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AES World History.  1. Explain the structure of the gov’t of the Roman Republic. Be sure to include the following terms: republic, Senate, consuls, veto,

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Presentation on theme: "AES World History.  1. Explain the structure of the gov’t of the Roman Republic. Be sure to include the following terms: republic, Senate, consuls, veto,"— Presentation transcript:

1 AES World History

2  1. Explain the structure of the gov’t of the Roman Republic. Be sure to include the following terms: republic, Senate, consuls, veto, checks and balances, praetors, and censors  2. “In terms of defense, trade and governing outlying districts, Rome’s location was ideal.” Do you agree with this statement? Why or why not?  3. What were some social conflicts that existed because of inequality w/in the Roman empire? Outcomes?  4. What factors helped Rome expand successfully?

3  Romulus and Remus

4  Base for controlling E and W Mediterranean.  Probs: vulnerable to invasion through Alps and from sea.

5  Unity w/in region  Farming: Veggies, olives, grapes, citrus

6  Etruscans (late 600s BC)  Cultural influence: written lang later adapted by Romans.  Fine clothing, pottery, jewelry, metal, wood, paved roads, drained marshes, constructed sewers.

7  Parade for conquering military leaders.

8  Protected from Sea Invasion  On river’s easiest crossing, center of land trade routes.

9  Est A republic: form of gov’t where voters elect officials to run the state.  Vote: ONLY adult males  3 main groups of citizens governed:  Senate, Popular Assembly, and Officials (called magistrates )

10  Most powerful of 3 governing bodies.  300 members  Jobs:  Controlled public funds  Decided foreign policy  Could act as court  In times of emergency: propose dictator (only ruled for 6 mo)

11  Citizens get together and vote on laws and elected officials  Some assemblies voted on war or peace, some had judicial roles.  Tribunes : (10 elected officials) elected by assemblies. Job: could refuse to approve Senate bills and judged actions of public officials. (checks and balances!)

12  Public officials  2 Consuls : Chief executives (like Presidents)  Jobs:  Ran gov’t and military commanders.  Appointed dictators  Powers: Could veto (Latin for ”I forbid”) acts of other consul, governed with the advice of the Senate.

13  Romans elected Praetors : commanded armies in times of war and oversaw legal system in peace. They also created lists of potential judges and jurors.

14  Censors : Elected every 5 years only for 18mos. Job: registered citizens acc to wealth, could apt candidates to Senate, and oversaw moral conduct of citizens.

15  Prevented any one part of the gov’t from becoming too powerful.

16  Changes were made to the composition of the assemblies and elected officials based on the common people’s attempts to win more rights.

17  Roman Society divided b/w 2 social classes after 509 BC: patricians and plebians.  Patricians: powerful aristocratic class. Controlled gov’t. Provided financial, social, and legal support in exchange for political backing and loyalty.  Plebians : All other citizens.

18  Couldn’t hold public office or serve in the military.  Didn’t know what the laws were because they weren’t written down! Judge stated laws and inly Patricians were judges.

19  Plebians demanded change and led strikes. Eventually forced Romans to write down laws.  The Twelve Tables : placed in public square.

20  By 300BC, wealthy Plebians AND Patricians joined to form Roman Nobility.  Then, only POOR people discriminated against, not Plebians.

21  Only rich nobles could hold office, b/c of lack of salary.  Nobles controlled the Senate and dominated the republic.  Video Clips!

22  Roman government was supposed to give normal people (poor) a voice in gov’t  There were checks and balances to ensure that certain parts of gov’t didn’t get too powerful  If people felt like they weren’t getting a fair deal, they could appeal to try to change the way the gov’t was run.

23  Many wars.  Army : all adult males w/min property must serve army.  Strict discipline in army. Good org, training, high morale

24  Legions : most imp unit ( male citizens)  Auxilia : army units of non-citizen men. Video Clips!

25  Conquered people also got partial citizenship and political power  Could own property and marry but not vote.  Rome made treaties and alliances w/distant cities. Allies promised to help military in times of need.

26  Also, conquered people provided land for resettled farmers. Helped to maintain military control, spread language, law and culture.

27  Roman Republic style! Yeah!

28  Most imp unit: center of religion, morals, education.  Father= paterfamilias : authority. Conduced religious ceremonies, made all imp decisions, supervised son’s education.

