman Nobility.Then, only POOR people discriminated against, not Plebians.
21Officials LimitedOnly rich nobles could hold office, b/c of lack of salary.Nobles controlled the Senate and dominated the republic.Video Clips!
22Main Ideas about gov’tRoman government was supposed to give normal people (poor) a voice in gov’tThere were checks and balances to ensure that certain parts of gov’t didn’t get too powerfulIf people felt like they weren’t getting a fair deal, they could appeal to try to change the way the gov’t was run.
23Extending the Republic Many wars.Army: all adult males w/min property must serve army.Strict discipline in army. Good org, training, high morale
24Parts of the Army Legions: most imp unit (4500-6000 male citizens) Auxilia: army units of non-citizen men.Video Clips!
25Wise PoliciesConquered people also got partial citizenship and political powerCould own property and marry but not vote.Rome made treaties and alliances w/distant cities. Allies promised to help military in times of need.
26Conquered RegionsAlso, conquered people provided land for resettled farmers. Helped to maintain military control, spread language, law and culture.
28Family Most imp unit: center of religion, morals, education. Father=paterfamilias: authority. Conduced religious ceremonies, made all imp decisions, supervised son’s education.
29Roman Women Higher Status than Greek! Mother managed household, did buying and helped entertain guests. Wife Swap clip!
30Religion Identified gods w/Greek gods. Observe will of gods by looking at organs of sacrificed animals or flight of birds.
31Check up!1. Explain the structure of the gov’t of the Roman Republic. Be sure to include the following terms: republic, Senate, consuls, veto, checks and balances2. “In terms of defense, trade and governing outlying districts, Rome’s location was ideal.” Do you agree with this statement? Why or why not?3. What were some social conflicts that existed because of inequality w/in the Roman empire? Outcomes?4. What factors helped Rome expand successfully?
32Roman ExpansionThe entire Italian peninsula south of Rubicon River
33By the end of the lesson: 1. What were the final results of the Punic Wars?2. How did the gov’t and social structure of Rome change as a result of the conquest of new territories?
34Burden of defendingConflict with Carthage (originally Phoenician colony) powerful city on coast of N. Africa.Fought 3 wars b/w 264 and 146 BC: Punic WarsRome=better army, easier to defendCarthage=better navy, more wealth
351st Punic War Rome won in 241 BC Carthage had to pay (indemnity) for damages caused to Rome. Gave up control of Sicily.
362nd Punic War (218 BC)Hannibal: created army in Spain w/infantry, cavalry and war elephants!Crossed Alps from France into Italy: many died!
37Hannibal is one crazy awesome general! Won many victories against the Romans.BUT Rome invaded N. Africa and turned the tables. Battle of Zama.
38Rome wins 2nd Punic WarAgain, Carthage pays indemnity and gives up navy and Spanish colonies.
393rd Punic WarSome Romans hated Carthage at this point, sieged Carthage, enslaved population.Salted their fields!
40Conquest of Hellenistic East Won war with Macedonia in 197 BC
41Problems of Roman Expansion Larger territory forced change in operation.Senate gained almost complete control of army and foreign policy. Nobles gained more power.
42No more freebie citizenships New territories only given rules and taxes!
43Provinces SeparatelyGoverned by someone appointed by Senate. NOT closely monitored. Often took bribes and ignored needs of the people. Tax collectors lined pockets.
44Changes in Agriculture Large estates w/slaves (Latifundia)Rome depended on grain from provinces.Farmers lost land and livestock during Punic Wars and were forced to sell what they had and move into the cities . Some couldn’t find jobs and depended on gov’t for food.Worse: couldn’t serve in military!
45Growth of Commerce and Social Change Inc. trade.New class of business and landowners (equites) had great wealth and increased political influence.
46Many joblessWeakened ideals of discipline and devotion to the state.
47Exchange of ideasNew religions and cultures from conquered territories.Slaves taken from territories. Some treated badly.Spartacus! Slave. Led revolt but killed of his followers crucified.
