Presentation on theme: "By Jonathan Jackson.. Non-Renewable There are two main types of Non-renewable energy resources: Nuclear and Fossil fuels. There are a limited supply of."— Presentation transcript:
By Jonathan Jackson.
Non-Renewable There are two main types of Non-renewable energy resources: Nuclear and Fossil fuels. There are a limited supply of these resources in the world and we are using them up at an alarming rate.
Fossil Fuels Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons such as coal, oil and natural gas, sourced from the organic remains of prehistoric organisms over 300 million years ago which died and fell to the bottom of the ocean. Eventually the material was altered by heat and pressure over a period of millions of years.Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons such as coal, oil and natural gas, sourced from the organic remains of prehistoric organisms over 300 million years ago which died and fell to the bottom of the ocean. Eventually the material was altered by heat and pressure over a period of millions of years. There are 3 main types of Fossil Fuels: oil, natural gas and coal all of which are non- renewable energy resources. All fossil fuels produce CO2 and other harmful gases which contribute to global warming and acid rain.There are 3 main types of Fossil Fuels: oil, natural gas and coal all of which are non- renewable energy resources. All fossil fuels produce CO2 and other harmful gases which contribute to global warming and acid rain.
Natural Gas. Natural gas is mainly made up of methane-It is found in coal beds, marshes, bogs, and landfills. It is an important fuel source, a major feedstock for fertilizers, and a potent greenhouse gas. Electricity is generated from natural gases by gas and steam turbines. Although natural gas power stations produce the least amount of CO 2 they are still harmful to the atmosphere and contribute substantially to global emissions and to the change in climate and global warming which we see today.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF NON- RENEWABLE ENEGY RESOUCES. Advantages: Non-renewable energy resources are easily extracted from the earth and can be extracted in huge quantities. In addition to this they are easily transported to the factories. Disadvantages: They produce carbon dioxide except for nuclear energy which produces radioactive waste( which takes thousands of years to dispose of.)
The Greenhouse effect.
The formation of Coal
Coal (2) Coal accounts for 25% of the total energy produced. Coal is the most abundant energy resource in the world with an estimated reserve of one trillion metric tons. Different types of coal resulted from differences in the pressure and temperature that prevailed during formation. The softest coal (about 50% carbon), which also has the lowest energy output, is called lignite. However bituminous coal has the highest sulfur content of all the coal types. When bituminous coal is burned, the pollutant, sulfur dioxide is released into the atmosphere.
Nuclear In nuclear power stations they uses a process called nuclear fission in the reactor to provide the heat for generating electricity. A nuclear power plant operates basically the same way as a conventional power plant, which uses fossil fuels. The main difference is the source of heat. Splitting uranium(235U) or plutonium atoms produces the heat in a nuclear plant. The heat boils water to make the steam that turns the turbine-generator which consequently generates electricity. To give you an idea of how much heat and therefore electricity a nuclear power plant produces 17,000 kilograms of coal is needed to produce the same amount of electricity as 1 kilogram of uranium.
Nuclear(2) Advantages :Although Nuclear energy is a non-renewable energy resource it doesn’t actually produce any carbon dioxide. Disadvantages: A big disadvantage of nuclear energy is the waste is produces. The waste it produces is still highly radioactive and potentially deadly. In addition to this the transportation of nuclear fuels such as uranium to and from the plants poses as a contamination risk. The nuclear waste will eventually decay but not for ten of thousands of years. One nuclear power plant can produce up to 20 metric tons of high-level radioactive waste annually.
Renewable energy resources. Renewable energy resources can be replenished in a short period of time, there are an endless supply of these types of resources until the sun explodes… Solar, wind, tidal, biomass, hydroelectric power, geothermal
Wind The earth is unevenly heated, the differential heating causes a global atmospheric convection current. Wind farms are being build in relatively high altitude areas where the wind speeds are highest or offshore (left). Electricity is produced by the movement of the propeller brought on by the oncoming wind. ADVANTAGES Wind power produces no greenhouse gases and is free. Wind farms can often become tourist attractions. DISADVANTAGES Wind is very unpredictable to wind power isn't a reliable energy resource. Wind farms can kill migrating flock of birds.
Biomass Biomass is a source of energy generated by animal waste and plant materials (biological material). Biomass can be utilized to produce fuels, heat and most importantly energy. Biomass is classified as a renewable energy source due to the fact that when they are burned the CO2 released is just been put back into the cycle, however when the natural carbon equilibrium is disturbed this method can still contribute to global warming.
Solar Power Solar energy is the solar radiation that reaches the earth. It can be converted directly or indirectly into other forms of energy, such as heat and electricity. Solar energy is used for heating water for domestic use, providing buildings with space heating, drying agricultural products, and generating electrical energy. Advantages: Once the solar panels are constructed the process is completely free Disadvantages: there is no energy being produced when dark or in countries where there is little sunshine
Hydropower Hydroelectricity is generated by using the gravitational force of flowing of falling energy. The falling water from a reservoir turns the turbines which then operates the generator. A big advantage about hydroelectric power is the fact that hydro-electric power stations can increase to full power very quickly unlike many other power stations. However a disadvantage is that these dams are very expensive to construct and can temporarily effect the wildlife. Hydroelectric power stations can also be built next to fast flowing rivers. Another advantage of hydropower is the fact that the energy supply is constant.
Tidal power A big advantage of using tidal power is the fact that it is much more predictable than wind power and solar power. The tides are produced by the tidal forces generated by the gravitational interaction between both the sun and the moon. Structures such as tidal stream generators (right) make use of the motion of the tides to produce electricity. ADVANTAGES Once you've built it, tidal power is free. It produces no greenhouse gases or other waste. It needs no fuel. It produces electricity reliably. cheap to maintain. Tides are 100% predictable. DISADVANTAGES It is very expensive to build Only provides energy for 10 hours per day
Wave power Advantages The energy is free - no fuel needed, no waste produced. cheap to operate and maintain. produces great deal of energy. No visual impact on the shoreline. Disadvantages Depends on the waves - sometimes you'll get loads of energy, sometimes almost nothing. Needs a suitable location Some designs are noisy. But then again, so are waves, so any noise is unlikely to be a problem. Wave energy is basically stored, concentrated wind energy. An example of how to capture wave power is the PELAMIS- it uses the attenuation method. This means that the PELAMIS resists the force which the waves are exerting against it. When each separate section moves a working fluid is induced to move the turbine which consequently generated electricity
Geothermal Geothermal energy accounts for 0.3% of the world’s electricity consumption. Geothermal energy takes advantage of the heat of the rock below the earths surface. The most common way of extracting this heat is by injecting cold water down one well, from depths of up to 5miles, and circulating it through fractured (hot) rock, then they draw off heated water through another well.