Presentation on theme: "IPad Workshop Session 4 Rigor and Relevance Problem-Based Learning."— Presentation transcript:
iPad Workshop Session 4 Rigor and Relevance Problem-Based Learning
Rigor and Relevance Dr. Willard Daggett, International Center for Leadership in Education Developed to examine curriculum, instruction and assessment Based on the two dimensions of higher standards and student achievement. The Knowledge Taxonomy is a continuum based on the six levels of Bloom’s The high end labels the more complex ways in which individuals use knowledge (i.e., taking several pieces of knowledge and combining them in logical and creative ways).
An Application Model High end is use of knowledge to solve complex real-world problems and to create unique projects, designs and other works for use in real-world situations
When is a Task Rigorous? think deeply about a problem analyze new situations interpret and synthesize knowledge bring ideas together in a new or creative way develop and justify their own criteria for evaluation are intellectually challenged Students…
Relevance Knowledge is less connected to realistic situations and has less apparent value beyond school Knowledge is clearly connected to realistic situations and has value beyond school Knowledge in one discipline Apply in one discipline Apply across disciplines Apply to real- world predictable situations Apply to real-world unpredictable situations
When is a Task Relevant? Value beyond school Addresses an actual problem of contemporary significance Builds on students’ real-life experiences Has students communicate knowledge beyond the classroom Students recognize the connection between classroom knowledge and situations outside the classroom
Adaptation D High Rigor – High Relevance B Low Rigor – High Relevance A Low Rigor – Low Relevance C High Rigor – Low Relevance
Quadrant A Represents simple recall & basic understanding of knowledge for its own sake. Students gather and store bits of knowledge and information. Students are primarily expected to remember or understand this acquired knowledge. Low Rigor – Low Relevance CD A B
Quadrant B Students use acquired knowledge to complete tasks with a connection outside school. Activities or tasks involve lifelike situations. Does not require higher order thinking. Low Rigor – High Relevance CD A B
Quadrant C Students are thinking deeply about a problem in the discipline. Represents more complex thinking but has less clear value outside of school. Students extend and refine their acquired knowledge to be able to use that knowledge automatically and routinely to analyze, solve problems and create unique solutions. High Rigor – Low Relevance C D AB
Quadrant D Students are thinking deeply and there is a connection to lifelike situations. Even when confronted with unknowns, students are able to use extensive knowledge and skills to create solutions and take action that further develops their skills & knowledge. High Rigor – High Relevance C D A B
Student-Teacher Engagement In the Rigor/Relevance Framework there are different degrees of student engagement. In the following slide there is a description of student engagement. Decide in which quadrant it would fit best.
Students are thinking deeply about teacher- directed questions. Which quadrant? 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CD A B
Teacher is doing the working and the thinking. Which quadrant? 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CD A B
Students are working on teacher-directed, real-life problems. Which quadrant? 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CD A B
RELEVANCE C Students are working and thinking. D Teacher is working & thinking. A B Rigor & Relevance: Student – Teacher Engagement RIGORRIGOR
Strategies for Quadrant A Acquisition Lecture Guided Practice Memorization Teacher Demonstration Video Graphic Organizer-Notes Instructional Technology-Games
Strategies for Quadrant B Application Cooperative Learning-Group Discussion Demonstration-Student Instructional Technology-Games Project Design Simulation/Role Playing
Strategies for Quadrant C Assimilation Brainstorming Group Discussions Inquiry Socratic Questioning
Strategies for Quadrant D Adaptation Brainstorming Cooperative Learning Inquiry-Research Presentations/Exhibitions Problem-Based Learning Simulation/Role Playing Socratic Seminar Internships Work-Based Learning
Problem-Based Learning Project- Based Learning Driving Question or Challenge Need to Know Inquiry and Innovation 21st Century Skills Student Voice and Choice Feedback and Revision
Creating schools for the 21st Century requires less time looking in the rearview mirror and more vision anticipating the road ahead. Teaching has been an activity undertaken behind closed doors between moderately consenting participants. Technology enables students, teachers, and administrators to reach out beyond the school building. Innovative classrooms are not defined by fixed places but by their spirit of curiosity and collaboration among students, teachers, and others in a true learning community. Excerpts from Edutopia
Problem/Inquiry Based Learning An inquiry process that resolves questions, curiosities, doubts, and uncertainties about complex phenomena in life. A problem is any doubt, difficulty or uncertainty that invites or needs some kind of resolution. We want students to become deeply involved in a quest for knowledge.