48Check up 1. What were the final results of the Punic Wars? 2. How did the gov’t and social structure of Rome change as a result of the conquest of new territories?
49By the end of the lesson1. What was the First Triumverate? Why was it formed?2. Identify Marius, Sulla, Pompey, Cleopatra, Marc Antony, Nero, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius3. Describe the significance of the reign of Julius Caesar.4. Contrast the rule of the Julio-Claudians w/ the rule of the Good Emperors
502 Bros try to do the right thing…. Tiberius and Gaius
51The Roman Empire Tiberius: 1st attempt to change Rome. Some Senators used public land for private purposes. So, Tiberius limited amt of public land Senators could use.Moved landless citizens to work on Senators’ old land.Senators and sympathizers clubbed him to death.
52Gaius: Tiberius’bro Elected 123 BC Introduced using public funds to buy grain for poor people and sell to them for low prices.Gaius killed in a riot. Marked new trend: use violence to get what you want!
53The Social WarItalian cities wanted right to run for office in Rome. Senate refused so the Italian allies rebelled.Very bloody, Italian States well trainedItalian cities beaten but Senate granted benefits of citizenship.
54Changes to MilitaryConsul: Marius: military hero. Signed up any citizen to serve in army regardless of land ownership.Soldiers were paid and kept bootyLed to volunteer armySoldiers could advance even if poor. Armies became loyal to leaders instead of gov’t.
55Consul Lucius Cornelius Sulla Good general. When consulship ended Marius tried to stop him from commanding military.So, Sulla marched legions on Rome led to civil war.Results: Sulla won and executed hundreds who opposed him
56Dictator Sulla (82-79 B.C.)Reforms: restore power to Senate. Inc by 300 members.Change in thought about military commanders counting on loyalty of soldiers to do bidding.
57The 1st Triumverate Julius Caesar: popular Good speaker, gained support from poor citizens of Rome.Made him UNPOPULAR with Senate so he teamed up w/2 generals: Gaius Pompey and Licinius Crassus to create the 1st Triumverate
58Caesar becomes consul 59BC Brought Gaul under Roman rule and wrote about victories in Commentaries on the Gallic Wars.Became famous.Crassus died but Pompey grew jealous.
59Pompey Persuades Senate To force Caesar to return home w/o army.Caesar marched his army to Rome in 49BC and Pompey and followers ran away to Greece.Caesar defeated Pompey in Greece, secured power in Italy and Spain and made Cleopatra of Egypt an ally.
60Dictator for life 44 BCGood politician: granted citizenship fo ppl in provinces, gave land to veterans, and grain to poor.Reduced Senate to advisory council and increased to 900 members.He controlled everything although it was a republic.
61Conspiracy!Senators and conservatives didn’t like Caesar’s power. 2 of his friends organized conspiracy against him (Brutus and Longinus).Stabbed Caesar to death in the Senate. (The Ides of March)
62The 2nd Triumverate Scramble for power after Caesar’s death. Octavian (Caesar’s nephew), Marc Antony (general), and Lepidus (Caesar’s second in command) became the 2nd Triumverate (43 BC).
63Antony and Octavian divide empire E=AntonyW=OctavianOctavian persuaded Senate to decl. war on Antony and Cleopatra. Octavian captured Alexandria and A and C committed suicide.BRAIN POP! Cleopatra
64Octavian: princeps (1st citizen) NOT called emperor b/c scared of uncle’s fate.Senate gave him the title “Augustus”or “the revered one”Historians refer to him as the first Roman Emperor even though he didn’t use this title.Expanded territory.
65The Julio-ClaudiansRelatives of Julius Caesar who ruled the empire from AD 14-68Crazy and inconsistent leadersCaligula: apt horse as consulNero: Many believe he started a great fire throughout Rome. People also hated him because of his cruel and unpredictable policies.