29  Higher Status than Greek!  Mother managed household, did buying and helped entertain guests. Wife Swap clip!

30  Identified gods w/Greek gods.  Observe will of gods by looking at organs of sacrificed animals or flight of birds.

31  1. Explain the structure of the gov’t of the Roman Republic. Be sure to include the following terms: republic, Senate, consuls, veto, checks and balances  2. “In terms of defense, trade and governing outlying districts, Rome’s location was ideal.” Do you agree with this statement? Why or why not?  3. What were some social conflicts that existed because of inequality w/in the Roman empire? Outcomes?  4. What factors helped Rome expand successfully?

32  The entire Italian peninsula south of Rubicon River

33  1. What were the final results of the Punic Wars?  2. How did the gov’t and social structure of Rome change as a result of the conquest of new territories?

34  Conflict with Carthage (originally Phoenician colony) powerful city on coast of N. Africa.  Fought 3 wars b/w 264 and 146 BC: Punic Wars  Rome=better army, easier to defend  Carthage=better navy, more wealth

35  Rome won in 241 BC  Carthage had to pay ( indemnity) for damages caused to Rome. Gave up control of Sicily.

36  Hannibal : created army in Spain w/infantry, cavalry and war elephants!  Crossed Alps from France into Italy: many died!

37  Won many victories against the Romans.  BUT Rome invaded N. Africa and turned the tables. Battle of Zama.

38  Again, Carthage pays indemnity and gives up navy and Spanish colonies.

39  Some Romans hated Carthage at this point, sieged Carthage, enslaved population.  Salted their fields!

40  Won war with Macedonia in 197 BC

41  Larger territory forced change in operation.  Senate gained almost complete control of army and foreign policy. Nobles gained more power.

42  New territories only given rules and taxes!

43  Governed by someone appointed by Senate. NOT closely monitored. Often took bribes and ignored needs of the people. Tax collectors lined pockets.

44  Large estates w/slaves ( Latifundia)  Rome depended on grain from provinces.  Farmers lost land and livestock during Punic Wars and were forced to sell what they had and move into the cities. Some couldn’t find jobs and depended on gov’t for food.  Worse: couldn’t serve in military!

45  Inc. trade.  New class of business and landowners ( equites ) had great wealth and increased political influence.

46  Weakened ideals of discipline and devotion to the state.

47  New religions and cultures from conquered territories.  Slaves taken from territories. Some treated badly.  Spartacus! Slave. Led revolt but killed of his followers crucified.

48  1. What were the final results of the Punic Wars?  2. How did the gov’t and social structure of Rome change as a result of the conquest of new territories?

49  1. What was the First Triumverate ? Why was it formed?  2. Identify Marius, Sulla, Pompey, Cleopatra, Marc Antony, Nero, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius  3. Describe the significance of the reign of Julius Caesar.  4. Contrast the rule of the Julio- Claudians w/ the rule of the Good Emperors

50  Tiberius and Gaius

51  Tiberius: 1 st attempt to change Rome.  Some Senators used public land for private purposes. So, Tiberius limited amt of public land Senators could use.  Moved landless citizens to work on Senators’ old land.  Senators and sympathizers clubbed him to death.

52  Elected 123 BC  Introduced using public funds to buy grain for poor people and sell to them for low prices. Gaius killed in a riot. Marked new trend: use violence to get what you want!

53  Italian cities wanted right to run for office in Rome. Senate refused so the Italian allies rebelled.  Very bloody, Italian States well trained  Italian cities beaten but Senate granted benefits of citizenship.

54  Consul : Marius: military hero. Signed up any citizen to serve in army regardless of land ownership.  Soldiers were paid and kept booty  Led to volunteer army  Soldiers could advance even if poor. Armies became loyal to leaders instead of gov’t.

55  Good general. When consulship ended Marius tried to stop him from commanding military.  So, Sulla marched legions on Rome led to civil war.  Results: Sulla won and executed hundreds who opposed him

56  Reforms: restore power to Senate. Inc by 300 members.  Change in thought about military commanders counting on loyalty of soldiers to do bidding.

57  Julius Caesar: popular  Good speaker, gained support from poor citizens of Rome.  Made him UNPOPULAR with Senate so he teamed up w/2 generals: Gaius Pompey and Licinius Crassus to create the 1 st Triumverate

58  Brought Gaul under Roman rule and wrote about victories in Commentaries on the Gallic Wars.  Became famous.  Crassus died but Pompey grew jealous.