What is Problem-Based Learning? PBL is curriculum-fueled and standards-based. PBL asks a question or poses a problem that ALL students can consider and find answers. Concrete, hands-on experiences come together during problem-based learning. PBL allows students to investigate issues and topics in real-world problems. PBL fosters abstract, intellectual tasks to explore complex issues.
Transformation The teacher cultivates a rich learning environment, where blending choice of technology tools with student-initiated investigations, discussions, compositions, or projects, across any content area, is promoted.
How Does Problem-Based Learning Work? Question Plan Schedule Monitor Assess Evaluate
Problem-based learning, as with all lessons, requires much preparation and planning. When designing the project and the student question that will launch the project, it is essential that you have in mind exactly which content standards will be addressed. Once these standards are in mind, then devise a plan that will integrate as many subjects as possible and appropriate into the project. Have in mind what materials and resources will be accessible to the students to assist them.
Consider the time allotment will be given to the project. Will this project be conducted during the entire school day or during dedicated blocks of time? How many days will be devoted to the project? Students will need to be given direction for managing their time, a definite life skill. Finally, have a means for assessing your students’ completion of the project. Did the students master the content? Were they able to apply their new knowledge and skills? The question that launches your project-based learning lesson must be one that engages the students. It will pose a problem or a situation that the students can tackle knowing that there is no ONE answer or solution.
Question Start with the Essential Question. Take a real-world topic and begin an in-depth investigation. Make sure it is relevant to your students.
Questions The question that launches your learning lesson must be engaging to the students. It is greater than the task at hand. It will pose a problem or a situation that the students can tackle knowing that there is no ONE answer or solution. Base your question on a situation or topic that is authentic. What is happening in your classroom? In your community? Make it a one that students can feel that they are making an impact by answering the question or solving the problem. The question should be a “NOW” question -- a question that has meaning for the students in their lives at this moment in time.
Plan Plan which content standards will be addressed while answering the question. Involve students in the questioning, planning, and project-building process. Teacher and students brainstorm activities that support the inquiry.
Planning Considerations Problem-based learning, as with all lessons, requires much preparation and planning. When designing the project/inquiry and the student question that will launch the project, have in mind exactly which content standards will be addressed through your inquiry and project development. Students feel ownership of the project when they have an active role in the decision making for the activities. Devise a plan that will integrate as many subjects as possible and appropriate into the project. Have in mind what materials and resources will be accessible to the students to assist them.
Schedule Teacher and students design a timeline for project components. Set benchmarks. Keep it simple and age-appropriate.
Schedule Considerations What time allotment will be given to the project? Will this project be conducted during the entire school day or during dedicated blocks of time? How many days will be devoted to the project? Give students direction for managing their time. Teach them how to schedule their tasks. Remind them of the timeline. Help them to set deadlines. The “big question” acts as the catalyst. Initiate projects that will let all students meet with success. Allow students to go in new directions, but guide them. Help them stay on course: the path to knowledge.
Monitor Facilitate the process. Mentor the process. Utilize rubrics.
Monitoring Teach the students how to work collaboratively. Designate fluid roles for group members. Have students chose their primary roles but assume responsibility and inter-activity for all group roles. Provide resources. Provide guidance. Create team rubrics: – Team rubrics state the expectations of each team member. Watch the group dynamics. How well are the members participating? How engaged are they in the process? Create project rubrics: – What is required for project completion? What is the final product: a word-processed document? A multimedia presentation? An oral report? A poster? A combination of products? What does a good report/multimedia presentation/poster/product look like? Make the requirements clear to the students so that all can meet with success.
Assess Make the assessment authentic. Know authentic assessment will require more time and effort from the teacher. Vary the types of assessments used.
Types of Authentic Assessment Constructed-response items: a student has to state the answer to a problem. These tests often can allow more than one answer letting all students have a chance to demonstrate their new knowledge. Essays: students are asked to analyze and synthesize their new knowledge and then write about it. Performance tasks: students are asked to perform a task that will demonstrate the application of the new knowledge. Exhibitions and demonstrations: these projects can be done individually or within a group and demonstrate the application of the new knowledge. Portfolios: students keep a collection of work that best demonstrates the understanding and application of the new knowledge. Classroom presentations and oral discussion: students can orally demonstrate the application of the new knowledge.
Evaluate Take time to reflect individually and as a group. Share feelings and experiences. Discuss what worked well. Discuss what needs change. Share ideas that will lead to new inquiries, thus new projects.
