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Melda N. Yildiz, Ed. D. Kean University 9/1/2014 Kean University 1 Lesson Planning 101 How to write clear Objectives.

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Presentation on theme: "Melda N. Yildiz, Ed. D. Kean University 9/1/2014 Kean University 1 Lesson Planning 101 How to write clear Objectives."— Presentation transcript:

1 Melda N. Yildiz, Ed. D. Kean University 9/1/2014 Kean University 1 Lesson Planning 101 How to write clear Objectives

2 There are three essential elements of a lesson plan: Objectives--what students will be able to do as a result of the lesson Procedures--what the teacher will do to get the students there Evaluation opportunities--what the teacher can do to see if the lesson was taught effectively: watching students work, assigning application activities, getting feedback, etc. Additionally, many lesson plans also include: Materials needed for the class period and any special equipment Time estimates, and of course Differentiations. 9/1/2014 Kean University 2

3 Writing Objectives Any good lesson starts with strong objectives. A good objective is specific. A good objective targets an appropriate level of learning by using a tool like Bloom’s Taxonomy. This categorization of educational objectives has six orders ranging from the least difficult, most superficial learning up to that of the deepest level. A good objective is measurable. You can tell when it is completed. A good objective is usually time-bound. A good objective will challenge students on one hand, but be within their reach on the other. A good objective is part of a larger scheme of objectives designed to take a student from entry to mastery. 9/1/2014 Kean University 3

4 Bloom's Taxonomy 9/1/2014 Kean University 4

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11 Complete instructional objectives should be: Complete instructional objectives should be: Observable. Lesson writers differ in the level of specificity they seek in describing student learning outcomes. Consider the following objectives: 1. Students will be able to understand the difference between urban and rural communities. 2. Students will be able to list in their journals two differences between urban and rural communities. 9/1/2014 Kean University 11

12 The first objective is very general and it does not say how students might show, in any observable way, their understanding. What does it mean to "understand" the concept of urban community? This type of objective does not provide adequate information to the teacher about what the student will be able to do after completing the lesson, nor does it guide the teacher's evaluation of whether students have achieved the objective. The second objective, however, more clearly identifies the expected student behavior. 9/1/2014 Kean University 12

13 Four Criteria for Completeness in Instructional Objectives The specific performance or action required to demonstrate successful accomplishment of the instructional objective (e.g., to write, to name, to compare and contrast, to debate, to decide, etc.) The learning outcome or product by which successful accomplishment of the objective can be determined (e.g., a statement, an essay, a poster, a journal entry, etc.) The conditions or constraints under which the behavior is to be performed (e.g., during a cooperative activity, after reading the story_______, given a diagram... ) The criterion, standard, or learned capability used to determine successful performance or achievement of the instructional objective. (e.g., correct to the nearest mile, four out of five correct, list three examples, state two differences, etc.) 9/1/2014 Kean University 13

14 1. Students will be able to understand the difference between urban and rural communities. 2. Students will be able to list in their journals differences between urban and rural communities. OBJECTIVE= SWAT + specific performance + learning outcome + conditions or constraints + criterion, standard. 3. Students will be able to list in their journals at the end of the lesson two differences between urban and rural communities. Students will be able to create digital video narratives at the end of the week covering 3 out of 5 suggested elements (i.e. pictures, video, audio, subtitle, video transitions). 9/1/2014 Kean University 14

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16 Common Lesson Plan Models adapted from Writing Lesson Plans from the Huntington College Education Department Writing Lesson Plans Writing Lesson Plans Madeline Hunter's (Seven Steps) \ direct instruction method as well as the behaviorist school of educational practice. The seven steps fall under four categories as follows: Getting Students Ready to Learn 1. Review 2. Anticipatory Set - focus attention, gain interest - the "hook", connect new to known 3. Stating the objective Instruction 4. Input and modeling Checking for Understanding 5. Check for understanding 6. Guided practice - provide feedback without grading Independent Practice 7. Independent practice - usually for a graded assignment 9/1/2014 Kean University 16

