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Generation XL: A Compromised Generation in NB Dr. Gabriela Tymowski, Ph.D. Associate Professor & Director, LEAP! Faculty of Kinesiology, UNB.

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Presentation on theme: "Generation XL: A Compromised Generation in NB Dr. Gabriela Tymowski, Ph.D. Associate Professor & Director, LEAP! Faculty of Kinesiology, UNB."— Presentation transcript:

1 Generation XL: A Compromised Generation in NB Dr. Gabriela Tymowski, Ph.D. Associate Professor & Director, LEAP! Faculty of Kinesiology, UNB

2 Generation XL: NB Youth Questions What does it mean to be healthy? –Unhealthy? What do you do that you think is considered a healthy behaviour? –Unhealthy behaviour? Why is “being healthy” important? –Resilience?

3 Generation XL: NB Youth What does it mean to be healthy? "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." World Health Organization, 1946

4 Generation XL: NB Youth Behavioural pathogens Personal habits and lifestyle choices The ways in which we live our lives has profound effects on our health –they influence the onset and progression of disease Changing patterns of disease –Historyically: contagious and infectious diseases –Today: heart disease, cancer & strokes… and obesity

5 Generation XL: NB Youth NB and physical (in)activity 59% of NB youth aged 12-19 are not active enough for optimal growth and development 64% of all New Brunswickers are insufficiently active for optimal health benefits Teenagers 15 – 19 years more likely to be inactive than those 12 – 14 years Decline in activity with age and gender (girls at 14-15 yrs vs boys 16-17 yrs) Girls less active than boys: 30% vs 50% at 5-12 yrs vs 25% vs 40% at 13-17 yrs Girls - less intense physical activities (Canadian Community Health Survey, 2000/01)

6 Generation XL: NB Youth Health Implications of Physical Inactivity –Childhood obesity > Adulthood obesity –Type 2 diabetes –Hypertension –High cholesterol –Obstructive sleep apnea –Osteoporosis –Increased fracture rates, complications of open fractures & surgery –Depression –Smoking/alcohol/drugs –Adolescent pregnancy Caesarean section

7 Generation XL: NB Youth ©Felicia Webb/IPG Obstructive Sleep Apnea Jonathon Rojo, 14 years, of Galveston Beach, Houston Weight: 250 lbs Medical Conditions: obesity-related fibrosis of the liver and obstructive sleep apnea. He sleeps with a BIPAP machine which forces air into his lungs.

8 Generation XL: NB Youth

9 On the road to diabetes ~2 million US children 12 – 19 years are pre-diabetic This condition is linked to obesity and inactivity These children are at risk for full-blown diabetes and cardiovascular problems Atlantic Canada has the highest rates of diabetes (& chronic disease) in Canada The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in children is rising dramatically in NB –onset is linked directly to poor eating & inactivity -consequences: blindness, amputation

10 Generation XL: NB Youth Regular Physical Activity Improves psychological well-being and self-esteem Increases “good” cholesterol levels Improves cardiovascular fitness Increases physical competence Associated with healthy growth & development in children Decreases risks of obesity (and cluster of related co- morbidities)

11 Generation XL: NB Youth Body Mass 33% of Canadians 20 – 64 years are classified as overweight (BMI 25 – 29.9) 15% are classified as being obese (BMI over 30) Men are more likely than women to be overweight or obese The prevalence of overweight & obesity is highest in Atlantic Canada (Canadian Community Health Survey, 2000/01) Underweight Healthy weight overweight obese

12 Generation XL: NB Youth What does “overweight” mean? "overweight “ -an excess amount of body weight that includes muscle, bone, fat, and water (BMI between 25 and 29.9) “ obesity ” -specifically refers to an excess amount of body fat (BMI over 30) Waist Circumference -increasingly used to evaluate overweight -if waist is larger than hips, increased risk of disease Centres for Disease Control Canadian Paediatric Society

13 Generation XL: NB Youth How does one become overweight or obese? A Food Intake Physical Activity ENERGY IMBALANCE B C

14 Generation XL: NB Youth Explanation for this shift?

15 Generation XL: NB Youth

16 Today’s reality for many people: Poor eating habits –Processed, pre-packaged foods –insufficient fresh fruit & vegetable intake –Excessive intake of sweet drinks (pop, juice) Overeating –Mindless eating & snacking (tv) –Portion sizes super-sized –Frequency of eating out (restaurants & at school) Inadequate levels of physical activity –Desire for convenience, ease –Remote controls, power-everything Too much time inside… not enough time outside –High levels of screen-time (TV, computer, games) Insufficient sleep

17 Generation XL: NB Youth Some interesting points: People who have TVs in their bedrooms (adults & children) lose at least 1 hour of sleep per night Implication: since growth occurs during sleep – thus less sleep means less time for growing, less time for body to recover from stresses of life (physical & emotional), = shorter stature? People who brown-bag lunches have lower rates of obesity than people who eat in cafeterias and restaurants Families who eat meals together have lower rates of obesity Children & youth who are overweight rarely lose the weight as they get older, and usually move up (from overweight to obese)

