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Unit VC AP United States History

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1 Unit VC AP United States History
PROGRESSIVE AMERICA Unit VC AP United States History

2 Fundamental Question To what extent was the progressive movement “progressive”?

3 Development of Progressives Problems and Solutions
Industrialization Urbanization Commercialism and Consumerism Laissez-faire Policies Radicalism Upper-Class Lower-Class Social Darwinism Middle Class Social Gospel Populism Education and Academics Journalism and Literature

4 Muckrakers Purpose Mainstream Journalists and Authors
Exposure of urban problems and political and economic corruption and exploitation Targets monopolies/trusts/corporations (steel, oil, railroads) political bosses and machines poor living and working conditions (tenements) Mainstream Mass media (newspapers, magazines) Journalists and Authors Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle meat-packing industry Jacob Riis’s How the Other Half Lives Tenement living Ida Tarbell’s Mother of Trusts Rockefeller and Standard Oil Trust Lincoln Steffens’s The Shame of the Cities Municipal corruption

5 Progressive Social Reforms
Educational Reforms Establishment of comprehensive and compulsory education Merit-based and college-educated teachers Professional Reforms Social Work Movement to professional and educated reformers and therapists Medicine and Health National standards and practices American Bar Association (1900) Families Eugenics Improved and limited population through selective breeding State laws forbidding marriage and allowing sterilization Applied primarily to disabled and immigrants

6 Progressive Social Reform Temperance to Prohibition
Anti-Saloon League (1895) “the Church in action against the saloon” Pressure politics Grassroots campaigning and mass media Coalition included Democrats, Republicans, suffragists, KKK, industrialists, IWW, NAACP, Progressives, Populists, Protestants, American Catholics Eighteenth Amendment (1919) Prohibited the manufacturing, sale, and transportation of alcohol Volstead Act

7 Progressive Labor Reforms Labor Unions
American Federation of Labor (AFL) Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) (1905) aka The Wobblies Mother Jones, “Big Bill” Haywood “one big union” Platform “an injury to one is an injury to all” Industrial unionism All inclusive membership Direct Action Strikes, boycotts, propaganda, violence Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) Labor not commodity or commerce Limited court injunctions and applying antitrust to unions Labor Union Membership,

8 Progressive Labor Reforms Labor Strikes
Anthracite Coal Strike (1902) 147,000 miners strike President Theodore Roosevelt mediates Victory for union and membership soared Lawrence Textile Strike (1912) IWW organized 23,000 worker strike Media used to appeal to public sympathies Ludlow Massacre (1914) Led to political, corporate, and public support for labor unions and worker demands

9 Progressive Labor Reforms Labor - Working Hours
Lochner v. New York (1905) 10-hour day/60-hour week unconstitutional in violation of right to contract per 14th Amendment Muller v. Oregon (1908) Limited working hours for women based on health and maternity Ford Motor Company Doubled pay to $5/day and 8-hour work days Profits and productivity increased Adamson Act (1916) Established 8-hour work day and overtime pay for railroad workers

10 Progressive Labor Reforms Labor - Working Conditions
National Consumers League (1899) Opposed sweatshops, child labor Promoted food inspection and consumer safety Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (1911) 146 garment workers killed Led to massive push for worker/factory safety regulations and accident insurance

11 Progressive Labor Reforms Child Labor
By 1900, 1.7 million 5-10 year olds (1 in 6) were wage earners National Child Labor Committee (1904) Keating-Owen Act (1916) Prohibited interstate shipment of goods manufactured or processed by child labor Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918) Federal regulation of child labor not within Congress’s interstate commerce power Only states could establish child labor laws through intrastate commerce

12 Progressive Social Reforms Blacks in America
Supreme Court Civil Rights Cases of 1883 Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional Segregation may be practiced by private individuals and businesses Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Established “separate but equal” Jim Crow Laws Established by white Redeemer state governments Legitimized by Plessy v. Ferguson Segregated public facilities and accommodations Disenfranchisement Grandfather clauses Poll taxes Literacy tests

13 Progressive Social Reforms Black Americans - Booker T. Washington
Advocated economic progress to secure civil rights Tuskegee Institute ( ) Vocational institution, primarily teaching Atlanta Compromise (1895) In the South, blacks would submit to white political rule in exchange for education and due process of law Up From Slavery (1901) Depicted his struggle and rise from slavery to educational leader White House Dinner First black person ever invited to a White House dinner with Theodore Roosevelt White reaction and backlash "I am just as much opposed to Booker T. Washington as a voter as I am to the cocoanut-headed, chocolate-colored typical little coon who blacks my shoes every morning. Neither is fit to perform the supreme function of citizenship." – Mississippi Governor James K. Vardaman

14 Progressive Social Reform Black Americans - W.E.B. Du Bois
Advocated social and political equality to secure economic progress Niagara Movement (1905) Opposed disenfranchisement and segregation Dismissed accommodation and pursued more direct action and struggle National Association for the Advancement for Colored People (NAACP) (1909) A group of blacks and whites, males and females established an effective civil rights organization

