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Selection and Detection of High-Frequency Relic Gravitational Waves Fangyu Li, Zhenya Chen. Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044,. China Robert M. L.

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Presentation on theme: "Selection and Detection of High-Frequency Relic Gravitational Waves Fangyu Li, Zhenya Chen. Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044,. China Robert M. L."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Selection and Detection of High-Frequency Relic Gravitational Waves Fangyu Li, Zhenya Chen. Chongqing University, Chongqing ,. China Robert M. L. Baker, Jr. GRAWAVE® LLC, 8123 Tuscany Avenue, Playa del Rey, California 90293, USA

3 1.Motivation and Background. 2.Outline. 3.Electromagnetic Detection to High- Frequency Gravitational Waves. 4.Challenges and opportunity.

4 Background Classification of gravitational wave frequency bands. (1) ν~1Hz-10 4 Hz, the detecting region by ground laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory, such as VIRGO, LIGO, etc. (2) ν~100Hz-10 3 Hz, the detecting region by the resonant mass detectors, such as Weber Bar. (3) ν~10 -4 Hz-1Hz, the detecting region by Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, such as LISA. (4) ν~10 -6 Hz Hz, the detecting region by ASTROD. (5) ν~10 7 Hz-10 9 Hz, the detecting region by electromagnetic microwave cavity or circular waveguide. (6) ν~10 9 Hz Hz, the detecting region by coupling system of the microwave beams and static EM fields.

5 S. W. Hawking: (1979) High-frequency gravitational waves in excess of 100kHz and may have the most promise for terrestrial generation and practical, scientific, and commercial application (Cambridge university press, Cambridge, 98, 1979) L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifishitz: Since it has definite energy, the gravitational waves is itself the source of some additional gravitational field… its field is a second-order effect… but in the case of high-frequency gravitational waves the effect is significantly strengthened…. (the Classical Theory of Fields, on page 372, 1975)

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7 Why would we like to study this project? (1) According to the theory of general relativity, Gravitational waves (GWs) and Electromagnetic (EM) waves have a same propagating velocity in vacuum:  Optimum coherence effect of the two fields may be generated (2) The GHz (~10 9 Hz Hz) are just typical microwave frequency band, one can use well-considered microwave technology in the frequency region.

8 (3) (under the resonant condition) Characteristic dimensions of the EM Characteristic dimensions of the EM detecting system would be L~1-10m, detecting system would be L~1-10m, they are the typical laboratory they are the typical laboratory dimensions, and it is easy to construct array. dimensions, and it is easy to construct array. (4)The microwave beam (e.g., Gaussian beam) propagating a static field is an beam) propagating a static field is an open system in free space. open system in free space. the EM response has more direct the EM response has more direct displaying effect. displaying effect.

9 [1] W. J. Kim et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 96 (2006), [2] M. Giovannini, Phys. Rev. D 60 (1999), M. Giovannini, Class. Quantum Grav. 16 (1999), 2905 M. Giovannini, Class. Quantum Grav. 16 (1999), 2905 [3] A. Riazuelo and J. P. Uzan. Phys. Rev. D 62 (2000), [4] J. P. Qstriker and P. J. Sternhardt, Sci. Am. (Int. Ed.) 284(2001), (2001), 46. [5] L. P. Grishchuk, (2003), gr-qc/ [6] R. R. Caldwell et al., Sci. Am. (In. Ed.) 272 (2001), 20. [7] B. A. Remington et al., Science 284 (1999), 1488 [8] P. Chen, (2003) astro-Ph/ [9] C. Joshi and P. Corkum, Physics Today (1995), (1) 36. [10] G. Mourou et al., Physic Today (1998), (1) 22 [11] J. M. Hopking and W. Sibbett, Sci. Am. (In. Ed.) 268 (2000), 1. (2000), 1. [12] M. Portilla et al., Phys. Rev. D 63 (2001),