18 Generation XL: NB Youth Education is critical

19 Generation XL: NB Youth Lifestyle Behaviours A healthy lifestyle includes: –regular physical activity, eating 5 or more servings of vegetables and fruit daily, and not smoking: –This is MOST likely the case for those living in BC, and LEAST likely for those living in NB Implications: –Physical inactivity, poor nutrition and smoking are risk factors for chronic disease and conditions like cancer, diabetes, and obesity –This means a poorer quality of life, reduced opportunities, and the foreclosure of your future CFLRI 2002

20 Generation XL: NB Youth Is there a Magic Bullet??? Hydroxycut? Other drugs (stimulants)??? South Beach… The Zone… diets??? There is simply no such thing, there are no short cuts Healthy Living = Physical Activity + Healthy Eating

21 Generation XL: NB Youth Healthy choices have to be the easy choices Healthy behaviours: -Daily physical activity (regular ↑ intensity) -Healthy diet, 90% of the time -Adequate sleep -Not smoking, avoiding SHS -No or moderate alcohol -Safe sexual practices -Stress management

22 Generation XL: NB Youth What is LEAP! ? a multi-disciplinary programme for children (5 – 12 years) struggling with the problem of overweight, obesity, and/or obesity-related co-morbidities We offer healthy personal development and decision-making through education, support and positive reinforcement for children & parents Entry: referral from family physicians and pediatricians Criteria: children who are 130% of ideal body weight, or 120% of ideal body weight with obesity-related co-morbidities Open to all children: no geographical limitations –Some families drive from northern NB (6 hr. round-trip) –Majority within an hour’s drive

23 Generation XL: NB Youth LEAP!’s History Year 1: Sept. 2004 –8 month pilot project (to April 2005) approach developed by literature and environmental scan of established clinics and programmes across Canada, consultation with regional health practitioners and academics Children entered from Sept. to March, so varied duration –Programme review (May/June 2005) Year 2: Sept. 2005 –2 year programme 1 st Year: Orientation + 8 visits 2 nd Year: 4 mini-visits All children from pilot invited to return (approx. 50% did) –Funding received for 5 years (GSK), + other support

24 Generation XL: NB Youth LEAP ’ s Components: a multi-disciplinary approach NUTRITION - dietitian educates children & families on healthier eating - they discuss food choices, when and where meals are eaten, how they are prepared, barriers to healthful eating - They find solutions to barriers and determine goals for each month PHYSICAL ACTIVITY - Reviews physical activity habits of child and family - Identifies barriers to participation (lives along busy highway (for NB!), long bus ride to school, $ for activities, etc.) - Evaluation of current aerobic fitness, strength, height and weight, body composition HEALTH - nurse reviews health of each patient, and of their family - reviews medications and comorbidities - measurement of blood pressure, heart rate, blood work (lipds/glucose/etc.) - Monitors health concerns - Case consultation with physician LEISURE EDUCATION - Reviews interests and leisure activities of child and family - Identifies resources in child’s community (parks, clubs, etc.) - Identifies barriers to participation in activities ($, transportation, anxiety, etc.) - Together, they finds solutions to barriers and create plans for participation EDUCATION - baseline data collected, administration of learning styles questionnaire and perception of ability scales with children - Guides “webs” with children about their resources: friends, communities, etc. - Case consultation with psychologist * Dr. Bill Morrison RESEARCH Director

25 Generation XL: NB Youth Unrealistic expectations

26 Generation XL: NB Youth Opportunities Fredericton Healthy Active Living Challenge –www.unbf.ca/kinesiologywww.unbf.ca/kinesiology Leo Hayes Walking Club Fredericton Marathon: May 13 th : –5 km (walk OR run) –10 km –21 km –42 km –Participate with your friends, and challenge each other! –www.ccrr.cawww.ccrr.ca

27 Generation XL: NB Youth Acknowledgements: Our funders Health & Wellness

28 Generation XL: NB Youth Acknowledgements The LEAP! Team: –Bev Dunfield, R.N., M.SN(C) –Barb Dugas, R.D. Haley Keezer, Leo Hayes –Theresa Bernhardt, P.F.L.C., B.Sc. (Kin), M.Sc.(C)* –Charlene Shannon, Ph.D. Kate Morrison, M.A. (C) –Sandy Nickerson, B.Ed., M.Ed(C) –Roxanne Cole, CFC, B.Sc. (Kin) * –Bill Morrison, Ph.D., L.Psych. –Susan Smith, M.D. Cynthia Doucette, Ph.D Greg Kealey, Ph.D., VP Research-UNB Althea Arseneault, Development Office Faculty of Kinesiology students and staff The LEAPers and their families!

29 Generation XL: NB Youth Thank you! Gabriela Tymowski, Ph.D. tymowski@unb.ca leap@unb.ca


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