Presentation on theme: "Developing a Focus on Literacy Across the Curriculum"— Presentation transcript:
1 Developing a Focus on Literacy Across the Curriculum Albuquerque NMJulyJoanna Kister
2 Write on the WallPut dot on the continuum of faculty readiness for literacy across the curriculumWrite on the wall. Tell me about New Mexico, your home town, your school, you (name optional).
3 Essential QuestionsHow can we develop a focus on literacy across the curriculum in our school?How do literacy skills contribute to the 10 key practices of High Schools That Work?Which literacy skills have the greatest impact on student achievement?How can we effectively use instructional strategies to improve literacy skills?
4 10 Key Practices Integration of Academic and Career/Technical Studies Wisconsin Keynote10 Key PracticesIntegration of Academic and Career/Technical StudiesActive EngagementGuidance and AdvisementExtra HelpData-based Decision MakingHigh ExpectationsChallenging Career/Technical StudiesChallenging Academic StudiesAcademic Core and a ConcentrationWork-based LearningThis is an overview of all 10 Key Practices. Mature HSTW sites have implemented these practices in their schools over time. For purposes of this workshop, we will re-order them and go into greater detail for some of the key practices. No school is expected to implement all ten at one time or in one year. You will be asked to examine priorities, goals and actions for your school that can be implemented over a 3-5 year period.
5 Brag about your school (extra credit if connect to 10 key practices)
6 Jigsaw Articles Count to 6 Each person read one article. Compare with others who read the same article.Return to original group.Now what do we know?
7 SREB Literacy Goals Read 25 books across curriculum Write weekly in all classesUse reading and writing in all classesWrite research papers in all classesComplete a rigorous language arts curriculum taught like college-prep/honors English
8 Before Reading . . . Poor Readers Good readers Build up their background knowledge on the subjectKnow their purpose for readingFocus their complete attention on readingPoor ReadersStart reading without thinking about the subjectDo not know why they are reading
9 ONE KEY PREDICTOR of reading success is the student’s background knowledge.
10 During Reading . . . Good Readers Poor Readers Pay complete attention Constantly check their understandingMonitor their comprehension automaticallyStop only to use a fix-up strategy when they don’t understandPoor ReadersDo not know whether they understand or do not understandDo not monitor their own comprehensionSeldom use any of the fix-up strategies
11 Strategies for Monitoring Reading How would I say that in my own words?What’s the main point here, and why is it important?What would be an example of this?How could I cluster the ideas I’ve read about?Where is this going next?Can I picture in my mind what is going on here?Can I trust this author’s accuracy/authority/objectivity?
12 Fix-Up Strategies Let me reread that last part, more slowly this time. Let me think about that for a minute.Is there a certain word here that is throwing off my understanding?Let me read ahead a little to see if getting the larger picture helps.
13 After Reading . . . Poor Readers Good Readers Decide if they have achieved their goal for the readingEvaluate their comprehensionSummarize the major ideasSeek additional informationPoor ReadersDo not know what they have readAll ideas are equalDo not follow reading with comprehension self-check
14 The Six Summarizing Paraphrasing Categorizing Inferring Predicting Recognizing Academic VocabularyPage 14
15 Carousel Brainstorming Divide into groups.Go to one station.Select scribe.Write at least one answer—small.Rotate at signal.Must add new answer.Continue.
16 Carousel StrategyFor each skill, list why you believe it is considered to be one of the “Big Six” essential reading skills
17 How do we know these are important? Direct links to most items on ASSET/COMPASS reading placement tests.Included in ACTConsistently in state standardsRecognized by postsecondary faculty for importanceLinked to all content areasLinked to careers
18 SummarizingOnly skill identified in both Reading Next and Writing Next as improving essential literacy skillsEssential in research and other expository writing
19 ParaphrasingReduces plagiarism—considered one of the biggest academic “crimes”Show adaptation for audience and purpose—essential writing skillsReflects a deeper understanding of material
20 Categorizing Ability to group information into manageable chunks Essential for study skillsMandatory for problem analysis and solution—especially in workplace or laboratoryOnly easy for naturalist intelligence—must be taught to others
21 Inferring Reading “between the lines” Encourages connection within a text, across texts and to other contextsShows that a reader “really gets it”
22 InferenceIn order to infer readers must lift up the words and go beneath them.Keene & Zimmerman (1997)
23 She moves backwards a few feet and with a piece of white chalk draws a rectangle onto the wood floor. Then continues backwards, drawing more rectangles, so there is a pyramid of them, single then double then single, her left hand braced flat on the floor, her head down, serious… She drops the chalk into the pocket of her dress. She stands and pulls up the looseness of her skirt and ties it around her waist. She pulls from another pocket a piece of metal and flings it out in front of her so it falls just beyond the farthest square. She leaps forward, her legs smashing down, her shadow behind her curling into the depth of the hall. She is very quick, her tennis shoes skidding on the numbers she has drawn into each rectangle, one foot landing, then two feet, then one again until she reaches the last square. From, The English Patient by Michael Ondaatje
24 Hocked gems financed our hero Hocked gems financed our hero. Scornful laughter had tried to prevent his scheme. Bravely he persisted. An egg, not a table, typifies this unexplored planet, he said. Now three sturdy sisters sought proof. They forged along turbulent peaks and valleys. Days became weeks as doubters spread fearful rumors about the edge. At last welcome winged creatures appeared. Momentous success was at hand.