15 Progressive Social Reforms Blacks in America
Lynchings Typically occurred during economic recessions due to financial stress and poor lifestyle Ida B. Wells Muckraking articles and pamphlets to expose lynchings against blacks in the South “We of the South have never recognized the right of the negro to govern white men, and we never will. We have never believed him to be the equal of the white man, and we will not submit to his gratifying his lust on our wives and daughters without lynching him.” - Senator Ben Tillman (D-SC), 1900 Great Migration ( ) Escape segregation, disenfranchisement, lynchings 1.6 million Southern blacks migrated to Northeast and Midwest cities

16 The Great Migration

17 Progressive Social Reforms Women
Women and the Workplace Careers Domestic servants, garment workers, teachers, secretaries, operators Reforms Less working hours Child labor laws Women’s Trade Union League (1903) Temperance Moral responsibility to improve society Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)

18 Progressive Social Reforms Women Suffrage
Supporters Young women Inspiration from female social reformers and 19th century leaders Political Progress Frontier life promoted equality among women Western states fuel suffrage movement Jeanette Ranking (R-MT) – first woman elected to U.S. House (1916) Organizations National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) (1900) Carrie Chapman Catt National Women’s Party (1916) Stronger Tactics Alice Paul and Lucy Burns Picketing, parades, hunger strikes Silent Sentinels

19 Suffrage by States

20 Nineteenth Amendment The right to vote cannot be denied based on sex/gender Ratified August 18, 1920 9 southern states did not ratify until after originally rejecting it Legacy League of Women Voters Develop political efficacy among women Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) Equal opportunity, pay, recognition, and benefits

21 Progressive Social Reforms Immigration
Gilded Age Legislation Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 Immigration Act of 1882 Excluded lunatics, idiots, convicts, disabled Progressive Era Legislation Anarchist Exclusion Act (1903) Gentleman’s Agreement (1905) Desegregate California schools for Japanese children Japan prevents further emigration of unskilled laborers Naturalization Act of 1906 Required English for citizenship Dillingham Commission ( ) Southern and Eastern Europeans threatened American character Recommended literacy requirements Immigration Act of 1917 Extended list of “undesirables” (homosexuals, alcoholics, illiterate) Asiatic Barred Zone

22 Asiatic Barred Zone

23 Migration

24 Progressive Political Reform Direct Democracy
Purpose Limit the corruption and influence of patronage, political machines, and big business Secret ballots (Australian ballot) Polling places inundated with corrupt tactics All candidates printed on ballots Vote in privacy at assigned polling place Established in all states by 1891 Direct primaries Eliminate practice of electing candidates through political bosses Government of the People Initiatives Petition of enough voter signatures to force an election Referendums Legislative proposals determined by electorate Recalls Remove elected officials through local/state elections

25 Seventeenth Amendment
Issues State legislature corruption Electoral deadlocks Direct Election of Senators Ratified May 1913 Most southern states did not ratify Impact Favored Democrats Progressive reforms passed easier

26 Progressive Political Reform Local/Municipalities
Assert more control and regulation of public utilities and services To limit political machine control and corruption Built public parks and playgrounds, sanitation services, municipal services, public schools Zoning laws (industrial, commercial, residential) Social laws and reforms against red-light districts Local Governments Galveston Plan Commissioners and councils directly elected Dayton Plan City managers hired as non-partisan administrators Lincoln Steffens The Shame of the Cities Inspired social and municipal reform

27 Progressive Political Reform States
Direct primaries Business regulations Tax reforms Suffrage Temperance State wages Insurance plans Child labor laws “Wisconsin Idea” Robert LaFollette Influence and Application of Education on Politics Primary elections Progressive taxes Workers’ compensation Regulation of railroads Limit or eliminate monopolies and trusts Supported direct election of senators

28 Fourth Party System (1896-1932)
Democrats Coalition Solid South, western farmers, urban immigrants, working class Laissez-faire policies Spearheaded progressive reforms New Freedom Socialist Party of America German and Jewish immigrants, unionists, former Populist farmers, Progressive social reformers Elections Two members of U.S. House Dozens of state legislators, mayors, council members Eugene V. Debs Ran in , 1912, 1920 Received over 900,000 votes in 1912 and 1920 Republicans Dominated the federal government Coalition Industrialists, corporations, upper-class, fundamentalists, Northeast Assumed progressive reforms Nationalists and Imperialists Bull Moose Party aka Progressive Party New Nationalism

29 William McKinley (R) (1897-1901)
Economy Klondike Gold Rush ( ) Economic expansion Gold Standard Act/Currency Act (1900) Established gold standard, ending bimetallism Foreign Affairs Annexation of Hawaii (1898) Spanish-American War (1898) China Open Door Policy Boxer Rebellion ( ) Assassination September 6, 1901 in Buffalo, NY Leon Czolgosz - anarchist Died September 14