10 [13] R. M. L. Baker, Jr., First International High-Frequency GW Conference, edited by P. Murad, The MITRE Corporation, Conference, edited by P. Murad, The MITRE Corporation, Mclean, VA, USA (2003), Paper HFGW , Paper HFGW- Mclean, VA, USA (2003), Paper HFGW , Paper HFGW H. D. Froning et al., (2003), Paper HFGW H. D. Froning et al., (2003), Paper HFGW H. Dehnen et al., (2003), Paper-HFGW H. Dehnen et al., (2003), Paper-HFGW D. G. Fontana et al., (2003), Paper-HFGW D. G. Fontana et al., (2003), Paper-HFGW G. V. Stephenson, (2003), Paper-HFGW G. V. Stephenson, (2003), Paper-HFGW [14] R. C. Woods et al., (STAIF 2005), Americal Institute of Physics Conference Proceeding, Melville, NY 746 (2005), Conference Proceeding, Melville, NY 746 (2005), R. M. L. Baker, Jr., et al., ibid (STAIF 2005), (2005), 1315 R. M. L. Baker, Jr., et al., ibid (STAIF 2005), (2005), 1315 [15] D. G. Fontana et al., (STAIF 2004), Americal Institute of Physics, Melville, NY 699 (2004), 1114 Melville, NY 699 (2004), 1114 [16] Hansheng Peng et al., “286-TW Ti: Sapphire Laser at CAEP” SPIE Prodeedings (2004) SPIE Prodeedings (2004) 5627.

11 [17] X. Yang, et al., Optics Letters 27 (2002), 1135 [18] Yuelin Li et al., Opt. Soc. Am. B17 (6) (2000), 1098 [19] R. M. L. Baker, Jr., Fangyu Li and Ruxin Li, (2005), AIAA(N.USA), (2005) (2005) [20] L. P. Grishchuk, First International High-Frequency GW Conference, edited by P. Murad, The MITRE Corporation, Conference, edited by P. Murad, The MITRE Corporation, Mclean, VA, USA (2003), Paper HFGW Mclean, VA, USA (2003), Paper HFGW [21] A. M. Cruise, Class. Quantum Grav. 17 (2000), 2525 A.M. Cruise et al., Submitted to Class. Quantum,Grav. (2005) A.M. Cruise et al., Submitted to Class. Quantum,Grav. (2005) (personal communication) (personal communication) [22] P. Bernard et al., (2002), gr-qc/ P. Bernard et al., Review of Scientific Instruments 72 (2001), P. Bernard et al., Review of Scientific Instruments 72 (2001), [23] A. Chincarini and G. Gemme, First International High-Frequency GW Conference, edited by P. Mural, The MITRE Corporation, GW Conference, edited by P. Mural, The MITRE Corporation, Mclean, VA, USA (2003), Paper Mclean, VA, USA (2003), Paper [24] U. H. Gerlach, Phys. Rev. D 46 (1992), 1239 [25] L. P. Grishchuk and M. V. Sazhin, Sov. Phys. JETP 53 (1983),

12 [26] Ning Li and D. G. Torr, Phys. Rev. D 43 (1991), 457. Phys. Rev. B 46 (1992), 5491 B 46 (1992), 5491 [27] N. V. Mitskievich and A. I. Nesterov, Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 27 (1995), 361 (1995), 361 [28] R. M. L. Baker, Jr.,Fangyu Li, AIAA/AIP STAIF edited by M. S. El-Genr, (Melville, N. Y. USA) (2006) Feb. 18 M. S. El-Genr, (Melville, N. Y. USA) (2006) Feb. 18 [29] Fangyu Li, Mengxi Tang and Dongping Shi, Phys. Rev. D 67 (2003), (2003), [30] Fangyu Li,Mengxi Tang and Jun Luo, Phys. Rev. D 62 (2000), (2000), [31] Fangyu Li et al., First Intenational High-Frequency GW Conference, edited by P. Murad, The MITRE Corporation, Conference, edited by P. Murad, The MITRE Corporation, Mclean, VA, USA (2003), Pape-HFGW Mclean, VA, USA (2003), Pape-HFGW [32] Fangyu Li and Mengxi Tang, International Journal of Mordern Physics D 11(7) (2002),1049. Physics D 11(7) (2002),1049. [33] Mengxi Tang and Fangyu Li,Classical and Quantum Gravity 17(2000), [34] W. K. Logi and A. R. Mickdson, Phys. Rev. D 16 (1977), 2915

