Presentation on theme: "Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning"— Presentation transcript:
1Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning Descriptions and examples
2Types of Reasoning Deductive reasoning goes from general to specific Inductive reasoning goes from specific to general
3Deductive ReasoningDeductive reasoning starts with a premise, which we accept to be true. Then, from that rule, we make a conclusion about something specific.Example:All turtles have shellsThe animal I have captured is a turtleI conclude that the animal in my bag has a shell
4Deductive ReasoningA conclusion reached with deductive reasoning is logically sound, and airtight, assuming the premise is true.If a penny is a flat disc, copper in color and has a profile of Honest Abe on it, then I can be sure the penny in my pocket has those qualities.
5Deductive ReasoningThe strength of deductive reasoning is that conclusions derived with it are fully certain.The weakness, which was illustrated in the most recent example, is that no new information is added.The fact that the penny in my pocket is a copper disc with Lincoln on it was clear from the initial data, so the conclusion hasn't added any new information.
6Inductive ReasoningInductive reasoning is making a conclusion based on a set of experiences or data. If I observe that something is true many times, concluding that it will be true in all instances is a use of inductive reasoning.Example:All sheep that I've seen are whiteAll sheep must be white
7Inductive ReasoningThe strength of inductive reasoning is that new information came be stated.The weakness is that the new information cannot be proven.