17 Robert Gagne, Educational psychologist 9 instructional events and corresponding cognitive processes that can be used to support learning. They are often used as a framework for instructional development when the acquisition of intellectual skills is the goal of instruction. Gaining attention Informing learners of the objective Stimulating recall of prior learning Presenting the stimulus (content) Providing learning guidance (telling students the best way to learn the material you are presenting) Eliciting performance (opportunities to practice) Providing feedback (information about how to improve) Assessing performance (exam, tests, quizzes, papers) Enhancing retention and transfer (activities to help students remember and to extend the learning, transfer it to other scenarios) 9/1/2014 Kean University 17

18 Multiple Intelligences (Howard Gardner's 8 Ways of Knowing) ◦ Verbal ◦ Mathematical ◦ Spatial ◦ Musical ◦ Kinesthetic ◦ Interpersonal ◦ Intrapersonal ◦ Natural 9/1/2014 Kean University 18

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20 Instructional Scaffolding (Jerome Bruner; Langer & Applebee) ◦ Ownership--wish to learn ◦ Appropriateness--right level ◦ Support--structured guidance ◦ Collaboration--coaching ◦ Internalization--independent practice 9/1/2014 Kean University 20

21 The six steps of the ASSURE Model (Azia, 2003 & Shepard, n.d.) Analyze Learners: The first step in the ASSURE process is to know and understand the target audience. It is important to know the students' general characteristics (e.g. grade, age ethic group, gender, and socioeconomic level), learning styles (e.g. verbal, visual, tactual) and entry competencies (e.g. prior knowledge, skills, attitudes). State Objectives: Once you know the learners, the next step is to state the objectives. Establishing direct learning outcomes will specify what the learners will gain from the lesson and the criteria for technology integration. Select Methods, Media, and Materials after you have knowledge of your learners and stated objectives; the next step is to select the instructional method, media and materials that will be appropriate for the teaching and learning environment. Technology integration is determined in the selection of methods, media, and materials. Utilize Media and Materials: Once the methods, media, and materials have been chosen, you are ready to implement them into the lesson. Require Learner Participation: Provide opportunities for students to participate and reflect during the learning process. Evaluate and Revise: You should reflect upon the lesson and revise where needed. Obtain input from the learners through group discussion, exit interviews, assessments, and other types of student feedback. 9/1/2014 Kean University 21

22 5 E's of Constructivism Constructivism is a theory of learning stating that learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge. It is a very open type of planning. Faculty design instruction around a learning objective, gather resources, and provide students with an opportunity to explore, build, and demonstrate their learning. It shifts the learning environment from one which is very instructor-centered to one that is very learner-centered. Engage - students encounter the material, define their questions, lay the groundwork for their tasks, make connections from new to known, identify relevance Explore - students directly involved with material, inquiry drives the process, teamwork is used to share and build knowledge base Explain - learner explains the discoveries, processes, and concepts, that have been learned through written, verbal or creative projects. Instructor supplies resources, feedback, vocabulary, and clarifies misconceptions Elaborate - learners expand on their knowledge, connect it to similar concepts, apply it to other situations - can lead to new inquiry Evaluate - on-going process by both instructor and learner to check for understanding. Rubrics, checklists, teacher interviews, portfolios, problem-based learning outputs, and embedded assessments. Results are used to evaluate and modify further instructional needs. 9/1/2014 Kean University 22

23 Other Formats Discovery Lesson (eg. Lab) ◦ Equipment ◦ Set the stage ◦ Don't state objectives yet ◦ Give instructions ◦ Check for understanding ◦ Guided practice (lab) ◦ Discussion, regrouping ◦ Statement of objectives ◦ Independent practice (e.g. lab journal) ◦ Assessment 9/1/2014 Kean University 23

24 Group Work (eg. Cooperative Learning) Equipment Set the stage State objectives Give instructions Check for understanding Group work Guided practice Discussion Regrouping Summary Assessment 9/1/2014 Kean University 24