59  To force Caesar to return home w/o army.  Caesar marched his army to Rome in 49BC and Pompey and followers ran away to Greece.  Caesar defeated Pompey in Greece, secured power in Italy and Spain and made Cleopatra of Egypt an ally.

60  Good politician: granted citizenship fo ppl in provinces, gave land to veterans, and grain to poor.  Reduced Senate to advisory council and increased to 900 members.  He controlled everything although it was a republic.

61  Senators and conservatives didn’t like Caesar’s power. 2 of his friends organized conspiracy against him (Brutus and Longinus).  Stabbed Caesar to death in the Senate. ( The Ides of March)

62  Scramble for power after Caesar’s death.  Octavian (Caesar’s nephew), Marc Antony (general), and Lepidus (Caesar’s second in command) became the 2 nd Triumverate (43 BC).

63  E=Antony  W=Octavian  Octavian persuaded Senate to decl. war on Antony and Cleopatra. Octavian captured Alexandria and A and C committed suicide.  BRAIN POP! Cleopatra

64  NOT called emperor b/c scared of uncle’s fate.  Senate gave him the title “Augustus”or “the revered one”  Historians refer to him as the first Roman Emperor even though he didn’t use this title.  Expanded territory.

65  Relatives of Julius Caesar who ruled the empire from AD  Crazy and inconsistent leaders  Caligula : apt horse as consul  Nero : Many believe he started a great fire throughout Rome. People also hated him because of his cruel and unpredictable policies.

66  5 different emperors who ruled from AD  Some accomplishments:  Added new areas to empire, supported the arts, organized and Romanized the provinces, built fortifications to protect boundaries of empire, gave up territories conquered, studied philosophy  Brain Pop: Rise of the Roman Empire!

67  Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Anthony Pius, Marcus Aurelius

68  1. What was the First Triumverate ? Why was it formed?  2. Identify Marius, Sulla, Pompey, Cleopatra, Marc Antony, Nero, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius  3. Describe the significance of the reign of Julius Caesar.  4. Contrast the rule of the Julio-Claudians w/ the rule of the Good Emperors.

69  1. What is Pax Romana ? Colonus ?  2. how did the army contribute to the protection and expansion of the Roman empire?  3. How did the life of wealthy Romans compare to that of poor Romans?

70  Empire building helped by  Law, military org, widespread trade, transportation. Held empire together for 200+ years.

71  27BC-AD180 (From beginning of Augustus’s reign to the death of Marcus Aurelius.  Emperors of Pax Romana (p157)  Brain Pop!

72  Strongest unifying force in empire.  Maintained order, enforced laws, defended frontiers.  Emperor : made all policy decisions, apt officials who controlled provinces and ran entire gov’t.

73  Gov’t kept closer check on provincial governors: citizens in provinces could appeal governor’s decision directly to the emperor.

74  Many new cities looked just like mini-Rome.  Senate building, theaters, public baths, aqueducts, paved streets, sewer system.  Wealthy citizens donated money for public buildings, streets, schools and entertainment.

75  Changed and adapted based on 12 Tables to address needs of huge empire.  New laws passed and old laws interpreted by judges for fit new circumstances.  New Belief: basic legal principles apply to ALL people.

76  Frontier and border armies turned into cited.  Over 300,000 soldiers  Border tribes helped army in exchange for citizenship after 25 years of service.  Huge walls and forts around frontier. Some still there!

77  Agriculture: primary occupation  Italy: large estates for olive and wine prod  Provinces: small farms  Colonus : new tenant farmer replaces slaves  Rented small amt of land from owner and had to stay for a spec amount of time and pay owner w/crops (like tenant farmer!)

78  Easy! Low taxes and Roman currency everywhere!  Rome and Alexandria: greatest commercial centers.  ‘’Äll Roads Lead to Rome”

79  Inequality b/w rich and poor.  Most poor: ate cheese, bread, and fruit. Many ate only cereal and vegetables and not Lucky Charms!

80  Theater, chariot racing, Colosseum (wild beasts vs beasts or vs humans OR gladiators!)  Entertainment imp b/c distracted poor from miserable conditions.

81  Collected info.  Applied Greek knowledge in cite planning, water and sewage systems, imp farming and breeding livestock.  Constructed roads, bridges, aqueducts, amphitheaters and public buildings  Use of concrete!  Unlike Greeks, could build arch and vaulted dome!

82  Sons learn from fathers about duties of citizenship.  Daughters learn about how to take care of the house.  Boys went to school and often learned from former Greek slaves.

