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Definition of a Balanced Literacy Approach “Balanced does not mean that all skills and standards receive equal emphasis at a given point in time. Rather,

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Presentation on theme: "Definition of a Balanced Literacy Approach “Balanced does not mean that all skills and standards receive equal emphasis at a given point in time. Rather,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Definition of a Balanced Literacy Approach “Balanced does not mean that all skills and standards receive equal emphasis at a given point in time. Rather, it implies that the overall emphasis accorded to a skill or standard is determined by its priority or importance relative to students’ language and literacy levels and needs.” Reading/Language Arts Framework for California Public Schools (California Department of Education, 1999, p. 4)

2 Communicative Competence GRAMMAR phonology morphology syntax semantics lexicon PRAGMATICS

3 A Balanced Biliteracy Program (based on M. Halliday, 1975) The effective biliteracy classroom is designed and structured to guide and support students as they: Learn language Learn about language Learn through language

4 Learning Language A progression of linguistic and communicative competencies through identifiable stages of development Interrelationship between linguistic and cognitive development Occurs through structured opportunities for language acquisition as well as explicit teaching/learning experiences Depends on comprehensible input at one level of complexity beyond the learner’s level of linguistic competence

5 Learning About Language Develops metalinguistic awareness in the three cueing systems Builds a knowledge base in phonology, morphology, grammar & syntax, and semantics in both languages Makes explicit contrasts and comparisons between language systems Focuses on acquisition of problem-solving strategies in literacy tasks Involves on-going assessment of learners’ growth and development

6 Learning Through Language Making schematic and conceptual connections through theme units Eliciting and expanding responses to literature through core book units and genre studies Planned for ample opportunities for aesthetic and efferent responses to literature Based on an inquiry approach to multicultural literature and content themes Content area reading expands vocabulary and builds critical thinking skills

7 Traditional Approaches to Phonics Instruction Are synthetic approaches using part to whole with segmentation and blending of letters into words Begin with teaching individual letters and letter-sound correspondences May involve kinesthetic activities, i.e., Orton- Gillingham, Zoo Phonics Require direct instruction based on a behavioral analysis of decoding. I.e., Distar

8 Contemporary Phonics Approaches Spelling-based principles such as Word Study or Making Words that involve sorting or making words based on students’ developmental level Analogy-based approaches where students decode words based on known words or word parts Embedded phonics where students where instruction occurs in the context of authentic reading and writing experiences

9 The Spanish Alphabet 29 letters spell 24 phonemes Highly regular and rule governed, with a few “letras difíciles” that have multiple phoneme- graphic correspondences There are no “double letters”: ch, ll, & rr represent a single phoneme. The ñ comes from the Latin nn. H is silent and u is silent after g unless it carries a “diérisis” (bilingüe, pingüino) and after q (queso)

10 Phoneme to Grapheme Relationships /1/ a b /2/ a One-to-many relations Many-to-one relations /1/ a /2/b One-to-one relations PhonemeGrapheme

11 Spanish Phonics Phonemic awareness Letter-sound correspondences Spelling patterns Syllabification Diphthongs and syllable juncture Categorization of words according to stressed syllable Rules for the use of written accent marks

12 English Phonics Consonants and vowels Consonant blends and digraphs Long and short vowels R-controlled vowels Vowel digraphs Diphthongs Homophones & homographs

13 Word Study in Dual Language Classrooms Picture sorts Concept sorts Letter-sound correspondence sorts Same-vowel word families Mixed-vowel word families Word Hunt Word Bank Word Wall High-frequency word study Word strips Word Study Notebooks Dictation Word games

14 Word Study In Spanish Letras difíciles Parts of speech & changes of function Singular/plural inflections & noun/adjective agreement Classification by syllable stress & written accent Cognates Verb tenses, conjugation and agreement Diminutive and augmentation derivitives (ito, ón, ote, ísimo) Enclisis & apócope (cualquier, cualquiera, gran, grande)

15 Spanish Phonemes Spelled Using Multiple Graphemes Vowel phoneme i is written as i and as y (i griega) in diphthongs ending a word (soy, muy) Labiodental /b/ is written as either b or v (haba, ave) /k/ is written as c before a, o, u, or as k or as qu (casa, kiosco, queso) /s/ is written as c before e, i or as s or as z (cerro, silla, zorro) /h/ is written as g before e, i or as j (gigante, jinete) and as x (México, Don Quixote) /y/ is written as ie, ll or y (hielo, lleno, yodo)

16 Spanish Graphemes That Spell Multiple Phonemes The letter b spells the bilabial b as in burro and the labiodental b as in arriba The letter c spells /k/ as in casa and /s/ as in cita. The letter g spells /g/ as in gallo and /h/ as in general The letter y spells the vowel sound i at the end of words as in soy and the consonant sound y as in yegua

17 Spanish in Spain and Latin America X, Y, Z and Thee The x has respresents a number of phonemes: /h/, /x/ and in Mexico /sh/ for words from Náhuatl and Otomí. In Latin America, the ll and y in initial position are pronounced the same (llama, yerno) In Spain, the z before a, o u represents a soft /th/ sound. This sound is also spelled ce & ci. Words ending in z change to c when forming the plural (pez-peces; lápiz-lápices)

18 Phoneme Before a Before e Before i Before o Before u /k/caquequicocu Hard ggagueguigogu /h/jage, jegi, jijoju /kw/cuacuecuicuo /gw/guagüegüiguo Spanish Spelling Patterns

19 Spanish Structural Analysis Word derivations: roots, prefixes and suffixes Inflection and agreement (subject-verb, adjectives, possessives) Enclisis (combining two classes of words) Contractions (conjunción) Shortened forms of words (apócope) Compound words Cognates

20 Spanish Syllable Patterns A single consonant occurring between vowels is joined to the vowel or vowels that follow. Two separate consonants between vowels are divided. A strong vowel (a,e,o) combined in a syllable with a weak vowel (i, u) forming a diphthong or triphthong are not separated. Consonant blends (consonant with l or r) are not separated When s is in a prefix, it forms a syllable with the prefix

21 English Syllable Patterns Closed: Short vowel ending with consonant Open: Long vowel, no consonant ending Vowel Digraph: vowel spelled with 2+ letters C-le at the ends of words R-controlled vowel Vowel-consonant-e long vowel pattern Idiosyncratic

22 migration migrate immigrate immigration immigrant migr-move migrancy migratory emigrate emigrant emigration Word Derivations

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