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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم.

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Presentation on theme: "بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم."— Presentation transcript:

1 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم


3 Lecture Objectives: Normal anatomy of brain CT Trumatic brain injury
Subarachnoid hemorrhage Intraparenchymal hemorrhage Stroke Brain edema Cerebral herniation





8 A. Orbit B. Sphenoid Sinus C. Temporal Lobe D.Externa Auditory Canal E. Mastoid Air Cells F. Cerebellar Hemisphere

9 A. Anterior Horn of the Lateral Ventricle
B. Caudate Nucleus C. Anterior Limb of the Internal Capsule D. Putamen and Globus Pallidus E. Posterior Limb of the Internal Capsule F. Third Ventricle G. Quadrigeminal Plate Cistern H. Cerebellar Vermis I. Occipital Lobe

10 A. Falx Cerebri B. Frontal Lobe C. Body of the Lateral Ventricle D. Splenium of the Corpus Callosum E. Parietal Lobe F. Occipital Lobe G. Superior Sagittal Sinus

11 A. Falx Cerebri B. Sulcus C. Gyrus D. Superior Sagittal Sinus

12 CT SCAN.. Bone window fracture


14 CT SCAN.. Contrast enhanced CT Contrast enhanced CT:
IV injection of contrast medium is often given because the abnormality not seen in pre contrast scans may be rendered visible following contrast enhancement (consequence of breakdown of blood brain barrier allowing contrast to enter the lesion particularly in neoplasm, infection, inflammation and certain stage of ischemia). Also it is helpful in demonstrating blood vessels MCA ACA Basilar artery Straight sinus Superior sagittal sinus Contrast enhanced CT

15 CT SCAN.. Computer reconstructions
can in selected circumstances be made from the axial sections which then provide images in coronal or sagittal planes. Sagittal reconstruction Coronal reconstruction

16 CT SCAN.. CTA CT angiography is helpful in diagnosis of vascular diseases and abnormalities such as stenosis, occlusion or vascular malformation Occlusion of left middle cerebral artery

17 Computed Tomographic Cerebral Venography (CTV)
Can be reliably assess intracranial venous system Comparable to MR angiographic techniques Rapid and readily available Avoids many patient contraindications that may prevent MR evaluation Using iodinated contrast material, requires complex post processing to remove bony structures from reconstructed images

18 CT SCAN.. CT PERFUSION cerebral blood volume cerebral blood flow

19 CT SCAN.. CT PERFUSION In acute stroke, very early cranial CT may be normal. Perfusion CT shows great promise in refining the selection of patients suitable for thrombolysis, as it can accurately determine infarct core from potentially salvageable ischaemic penumbra. Some cerebral tumours are associated with angiogenesis and a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. Angiogenesis can be detected as an increase in flow and volume parameters, and blood-brain barrier breakdown can be quantified as contrast accumulates in the interstitial space. Such aggressive features can distinguish malignant from benign tumours when standard imaging may not.

20 20

21 Traumatic brain injury:
Secondary: - Brain herniation - Traumatic ischemia - Diffuse cerebral edema - Hypoxic brain injury Primary: Extraaxial hemorrhage: - Epidural hematoma - Subdural hematoma - Subarachnoid hemorrhage Intraaxial lesions: - Diffuse axonal injury - Cortical contusion - Deep gray matter injury - Brainstem injury - IVH

22 Epidural hematoma 90% is arterial (middle meningeal artery)
Temporoparietal Biconvex, lenticular Does not cross suture lines, crosses dural reflections Commonly associated with skull fractures


24 CT SCAN.. Bone window Brain window fracture
Acute extradural hemorrhage Bone window Brain window fracture The window settings are selected for the brain, but may be altered to shows the bones.

25 Subdural hematoma Tear of cortical bridging veins
Cresentric along the brain surface Crosses suture lines, does not cross dural reflections Common in infants (child abuse) and in the elderly





30 Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Hyperdense CSF in the basal cisterns, sylvian fissure and subarachnoid space Aneurysm rupture is the most common cause in non trauma patient Patients present with the worst headache of their life

31 Subarachnoid hemorrhage

32 Subarachnoid hemorrhage
The pattern of hemorrhage may give a clue to the location of the ruptured aneurysm: A-com aneurysm ⇒ interhemispheric fissure P-com aneurysm ⇒ ipsilateral basal cisterns MCA trifurcation ⇒ sylvian fissure Basilar tip ⇒ interpeduncular cistern, intraventricular PICA ⇒ posterior fossa cisterns, intraventricular

33 Pseudo-subarachnoid hemorrhage
Symmetric increased density in the basal cisterns with no sulcal density 30-40 HU Assoaciated with generalized brain edema History of recent cardiopulmonary resuscitation


35 Diffuse axonal injury Axonal disruption from shearing forces of acceleration/deceleration Patients are unconscious with severe head injury Common locations: - Lobar gray/white matter junction - Corpus callosum - Dorsolateral brain stem

36 Diffuse axonal injury Initial CT is often normal. Petechial hemorrhage develops later. Susceptibility-sensitive, gradient-echo MR sequences are most sensitive for detecting hemorrhagic shear injuries.

