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LT 7C: Identify and describe major pesticides, classify them as either narrow or broad spectrum and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each.

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Presentation on theme: "LT 7C: Identify and describe major pesticides, classify them as either narrow or broad spectrum and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each."— Presentation transcript:

1 LT 7C: Identify and describe major pesticides, classify them as either narrow or broad spectrum and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each.

2  Pests are any species that interferes with human welfare by: ◦ competing with us for food ◦ invading lawns and gardens ◦ destroying building materials ◦ Spreading disease ◦ Invading ecosystems ◦ Being a nuisance

3  Naturally through predators, parasites and disease organisms ◦ Ex: World’s 30,000 known species of spiders kill far more insects every year than humans do by using chemicals

4  Chemicals used to kill or control populations of organisms that we consider undesirable.  Common Types: ◦ Insecticides ◦ Herbicides ◦ Fungicides ◦ Rodenticides

5  First generation ◦ 1600’s ◦ Natural chemicals borrowed from plants ◦ Nicotine sulfate from tobacco leaves

6  Second generation ◦ s ◦ Produced in a laboratory ◦ Ex: DDT  World’s most-used pesticide  Hazardous to humans  strict control over its use

7  Biopesticides ◦ Since 1970 ◦ Natural repellents, poisons and chemicals made by plants

8  Broad: toxic to may pests including beneficial species ◦ Ex: DDT, malathion, prathion  Narrow (selective): effective against a narrowly defined group of organisms ◦ Ex: Algicides, fungicides, avicides

9  Advantages ◦ Save human lives ◦ Increase food supplies ◦ Profitable ◦ Work fast ◦ Safe if used properly  Disadvantages ◦ Promote genetic resistance ◦ Kill natural pest enemies ◦ Pollute the environment ◦ Can harm wildlife and people ◦ Expensive for farmers

10  Not effective in reducing U.S. crop losses ◦ Genetic resistance ◦ Reduction of natural predators

11  Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) ◦ Passed in 1947 ◦ Amended in 1972 ◦ Regulate the sale and use of pesticides ◦ Administered by the EPA, USDA and FDA ◦ Banned or severely restricted use of 64 active pesticides between 1972 and 2009 ◦ Studies by NAS suggest that federals regulating pesticide use in the US are inadequate and poorly enforced

12  Food Quality Protection Act ◦ Passed in 1996 ◦ Requires the EPA to reduce the allowed levels of pesticide residues in food by a factor of 10 where there is inadequate information on the potentially harmful effects on children  International treaties ◦ 1998  More than 50 countries  Informed consent from importing countries ◦ 2000  More than 100 countries  Ban or phase out use of 12 especially hazardous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including DDT  US did not ratify agreement

13  Increase use of biological, ecological and other alternative methods for controlling pests ◦ Fool the pest ◦ Provide homes for pest enemies ◦ Implant genetic resistance ◦ Bring in natural enemies ◦ Use insect perfumes ◦ Bring in the hormones ◦ Reduce use of synthetic herbicides


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