25 MiniCycles (eg. vocabulary lesson) Equipment Set the stage State objective Cycles: ◦ - Instruction ◦ - Check for understanding ◦ - Guided practice ◦ - Instruction ◦ - Check for understanding ◦ - Guided practice, etc. Independent practice Assessment 9/1/2014 Kean University 25

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27 Evaluation Rubristar My rubric for lesson plans bric&module=Rubistar&rubric_id=1003578& bric&module=Rubistar&rubric_id=1003578& 9/1/2014 Kean University 27

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31 Lesson Plans on the Web Ideas for web-based lessons from the Public Broadcasting System web site swebbased.shtm swebbased.shtm Art education activities from the Kennedy Center Lesson plans available from the Apple Computer, Inc. Apple Learning Exchange A searchable database of lesson plans submitted by teachers to the Encarta web site Astronomy lesson plans from the NASA Goddard Space Center 9/1/2014 Kean University 31

32 Lesson plans, activities, and resources from the national Park Service to support education in geology, paleontology, prairie resources, and wildlife Free bank of lesson activities and other resources from the U. S. Department of Education Teaching modules, classroom activities, and on- going events from the United Nations to help teach global issues: Human Rights, Health, Land Mines, Environment, Women, Poverty. 9/1/2014 Kean University 32

33 Lesson plans and other teaching resources on a variety of topics from the Smithsonian Museum ir.html ir.html Lesson ideas and opportunities available from the New York Times Consortium to point the way to materials from federal, state, university, and other sites Lesson plans and other resources for the middle school level 9/1/2014 Kean University 33

34 Online Learning Projects and Sites to Help with Collaboration Among Schools The ThinkQuest Internet Challenge The Kidlink Network to support e-mail exchanges among students Intercultural E-Mail Classroom Connections, a free service to help teachers link with partners in other countries and cultures for e-mail project exchanges The Global SchoolNet Foundation, a site of examples of past collaborative projects and information on how to join current ones http://www.gsn.org Live interactive expeditions to real places around the world that students may "join" online 9/1/2014 Kean University 34

35 Examples from the University of Illinois of real Internet projects of teachers and students, and the findings of researchers who study them Live interactive expeditions to real places around the world that students may "join" online Site to help K12 educators learn how to set up their own Internet servers, link K12 educators and students at various sites, and help them find and use K12 web resources Blue Web'N Library of Learning Sites This popular site includes a content table listing web-based tutorials, activities and projects, along with lesson plans and suggested Internet resources for each subject area. n/ n/ 9/1/2014 Kean University 35

36 The Busy Teachers' WebSite K-12 Arranged by subject categories, this site provides links to selected Internet sites as well as suggestions for lesson plans and classroom activities. Classroom Connect Lesson Plans A web site for K-12 teachers and students, including Connected Teacher Lesson Plans and A+ Web Links by subject. ns/lessonplans.asp ns/lessonplans.asp WebQuest Matrix of Examples The famous list of inquiry-oriented Internet activities on many subjects, pioneered by Bernie Dodge at San Diego State University. WebQuests are listed by grade level, skills taught, and subject. ml ml 9/1/2014 Kean University 36

37 The Gateway to Educational Materials This search engine for lesson plans allows you to select a grade level and search the full text of lessons for that age group. A "search by subject" and a "browse" feature. Lesson Plans and Teaching ActivitiesA webliography of ideas for K-12 activities in many subjects, from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. onplans.htm onplans.htm Microsoft ENCARTA Lesson Collection. Choose a subject area from the list and view links to lessons on various topics for grades K-12. Each lesson includes objectives, procedure, and motivation. /default.asp /default.asp 9/1/2014 Kean University 37

38 Discovery Channel SchoolIncluding the award-winning subject guide by Kathy Schrock, with lots of links to subject and administrative topics of interest to teachers and librarians EDSITEment From the National Endowment for the Humanities, this site contains not only great lesson plans for a variety of subjects in the humanities, but suggestions for important humanities websites and educational news. 9/1/2014 Kean University 38

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