83  Good emperors and Augustus encouraged dev of art and literature.  Virgil: Aeneid : story of prince of Troy  Ovid: Metamorphoses : collection of myths  Tacitus: historian: Annals : story of Julio- Clauduan Emperors. Criticism of gov’t est by Augustus.  Tacitus worried about the rich living of some and lack of public virtue and decline of Roman political freedom.

84  1. What is Pax Romana ? Colonus ?  2. how did the army contribute to the protection and expansion of the Roman empire?  3. How did the life of wealthy Romans compare to that of poor Romans?

85  1. In what ways was Christianity like Judaism?  2. Why were Christians persecuted in the Roman Empire?

86  Jews exempt from having to worship emperor and gods. Monitheistic  Jews wanted independence from Rome and began to home for Messiah (divinely appointed liberator)

87  After revolt of AD 66 to AD70 Romans slaughtered thousands of Jews and destroyed their Second Temple. Only one wall left: Wailing Wall.

88  Rabbis (men who studied scriptures) became religious leaders instead of priests.  Jews banned in Jerusalem after revolt suppressed in AD 135.  Jesus appears at this time

89  Gathered disciples  Taught 2 great rules: Love God more than anything and love your neighbor as yourself.  Forgiveness

90  Crucified. Rose from the dead for 40 days  Through His death, all others can achieve redemption.

91  Appeal inc as life grew more dif.  Accepted everyone: poor and rich. In this life: be good citizen, obey laws, charity and help poor and outcast.

92  More likely than Jews to try to convert people.  Appeared an attack on Roman religion and law.  Romans outlawed Christianity. Some executed. Martyrs.  By 300ss, Christian Church became too large to punish all members, Roman law accepted Christianity as a religion.

93  Imp with Emperor Constantine  In AD 391: Christian emperors persecuted Pagans! Role reversal!

94  Bishops, patriarchs (bishops of empire cities), pope: bishop of Rome.  Church councils: strengthened early Christian Church: Trinity doctrine proclaimed in the council at Nicaea.

95  1. In what ways was Christianity like Judaism?  2. Why were Christians persecuted in the Roman Empire ?

96  1. Describe the Problems of the Roman Empire in the AD 200s.  2. What was he system of divided rule? What problems were caused by this org?  3. What were the major reasons for the collapse of the Roman Empire in the west? Give examples to help support your answer.

97  Problems: pop decline, unrest w/in the empire, attacks from outside forces.

98  Travel unsafe, merchants hesitant to sell goods. Rural pop grew poorer. Pop decreased b/c of plague caused sev million deaths.

99  All free ppl of empire given citizenship to pay taxes.  Money declined in value. Inflation : rise in prices caused by a decrease in the calie of the exchange medium.

100  Workers forced to join! Couldn’t quit jobs. And had to do public service.

101  Good emperor. Appointed co-emperors to help with large empire.  Transformed Rome into a rigid and bureaucratic order where almost all of life was controlled by gov’t.  Ended lawlessness w/in empire and drove our barbarians  BUT his policies were dif to enforce.

102  Became sole emperor  Known for protecting Christians and creating new capital: Constantinople.  After his death, instability and corruption  His 2 sons split empire into E and W.

103  Visigoths.  Invaded

104  For the fall of the Roman Empire. Gradually disintegrated.  Results: tribal Germans couldn’t control empire: anarchy : absence of any gov’t at all.  Ppl left cities, soldiers tampled crops, learning declined, no gov’t to est and maintain schools, Libraries destroyed, literate people declined, knowledge of world replaced with superstition.

105  1. Political Weakness : Tried to control entire Mediterranean. Too large. Lack of civilian control of military. Emperors needed to be strong to control military.

106  Economic Decline : Gov’t expenses too heavy. Even taxes not enough. Unrepaired roads, bridges, inc banditry. Danger in travel led to dec in trade. Economy didn’t produce enough wealth to support great civ.

107  Social Change: Romans lost sense of patriotism, were not interested in gov’t and lacked political honesty.

108  Christianity and Language  Brain Pop! The Fall of the Roman Empire.

109  1. Describe the Problems of the Roman Empire in the AD 200s.  2. What was he system of divided rule? What problems were caused by this org?  3. What were the major reasons for the collapse of the Roman Empire in the west? Give examples to help support your answer.

110  Ancient Rome is in many movies/t.v. shows but are these accurate depictions of what Rome was really like? You decide!


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