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Processes and the Process Management Evolution S ession 2 Ann Rosenberg 16th Februar 2012
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.2 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Agenda Process and process parameter - definition Classical process management frameworks: TQM, Lean, Six Sigma, BPR etc. o Process Management Evolution o Process management modeling notations o Process Management Technology (BPM Technology) The Evolution of Enterprise Systems Process Classification Frameworks RACI framework BPM Technology (business to model and modeling to execution) Group Exercise Final Exercise types Session 3
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.3 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Overview of all sessions Session/ ugeDatoTidRumTemaUnderviser 1/502/0217-212A52Introduction to Business Process Management and the overall semesterAnn 609/02No teaching 2/ 716/0217-21 2A52Processes/ IT and the Process/ IT EvolutionAnn 3/ 823/0217-21 2A52 Business Model 1: Focus Strategy Guest: Danish Defense: Torben Claus Dahl Ann Claus 4/9 29/02 Wed 17-21 2A52 BPM Model 2: Focus Business Model Guest: Flügger: Merete Skov Kristensen Ann Merete 108/03 No teaching 5/1115/032A52BPM Model 3: Linking Strategy to OperationsAnn 6/1222/0317-21 2A52BPM Governance 1: BPM StrategiAnn 7/1329/0317-21 2A52BPM Governance 2: BPM Set up phaseAnn 8/14 4/4 Wed - 2A52 BPM Governance 3: BPM Transition Guest: Posten/ SAP: Morten Christiansen Ann Morten 9/1512/417-212A52 BPM Governance 4: BPM Continuous Improvement and Supporting BPM Activities Ann 10/1619/417-21 2A52 Processes and Game changing Technology (Cloud, Mobility, In Memory) and Value-based Architecture Design Guest: Mariano Kristensen Ann Mariano 11/1726/417-21 2A52 BPM and EA Guest: John Gøtze John Ann 12/1803/517-21 2A52 BPM and Value Management Guest: Christian Thisgaard Ann Christian 13/1910/517-21 2A52BPM and Green Processes/ SustainabilityAnn 14/20 17/5 Wed -2A52Process based implementations Guest: Jens Theodor Nielsen Ann Theodor
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.4 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Purpose of the session I denne session vil vi gennemgå, hvad en process er og den historiske udvikling, der er sket indenfor process management. Vi vil gennemgå nogle af de mest klassiske process management frameworks såsom Total Quality Management (TQM), Lean Manufacturing, Six Sigma, Business Process Reengineering (BPR), Business Process Engineering (BPE) mv. Sessionen vil illustrerer hvor, hvordan og hvorfor denne udvikling har været nødvendig. Den studerende vil lære at skeldne mellem de forskellige process management frameworks inklusive hvorfor denne udvikling er fundet sted og dernæst hvordan man definerer og arbejder med processer inklusive de parameter der understøtter en process. I sessionen vil vi ligeledes se på nogle af de forskellige process modeling værktøjer som anvendes i dag og hvorfor der er en stigende brug af disse værktøjer (Business to model and modeling to execution).
Process and process parameter - definition
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.6 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Definition of a Business Process 1/2 A business process begins with a mission objective and ends with achievement of the business objective. Process-oriented organizations break down the barriers of structural departments and try to avoid functional silos. A business process can be decomposed into several sub-processes, which have their own attributes, but also contribute to achieving the goal of the super-process. The analysis of business processes typically includes the mapping of processes and sub-processes down to activity level. Business Processes are designed to add value for the customer and should not include unnecessary activities. The outcome of a well designed business process is increased effectiveness (value for the customer) and increased efficiency (less costs for the company).