Differences Between Project Based and Problem Based Learning In Project based learning, the students define the purpose for creating an end product. In Problem based learning, the students are presented with a problem to solve. In Project based learning, the students present their conclusion and there is an end product. In Problem based learning, when the students present their conclusion, there may or may not be an end product.
An education company has asked for your help to create an activity with the following materials. 20 pieces of paper, 4 paper clips, 10 inches of tape and a tennis ball. The activity should include 21 st Century Skills and other content areas. Work in groups of 3 to 5. You have 20 minutes to complete and present your group results.
Your group is to build the highest paper tower possible that will support a tennis ball for 10 seconds when placed on top. The structure is to be free standing and cannot touch any other object that would aid in support. The tape is also not to be used to attach the tower to any other object. One final objective for your group is to make connections to STEM content areas relating to this activity. You have 20 minutes to complete. You have been given 20 pieces of paper, 4 paper clips and 10 inches of tape.
iPad Workshop Session 5 Why Technology? How? Your Unit
Today Students must be…. Be active processors of information Be skilled problem solvers Be effective communicators Network Students….. See school as largely irrelevant Want control of what they do Have short attention spans Learn via human and technical networks
How Are Your Students Different Today? Turn and Talk
How Has Your Teaching Changed To Meet This Different Student’s Needs? Turn and Talk
Does This Sound Like Any Of Your Students?
We need to be using technology, including Web 2.0 tools to connect our classrooms with the rest of the world…..
Top Web 2.0 Tools Poll Everywhere Animoto LibriVox Twitter Dropbox WordPress/Blogger Diigo Conceptboard Cacoo Prezi This list changes regularly! Keep up with EdudemicEdudemic
Technology’s Four Roles In Student Achievement First, effective technology uses have been found to increase the ability of students to achieve. If you want higher test scores, focus technology uses on higher thinking tasks. Bernajean Porter
Technology’s Four Roles In Student Achievement Second, technology can support traditional student assessment in four ways – online grade books used to increase communication with students and parents in real time –test banks that support teachers in customizing for individual needs –electronic tests that provide immediate feedback loops of formative diagnosis that redirect learning tasks –student information systems for continuous tracking and communicating student achievements.
Technology’s Four Roles In Student Achievement Third, technology also extends our ability to evaluate the growth and development of student abilities over time –using video reports for showing rather than telling about student successes –using electronic K-12 portfolios for revealing formative progress –creating digital student resumes for showcasing exemplar work –engaging students along the way in organizing and reflecting on their own progress.
Technology’s Four Roles In Student Achievement Fourth, technology expands student’s ability to demonstrate what they know and are able to do. Student work produced with technology can be used to: –measure impact –organize staff development –increase lesson design skills –extend evaluation processes –support students in becoming knowledge producers rather than consumers. students were found to perform significantly better when composing essay tests on computers rather than using paper - pen. (Wellesley Public Schools/Boston College, 2000)
Transforming Uses of Technology Technology and learning uses are initiated by students as well as by teachers, creating innovative learning tasks that would be impossible without technology Expanding teacher and student roles, and developing skills in collaboration, self- directed learning, complex thinking, communication, and the use of electronic information
Transforming Uses of Technology Technology is used to transform school culture. When describing what is happening, teachers are telling "new stories with new tools."
Transforming Uses of Technology Typical activities include: using technologies as complex learning and thinking tools students in different schools using telecommunications to gather, process, and report on a common project students working together to solve real-world problems with real-world technology tools students using groupware that facilitates collaborative writing, brainstorming, or other technology-based group activities students have opportunities to construct and demonstrate their learning beyond standardized tests through performance-based assessments and other alternatives
Technology Integration Matrix Grades 3-5, Entry, Collaborative: llaborative_entry_languagearts llaborative_entry_languagearts Middle School, Collaborative, Adaptation nstructive_adaptation_languagearts nstructive_adaptation_languagearts Grades 3-5 Entry, Authentic, thentic_entry_math thentic_entry_math Grades 3-5, Goal Directed, Transformation MS, Goal Directed, Transformation aldirected_transformation_socialstu dies aldirected_transformation_socialstu dies MS Goal Directed, Transformation g oaldirected_transformation_la nguagearts g oaldirected_transformation_la nguagearts MS Authentic, Entry thentic_entry_socialstudies thentic_entry_socialstudies
Your Unit Think About It – What content areas are you considering? – What specific units are you considering? Share – Are there colleagues who have similar interests? – You may create a “group unit” if you wish