30 Election of 1900 A rematch of the Election of 1896 Republicans
William McKinley Booming economy, Spanish-American War victory, overseas territories Theodore Roosevelt as VP; very popular choice Democrats William Jennings Bryan Campaigned on bimetallism and anti-imperialism

31 Theodore Roosevelt (R) (1901-1909)
Assumes office after McKinley assassination Square Deal Trustbuster Business Regulation Conservation Coal Strike of 1902 Panic of 1907 Big Stick Policy Panama Canal Roosevelt Corollary

32 Election of 1904 Republicans Democrats Socialist Party
Theodore Roosevelt Democrats Alton B. Parker Conservative Democrat Socialist Party Eugene V. Debs

33 Roosevelt: Trustbuster
Good Trusts & Bad Trusts A Stronger ICC Elkins Act (1903) Prohibited rebates Hepburn Act (1906) Standardized railroad accounting Northern Securities Co. v. United States (1904) Broke up a railroad holding company financed by J.P. Morgan Would have monopolized the railroad industry Department of Commerce and Labor (1903) Consumer Protection Strengthened and publicly supported by muckraking investigations Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) Prohibited impure and falsely labeled foods and drugs Meat Inspection Act (1906) Prohibited misleading labels Prohibited harmful chemicals

34 Roosevelt: Conservationist
230,000,000 acres under protection during Roosevelt’s administration Gifford Pinchot U.S. Forest Service Newlands Reclamation Act (1902) Federal promotion of irrigation in western states Antiquities Act (1906) National Conservation Commission (1908) National Park Service (1916) Preservationists John Muir and Sierra Club

35 National Parks

36 Election of 1908 Republicans Democrats William Howard Taft
Hand-picked by Roosevelt Democrats William Jennings Bryan “Shall the People rule?”

37 William Howard Taft (R) (1909-1913)
Sixteenth Amendment (1913) Federal graduated income tax Progressive Legislation Mann-Elkins Act (1910) ICC adds regulation over communication utilities Department of Labor (1911) Standard Oil Company of New Jersey v. United States (1911) Supreme Court ruled trust in violation of Sherman Antitrust Act Broken up into 33 companies and trust dissolved Ballinger-Pinchot Affair (1909) Conservative Policies Payne-Aldrich Tariff (1909) U.S. Chamber of Commerce (1912) Dollar Diplomacy

38 Election of 1912 Republicans Bull Moose Party Democrats
William Howard Taft Conservative Republicans and Progressive Republicans (Insurgents) Bull Moose Party Theodore Roosevelt New Nationalism executive regulations of industries and social justice Democrats Woodrow Wilson New Freedom regulate business to promote competition and small businesses Socialist Party of America Eugene V. Debs

39 Woodrow Wilson (D) (1913-1921) Progressive Amendments
Seventeenth Amendment – direct election of Senators Eighteenth Amendment - Prohibition Nineteenth Amendment – Women’s suffrage Progressive Legislation and Policies Underwood Tariff (1913) Reduced tariff rates and increased progressive tax rates Federal Reserve Act (1913) Central banking system and regulation of monetary policy Federal Trade Commission (FTC) (1914) Prevent and eliminate trusts and monopolies Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) Strengthened Sherman Act by preventing mergers Adamson Act (1916) Eight-hour workday and overtime pay for railroad workers Federal Farm Loan Act (1916) Competitive low-interest loans for farmers World War I Fourteen Points and League of Nations

40 Progressive Business Regulation
Pujo Committee and Louis Brandeis “Other People’s Money” Federal Trade Commission (FTC) (1914) Demand annual reports Investigate complaints Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) Prohibited interlocking directorates Prohibited monopolistic pricing policies Held corporate officers personally responsible for anti-trust violations Unions not subject to anti-trust laws and court injunctions

41 Federal Reserve System and Central Banking
Reasons Panic of 1907 Pujo Committee Federal Reserve Act (1913) “The Fed” Decentralized national banking system Banks’ Bank Federal Reserve Board President appointed with Senate consent Monetary Policy Expansionary and Contractionary Open-Market Operations Reserve Requirement/Ratio Discount rates 12 national financial districts Sound and flexible currency

42 Election of 1916 Republicans Democrats Charles Evan Hughes
Only Supreme Court Justice nominated as presidential candidate Democrats Woodrow Wilson First Democrat to be elected to consecutive term since Jackson

43 Progressive Era Culture
Commercialism and Consumerism On advertising, firms spent $95 million in 1900 to $500 million in 1920 Market research and sampling Standard clothes sizes and styles Yellow Journalism Leisure Time Causes Decreased working hours Higher average wages Convenience and Infrastructure Entertainment Jazz Evolution of blues and ragtime Improvization Louis Armstrong Records Dance halls Movie theaters Birth of a Nation (1915) Recreation Baseball Attendance doubled between 1903 to 1920 Football National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) (1910)

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