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.7 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Definition of a Business Process 2/2 There are three types of business processes: Management processes, the processes that govern the operation of a system. Typical management processes include "Corporate Governance" and "Strategic Management".Corporate GovernanceStrategic Management Operational processes, processes that constitute the core business and create the primary value stream. Typical operational processes are Purchasing, Manufacturing, Advertising and Marketing, and Sales.core businessPurchasing ManufacturingAdvertisingMarketingSales Supporting processes, which support the core processes. Examples include Accounting, Recruitment, Call center, Technical support. AccountingRecruitmentCall centerTechnical support
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.8 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg The Business Process Lifecycle
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.9 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg ASAP Methodology including BPM Technology – BPM, AML, SOA and Value perspective The 4 lifecycles Process Lifecycle BPM Method BPM Technology Business Model Process Model Performance Management.... Application Lifecycle IT Implementation Method Solution Manager Performance Monitoring... Project Lifecycle PMI/ Prince 2 PM Tools Project Monitoring.... Value Lifecycle Value Method Value Discovery Value Realization Value Optimization... To Be De sig n Process Owner Process Architect Business Architect CIO Enterprise Architect Application Consultant Project Manager Program/Portfolio Manager Business Unit Owner Business Architect Business Analyst Process/Performance Gov. IT Gov. Project/Program Gov. Business Governance Process Management Performance Management Value Management
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.10 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Event 1 Process Step 1 Event 2 Entity Role Information Carrier Document Application Entity Process and process parameters - Definitions
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.11 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Process parameters
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.12 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg The Evolution of Process Management
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.13 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg The Evolution of Process Management
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.14 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg The Evolution of Process Management
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.15 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Toyota Production System
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.16 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg 4 P´er
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.17 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg LEAN – fokus: Fjerne Spildtid
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.18 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg LEAN – fokus: Fjerne Spildtid
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.19 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg LEAN – fokus: Fjerne Spildtid
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.20 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Six Sigma – fokus: Forbedre process kvalitet
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.21 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Six Sigma – fokus: Forbedre process kvalitet
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.22 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Six Sigma - DMAIC
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.23 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Six Sigma – fokus: Forbedre process kvalitet
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.24 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Six Sigma – fokus: Forbedre process kvalitet
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.25 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg BPR
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.26 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg BPR
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.27 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg TQM
Classical process management frameworks: TQM, Lean, Six Sigma, BPR etc. Process Management Evolution Process management modeling notations
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.29 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg It‘s green Why Process Modeling matters?
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.30 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Thank you Thank you, I did see this myself If you know and see everything better, why don‘t you drive? It‘s green Why Process Modeling matters?
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.31 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Aligning Sender and Receiver Receiver Sender It‘s green Pure Information + Undertone + Wording + Language + … Pure Information + Personal Experience + Personal Mood + Personal Education + Personal Interpretation + … Communication Channel
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.32 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg “Modeling only generates more efforts“ How to become Model minded? Information about a Process ReceiverSender Adsf asdf adsfasdfasd dsfasdfwd fycvx dgfasdf ysdv yds fgqadf ysfydfdsfa Ads wf e sd f dsf ad sf a df we s fd fa sd fa sfweedf asd f asd vcfy sdfdwew f sad Asfd dsaasdf adf ds fas fd wf wf fyads fy sxd f ew f asd fy sf dw sdw fa sd Visio ?