13 Some expected and possible HFGW sources ν (Hz) hΩ Relic GWs ~ ~ (r. m. s) ~ Solar Plasma ~10 15 ~ (on the earth) Strong EM Systems (e.g.,see First High- frequency GW Conference Proceedings,Mclean, Virginia,USA,2003 ) ~ ~ (on the focal region) High Energy Particles (e.g., Fermi Ring) ~ ~ (on the center)

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18 According to Randall- Sundrum models, the HFGWs would be more capable of carrying energy from our According to Randall- Sundrum models, the HFGWs would be more capable of carrying energy from our 3-brane world than lower-frequency GWs by their propagation in the extra dimensions,do inverse effects of the 3-brane world than lower-frequency GWs by their propagation in the extra dimensions,do inverse effects of the R-S models exist for our brane world? R-S models exist for our brane world?

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20 Birmingham University, Birmingham, England

21 R. Ballantini et.al.,Institute of National Nuclear Physics, Genova, Italy

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25 Unlike the cavity EM response to the HFGWs, a Gaussian beam (GB) passing through a static magnetic field is an open system in the free space, the perturbation photon flux and the background photon flux have very different physical behaviour in the local regions, and the perturbation has more direct observable effect.

26 Coupling system of fractal membranes and Gaussian beam passing through a static magnetic field

27 High-frequency relic GWs and their asymptotic behavior in the high-frequency band: General form of high-frequency constant amplitude GWs is Asymptotic form in the high-frequency region and in the laboratory frame of reference will be  (3) (1) (2) (4)

28 The Gaussian beam with the double transverse polarized electric modes (DTPEM) (5) (6)

29 (7)

30 High- frequency relic GW: the tensor perturbation Gaussian beam +static magnetic field: background real photons +virtual photons Synchro- coherent resonance ω e =ω g It is possible to produce the perturpative photon flux (PPF),and the PPF and BPF have very different physical behaviour in some special local regions

31 z o B0B0 x y y x GW EMW Gaussian beam PPF

32 The PPF and the BPF propagate along opposite directions in the regions of 1st, 3rd,6th,and 8th octants,while they have the same propagating directions in the regions of 2nd, 4th, 5th and 7th octants.

33 X O PPF BPF Y Fig 1, the region of z>0 O Y X

34 X O PPF BPF Y Fig 2, the region of z<0 O Y X

35 The perturbative photon fluxes ν (Hz) Ω (peak values) h(r.m.s) l (m),the interacting dimensions of static magnetic field The PPFs (s -1 ) × × × × × × × ×10 3

36 Directional sensitivity of the system Propagating directions of the resonant components of the relic GW PPFs (s -1 ) z -z x y 1.27× × ×

37 The thermal noise and the EM noise For the possible external EM noise sources,using a Faraday cage or shielding covers made from the fractal membranes,or a good “microwave darkroom” might provide an effective shielding environment.

38 where,

39 The separation of the PPF(signal) from the background photon flux The distance to the fractal membrane3.16cm12cm42cm70cm The background photon flux 2.44 × s × s × 10 3 s × s -1 The PPF reflected or transmitted by the fractal membrane 1.27 × 10 3 s × 10 3 s × 10 3 s × 10 3 s -1

40 Opportunity 1.This scheme might provide a new window and in new way for detection of the HFRGWs in the GHz band. 2. Typical dimensions of the detecting system would be only  1-10m, and constructing cost may be only one percent of LIGO or less. 3. It contains new ideas, new developed results (including theoretical, experimental and technological results )

41 Difficulties and challenge 1.How to keep a good vacuum environment to avoid the scattering of the photons and the dielectric dissipation. 2. How to reduce further temperature and maintain a good cryogenic environment to suppress relevant thermal noise.

42 3. How to make a best combination to reduce and overcome system noise, what is the concrete form and influence of quantum noise in the system? 4. How to suppress distortion of the shape and the spot radius of the Gaussian beam, what is concrete correction and influence of the higher order modes in the Gaussian beam?

43 However, because of fast development of relative technology,such as superconductors, nanotechnology, high-quality factor microwave cavities, ultra-fast science,strong field physics, cryogenic technology,strong microwave beam technology, high-energy laboratory astrophysics,etc. They offered technically possibilities This subject might become a reality

44 Thank you ! 谢谢!


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