66The Good Emperors 5 different emperors who ruled from AD96-180 Some accomplishments:Added new areas to empire, supported the arts, organized and Romanized the provinces, built fortifications to protect boundaries of empire, gave up territories conquered, studied philosophyBrain Pop: Rise of the Roman Empire!
67The Good Emperors Nerva, Trajan , Hadrian, Anthony Pius, Marcus Aurelius
68Check up! 1. What was the First Triumverate? Why was it formed? 2. Identify Marius, Sulla, Pompey, Cleopatra, Marc Antony, Nero, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius3. Describe the significance of the reign of Julius Caesar.4. Contrast the rule of the Julio-Claudians w/ the rule of the Good Emperors.
69By the end of the lesson 1. What is Pax Romana? Colonus? 2. how did the army contribute to the protection and expansion of the Roman empire?3. How did the life of wealthy Romans compare to that of poor Romans?
70Roman Society and Culture Empire building helped byLaw, military org, widespread trade, transportation. Held empire together for 200+ years.
71Pax Romana27BC-AD180 (From beginning of Augustus’s reign to the death of Marcus Aurelius.Emperors of Pax Romana (p157)Brain Pop!
72Gov’t Strongest unifying force in empire. Maintained order, enforced laws, defended frontiers.Emperor: made all policy decisions, apt officials who controlled provinces and ran entire gov’t.
73ProvincesGov’t kept closer check on provincial governors: citizens in provinces could appeal governor’s decision directly to the emperor.
74Replica Rome’s Many new cities looked just like mini-Rome. Senate building, theaters, public baths, aqueducts, paved streets, sewer system.Wealthy citizens donated money for public buildings, streets, schools and entertainment.
75LawsChanged and adapted based on 12 Tables to address needs of huge empire.New laws passed and old laws interpreted by judges for fit new circumstances.New Belief: basic legal principles apply to ALL people.
76The Army Frontier and border armies turned into cited. Over 300,000 soldiersBorder tribes helped army in exchange for citizenship after 25 years of service.Huge walls and forts around frontier. Some still there!
77Trade and Transport Agriculture: primary occupation Italy: large estates for olive and wine prodProvinces: small farmsColonus: new tenant farmer replaces slavesRented small amt of land from owner and had to stay for a spec amount of time and pay owner w/crops (like tenant farmer!)
78Trade Easy! Low taxes and Roman currency everywhere! Rome and Alexandria: greatest commercial centers.‘’Äll Roads Lead to Rome”
79Living Conditions Inequality b/w rich and poor. Most poor: ate cheese, bread, and fruit. Many ate only cereal and vegetables and not Lucky Charms!
80entertainmentTheater, chariot racing, Colosseum (wild beasts vs beasts or vs humans OR gladiators!)Entertainment imp b/c distracted poor from miserable conditions.
81Science, Engineering and Architecture Collected info.Applied Greek knowledge in cite planning, water and sewage systems, imp farming and breeding livestock.Constructed roads, bridges, aqueducts, amphitheaters and public buildingsUse of concrete!Unlike Greeks, could build arch and vaulted dome!
82Education Sons learn from fathers about duties of citizenship. Daughters learn about how to take care of the house.Boys went to school and often learned from former Greek slaves.
83LiteratureGood emperors and Augustus encouraged dev of art and literature.Virgil: Aeneid: story of prince of TroyOvid: Metamorphoses: collection of mythsTacitus: historian: Annals: story of Julio-Clauduan Emperors. Criticism of gov’t est by Augustus.Tacitus worried about the rich living of some and lack of public virtue and decline of Roman political freedom.
84Check Up! 1. What is Pax Romana? Colonus? 2. how did the army contribute to the protection and expansion of the Roman empire?3. How did the life of wealthy Romans compare to that of poor Romans?
85By the end of the section 1. In what ways was Christianity like Judaism?2. Why were Christians persecuted in the Roman Empire?