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.33 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Process Model ReceiverSender Aligning Sender and Receiver
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.34 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Modeling Convention vs. Modeling Tool Visio Powerpoi nt Aris... Modeling Notation / Convention Textual Process Description + Graphical Process Description = Modeling Tool
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.35 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg PROCESS HIERARCHY Activity Main Process Process Process Area Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Extend enterprise map
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.36 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg What is a Model? Why model processes? “The Real Thing“ Viewpoint The Model Represen- tation MODELER IT EXPERTS AUDITORS At a point in time Analyze, design, and optimize business processes. The Reason MANAGERS, BUSINESS PEOPLE Derive requirements on IT landscape and software. ! Demonstrate compliance (e.g. SOX) or get certification (e.g. ISO). … a representation of the real thing Models are not what happens – they are a representation of what happens or happened or should happen! ! … built to a certain scale and level of detail for a specific purpose … built to show a viewpoint (here: process focus) … representation of a snapshot in a point of time
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.37 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg What Makes A Good Model? CONTENT QUALITY EASY-TO-READ FAITHFUL TO BUSINESS REALITY UNIFORM COMPARABLE FORMALLY CONSISTENT COMPLETE UN-AMBIGUOUS / CLEAR SUSTAINABLE CONTENT-WISE CONSISTENT FOSTER HIGH QUALITY PROCESS MODELS STRUCTURAL QUALITY The Model Attributes Goal
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.38 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Guiding Principles for Good Modeling !! Models must contain only relevant elements, i.e. only aspects that are important with respect to the selected space of business reality the project goals shall be modeled in order to keep model complexity manageable. Models must be efficiently built, i.e. modeling effort must be kept low, modeling must be prioritized according to most relevant aspects, models must be reusable, flexible, adaptable and sustainable for future use. Models must be correct and consistent. Models must be comparable. Models must be well-structured, intuitively understandable, transparent, and easy-to-read.
Classical process management frameworks: TQM, Lean, Six Sigma, BPR etc. Process Management Evolution Process management modeling notations
The Evolution of Enterprise Systems
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.41 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg The Evolution of Architecture Why do we need a new implementation approach Business Silos Standardized Technology Optimized Core Business Modularity Dynamic Venturing IT capability Local IT applications Shared technical platforms Companywide standardized processes or databases Plug-and-play business process modules Seamless merging with partners’ systems Business objectives ROI of local business initiatives Reduced IT costCost and quality of business operations Speed to market; strategic agility ROI of new business ventures Who defines applications Local business leaders IT and business unit leaders Senior management and process leaders IT, business, and industry leaders IT, business, and industry leaders and partners Strategic implications Local/functional optimization IT efficiencyBusiness/operational efficiency Strategic agilityOrganic reconfiguration Source: Ross et. al, 2006 Architecture Maturity Have Change To Business Modularity and Dynamic Venturing
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.42 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Changing Business Needs drive IT Architecture Evolution of Enterprise Systems Business Needs Business Agility Integration of Core Processes Global Rollouts & Integration of Business Partners Operational Excellence Purchasing Sales Finance Manu- facturing Data base Database- centric SOA-centricEAI-centric IT Architecture MainframeClient-Server Internet SaaSCloud Source:: Møller (2008) Ongoing Transformation of Processes and Business Networks Orchestrated SCM SRM PLM B2E EAI B2C B2B ERP CRM CPM HRM
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.43 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Timeless Software
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.44 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Value Chains Procure to Pay Order to Cash Hire to Retire Budget to Report Plan to Fulfill Information Technology Business Suite applications Technology Components Processes are the linchpin between your Value Chain and our Solution World SaaS ByD … Business Domain Vision, Strategy Business Model Value Chains Technology Domain Solutions Applications Technology Components BI Third Party Processes remain the Linchpin of Biz/IT Alignment Why do we need a new implementation approach
Process Classification Frameworks
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.46 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg APQC – Process Classification Framework PCF: Process Classification Framework developed by APQC (American Productivity & Quality Center) Source: http://www.apqc.org/portal/apqc/site
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.47 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg APQC – Process Measures As the world’s No. 1 most used management tool*, benchmarking is a must for organizations that want to survive—and thrive—in an increasingly competitive marketplace. Knowing where you stand is the first step in getting better. Source: http://www.apqc.org/benchmarking