37 Diffuse axonal injury


39 Cortical contusions Focal hemorrhage/edema secondary to brain impacting on bone or dura Located 180 degrees from the site of direct impact (contrecoup) Characteristic locations: - Anterior temporal - Inferior frontal - Parasagittal hemisphere - Splenium of the corpus callosum - Brainstem


41 41

42 Intra ventricular hemorrhage

43 Intraparenchymal hemorrhage
Causes: - Hypertension - Amyloid angiopathy - Vascular malformations - Coagulopathy - Trauma - Drug induced - Tumor hemorrhage


45 45

46 Stroke Types: - Ischemic stroke - Hemorrhagic stroke
- Venous occlusion

47 Ischemic stroke Imaging findings:
Nonenhanced CT is the initial investigation of choice Exclude hemorrhage and underlying mass or AVM Imaging findings: Normal in early stroke Hyperdense clot in the affected artery Insular ribbon sign Sulcal effacement Cytotoxic edema develops by 6 hours

48 Ischemic stroke Acute infarction cannot be excluded on the basis of a negative CT. Diffusion weighted MRI is most sensitive for detecting acute infarction Hemorrhagic transformation can develop in the subacute stage (gradient echo MRI)



51 Insular Ribbon Sign

52 1st Day

53 2nd Day



56 Old CT Recent CT


58 PICA Infarction

59 Dense basilar artery (arrow)
Dense basilar artery (arrow). Compare this to the normal internal carotid artery (arrowhead).






65 65

66 Cerebral Venous Thrombosis
Can involve the: dural sinuses, cortical veins or deep cerebral veins

67 Venous occlusion

68 Spectrum of CT findings
10-30% of cases of CVT are negative on either unenhanced or contrast-enhanced CT Highly suspicious cases should be furtherly evaluated with CT venography or MRI

69 Unenhanced CT: Direct signs of CVT “dense clot sign” seen only on 30% of cases. Diffuse brain edema 20-50%

70 Venous infarction: Unenhanced CT:
Not conforming to a major arterial vascular territory, Involving subcortical region solitary or multiple isolated lesions Hemorrhagic or non hemorrhagic.

71 Unenhanced CT: Bilateral infarction at thalami, basal ganglia and internal capsules suggesting deep venous thrombosis


73 Contrast-Enenhanced CT:
Direct evidence of CVT “Empty Delta Sign” Indirect evidence of CVT may be seen as contrast enhancement of the adjacent dura or vascular engorgement

74 CT Venography: Allow direct visualization of thrombus as filling defect

75 1st day 2nd day





80 Diagnostic Pitfalls Pseudodelta sign

81 Normal variant of dense sinus

82 Unenhanced CT scans show subdural hemorrhage along falx and tentorium cerebelli, simulating sagittal and transverse sinus thrombosis.

83 83

84 Brain edema Cytotoxic: Vasogenic: - Due to cellular swelling
- In the setting of cerebral ischemia - Involves both gray and white matter Vasogenic: - Disruption of BBB and leakage of fluid outside capillaries - Associated with tumors and abscesses - Involves only the white matter

85 Brain edema Cytotoxic Vasogenic

86 Diffuse brain edema Causes include: ischemia and severe head injury
High morbidity and mortality Effacement of the cortical sulci and basal cisterns Loss of gray/white matter interface White cerebellum sign


88 88

89 Cerebral herniation Types: - Subfalcine
Mechanical displacement of the brain secondary to mass effect Causes neurologic dysfunction and vascular compromise Types: - Subfalcine - Transtentorial (descending, ascending) - Tonsillar


91 Cerebral herniation Subfalcine herniation:
- The cingulate gyrus slips under the falx cerebri - Compression of the ipsilateral ventricle and enlargement of the contralateral ventricle - ACA ischemia


93 Cerebral herniation - PCA ischemia
Descending transtentorial herniation (uncal): - The medial temporal lobe displaces through the tentorial notch - Presents clinically with deteriorating level of consciousness, ipsilateral 3rd nerve palsy and contralateral motor deficit - Effacement of the ipsilateral suprasellar cistern and enlargement of the ipsilateral CPA cistern - The midbrain impacts the contralateral tentorium (Kernohan’s phenomenon, Duret hemorrhage) - PCA ischemia

94 Cerebral herniation

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