86The Rise of Christianity Jews exempt from having to worship emperor and gods. MonitheisticJews wanted independence from Rome and began to home for Messiah (divinely appointed liberator)
87Jewish RevoltsAfter revolt of AD 66 to AD70 Romans slaughtered thousands of Jews and destroyed their Second Temple. Only one wall left: Wailing Wall.
88Jewish LeadershipRabbis(men who studied scriptures) became religious leaders instead of priests.Jews banned in Jerusalem after revolt suppressed in AD 135.Jesus appears at this time
89The Life an Teachings of Jesus Gathered disciplesTaught 2 great rules: Love God more than anything and love your neighbor as yourself.Forgiveness
90Death of Jesus Crucified. Rose from the dead for 40 days Through His death, all others can achieve redemption.
91Christianity and its Rivals Appeal inc as life grew more dif.Accepted everyone: poor and rich. In this life: be good citizen, obey laws, charity and help poor and outcast.
92Persecution of the Christians More likely than Jews to try to convert people.Appeared an attack on Roman religion and law.Romans outlawed Christianity. Some executed. Martyrs.By 300ss, Christian Church became too large to punish all members, Roman law accepted Christianity as a religion.
93The Success of Christianity Imp with Emperor ConstantineIn AD 391: Christian emperors persecuted Pagans! Role reversal!
94Organization of the Church Bishops, patriarchs (bishops of empire cities), pope: bishop of Rome.Church councils: strengthened early Christian Church: Trinity doctrine proclaimed in the council at Nicaea.
95Check up! 1. In what ways was Christianity like Judaism? 2. Why were Christians persecuted in the Roman Empire?
96Fall of Rome1. Describe the Problems of the Roman Empire in the AD 200s.2. What was he system of divided rule? What problems were caused by this org?3. What were the major reasons for the collapse of the Roman Empire in the west? Give examples to help support your answer.
97The Fall of the Roman Empire in the West Problems: pop decline, unrest w/in the empire, attacks from outside forces.
98Civil Wars and Barbarian Invasions Travel unsafe, merchants hesitant to sell goods. Rural pop grew poorer. Pop decreased b/c of plague caused sev million deaths.
99Taxes All free ppl of empire given citizenship to pay taxes. Money declined in value. Inflation: rise in prices caused by a decrease in the calie of the exchange medium.
100Trade Union: collegiaWorkers forced to join! Couldn’t quit jobs. And had to do public service.
101DiocletianGood emperor. Appointed co-emperors to help with large empire.Transformed Rome into a rigid and bureaucratic order where almost all of life was controlled by gov’t.Ended lawlessness w/in empire and drove our barbariansBUT his policies were dif to enforce.
102Constantine Became sole emperor Known for protecting Christians and creating new capital: Constantinople.After his death, instability and corruptionHis 2 sons split empire into E and W.
104No single causeFor the fall of the Roman Empire. Gradually disintegrated.Results: tribal Germans couldn’t control empire: anarchy: absence of any gov’t at all.Ppl left cities, soldiers tampled crops, learning declined, no gov’t to est and maintain schools, Libraries destroyed, literate people declined, knowledge of world replaced with superstition.
105Why Rome Decline1. Political Weakness: Tried to control entire Mediterranean. Too large. Lack of civilian control of military. Emperors needed to be strong to control military.
106#2Economic Decline: Gov’t expenses too heavy. Even taxes not enough. Unrepaired roads, bridges, inc banditry. Danger in travel led to dec in trade. Economy didn’t produce enough wealth to support great civ.
107#3Social Change: Romans lost sense of patriotism, were not interested in gov’t and lacked political honesty.
108Lasting Impact Christianity and Language Brain Pop! The Fall of the Roman Empire.
109Check up! 1. Describe the Problems of the Roman Empire in the AD 200s. 2. What was he system of divided rule? What problems were caused by this org?3. What were the major reasons for the collapse of the Roman Empire in the west? Give examples to help support your answer.
110Rome in the Movies!Ancient Rome is in many movies/t.v. shows but are these accurate depictions of what Rome was really like? You decide!