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.49 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg BPM Methodology at a Glance As-Is Analysis To-Be Design Solution Transformation Process Scanning 1234 1.1Understand high-level business vision and strategy 1.2Identify business success factors 1.3Calibrate IT topics 1.4Define high-level process landscape 1.5Prioritize processes 2.1Assess reference content 2.2Identify relevant process parameters and classification 2.3 Document as-is processes and process flow 2.4 Analyze processes and identify weaknesses 2.5 Identify interdependencies and cluster weaknesses 2.6 Assess and prioritize weakness clusters 2.7 Analyze as-is IT architecture 2.8 Consolidate roles, systems, information carrier etc. 3.1 Design to-be IT architecture 3.2 Develop weakness cause elimination approach for all relevant weakness clusters 3.3 Create to-be process definition and map solutions 3.4 Detail process description on activity level 3.5 Consolidate roles, systems, information carrier etc. 3.6 Derive necessary adoptions of the organizational structure 3.7 Develop business case Activities for all Solution Tracks 4.1 Elaborate solution approach per business process 4.2 Develop transformation roadmap 4.3 Transform IT architecture 4.4 Identify requirements for master data concept Solution Tracks Core Configuration Core enhancement SOA/Composition Third Party Solution Detailed to-be design for weakness elimination regarding all aspects evaluated during as-is IT capabilities Clearly defined and agreed project goal List of prioritized processes to be analyzed in detail Identify relevant architecture topics Prioritized and clustered list of weaknesses regarding process, organizational or IT technical aspects BPM Blueprint that provides details of identified solution tracks and their relevant contents
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.50 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Typical weaknesses in processes can be structured by three criteria Typical process weaknesses Process flowOrganizational structureSystem support/data structures Loops Decentralized activities Inputs not necessary, waiting times Long lead times Not enough information for process owners Goal of the process not specified High number of interfaces Low quality of process output No quality control for process results No process standardization where possible Big product and service portfolio which leads to complex processes No outsourcing of processes which are not core to the customers business Not enough process automation … Pure functional organizational structure (no process ownership across departments) Responsibilities not clearly assigned Overlapping responsibilities Decision processes take too long No fit of competencies and responsibilities (governance) Wrong degree of centralization and decentralization Not enough transparency … Systems do not support the processes (degree of automation) Missing functionalities Redundant systems support User interface not user friendly Low data quality, redundant data No integration Slow information access for process owners System support not standardized …
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.51 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Business Process Description – As-Is Documentation Process steps Involved Business Units Business objects Business rules R:Responsible; person who carries out the activity A:Accountable; person who is in charge C:Consulted; person asked before carrying out the activity or supporting the activity I:Informed; person has to be informed
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.52 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Identified Process Weaknesses have to be Clustered Cluster all weak-nesses due to interdependenci es and similarities Develop one solution concept for each different weakness cluster Same cause for identified weaknesses Similarities Business Processes analyzed Same cause for identified weaknesses Similarities Business Processes analyzed
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.53 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Definition of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) and Process Performance Indicators (PPI) KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS KPIs represent business goals that a company wants to achieve on a rather strategic level. They are qualitative or quantitative assessments of a companies performance regarding the company goals and can either be financial or non- financial. They are used by business owners to track the strategic performance against business goals PROCESS PERFORMANCE INDICATORS PPIs represent process goals that a company wants to achieve on a rather operational level. They quantify the performance of a process along the dimension time, cost, or quality. They can be measured directly by data that is generated within a specific process flow. They are used by process owners in business process management for process controlling and continuous optimization. Examples Revenue Growth Employee Turnover # of New Employees License Revenue per product in € Examples Cost: Engagement costs per applicant Time: average cycle time to fill a position Quality: Miss hire ration Source: BPM Governance (Adapted from the book: Business Process Management – The SAP Roadmap, 2009)
BPM technology (business to model and modeling to execution)
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.55 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Modeling Activities in Process Management
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.56 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Synchronize Design With Execution via Business Process Management Suites The Model (as Metadata) Is Used to Orchestrate the Process BPMSs create and dynamically execute explicit process models. Source: From Gartner, Janelle Hill – BPM Summit, London 2008
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.59 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Exercise For den udleveret virksomhedscase defineres processen ved anvendelse af et RACI framework inklusive process parameterne. Der vil være mulighed for at modelere processen i i ARIS Express http://www.ariscommunity.com/aris-express
Final Exercise types
Session 3 BPM Framework – Metode og modeller Case: SAP
©2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.62 MBPM/F2012/Ann Rosenberg Session 3
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