25 Predicting Form of inferencing Requires support for prediction Forward thinking based on backward knowledgeRequired to solve non-routine problems in the real world
26 Using academic/technical vocabulary Separates success for second-language studentsTechnical language (jargon)Understanding roots and affixes
27 K – W - LKWLWhat I KnowWhat I Want to Find OutWhat I Learned
28 Directed Reading and Thinking Activity (DRTA) PreviewDiscuss what you knowWrite questionsRead to find answersReflect on the reading
29 Anticipation Guide Rationale Students get excited-argue/debate the pointsPredict - curiosity – hook for contentCreates purpose for readingPurposeful reading leads to improved comprehension
30 “Teaching Secrets” Create 5 anticipation guide statements. Use both inferring and concrete statements.
31 A to Z ReviewUsing each letter of the alphabet, describe what employers want in employees.
32 Tournament – Defend Your Word In pairs, select four words that address a question about reading. Convince each other that their word is the best to go to the next level. Present “the” word to the whole class with evidence.
33 INSERT (Interactive Notetaking System for Effective Reading and Thinking) - I agreeX – I disagree+ - That’s new! – Wow!? – I wonder?? – I don’t understand* - That’s important
34 How to teach vocabulary??? Front-load meaning - prior instruction increases understanding by 33%Descriptions and examplesCreate symbols or pictures to represent the word -- gains 34 percentile higherCategorize words -- associations among related conceptsLimit the # of words taught to those that represent key conceptsTeach common prefixes, suffixes, roots
35 Vocabulary Blocks Definition Picture or symbol Described in your own wordsWays I used the word (a week later)
36 Word Sort – Sort into Three Categories FormativeWarm up activityScenariosCollegial observationsQuestioningTeam buildingGraphingReading comprehensionTeacher book studySummativeProject-based learningDemonstration classrooms
37 Frayer Model Topic Essential Characteristics Non-essential CharacteristicsExamplesNon-examplesTopic
38 Summarizing and Paraphrasing GIST3-2-1Summary PyramidFinal Word
39 3-Identify 3 pieces of advice given to new teachers. Teaching Secrets3-Identify 3 pieces of advice given to new teachers.2-Explain how the advice fits into 2 categories.1-Describe 1 way that taking the advice will help novice teachers.
40 3-2-1 Increasing level of difficulty Requires summarizing and paraphrasingPre- or post-readingRequires teacher preparationStudents can construct.
41 Democracy __________ __________ __________ Synonym__________ __________Two Groups to Which Democracy Applies_________ ________ _________Three Areas of OriginPage 5
42 Other Possible Prompts Analogy between the topic and a sportAttributes or factsWords that best describe the topicRelated topicsCausesEffectsArguments for/against the topicIngredientsTools for using the topicFormulasPage 6
43 Your Turn“Please Don’t Pardon the Interruption”Write pyramid prompts
44 Bye, Bye Birdie Reasons to Avoid Round Robin Reading It encourages negative attitudes about reading.It is boring for everyone.Proficient readers read ahead.Poor readers are forced to advertise their deficiencies.Students pay attention only to the passage they have to read aloud.It does not build fluency or accuracy.Students need to read entire passages instead of pieces.It does not require engagement with the text.I hated this kind of reading. For many it is painful to do and boring to watch or listen to. I was one of those readers who never knew where we were in the passage because I had read far ahead of those doing the oral reading. Students don’t read aloud naturally. Unless they are modeling proper reading or reading as a performance, high school students read silently. Students should not be asked to read orally until they have had a chance to process text silently and practice to read orally.
45 Avoid… Round robin reading Copy notes that the teacher has provided Look up definitions and copyFill spaces on work sheet from textbookEnd-of-chapter questions
46 Types of writing Writing to learn - daily Audience is the learner Purpose is to learn or process informationWriting to demonstrate learning - weeklyAudience is the teacherPurpose is to demonstrate learningAuthentic writingAudiences are variedPurposes are “real world” or beyond the classroom
47 Journals Learning Logs Writing To LearnJournals Learning LogsExit/Admit SlipsWriter’s Notebook Inquiry LogsMathematics LogsLet’s use another literacy strategy to look at these activities.This is a structured overview. You can use it as a preparation activity before a lesson. It shows students the big idea—Writing-to-learn strategies—and the items that come under that big umbrella.
48 Writing To Demonstrate Learning Paragraphs EssaysOpen-response Lab ReportsQuestionsResearch Assignments
49 Speeches Letters Proposals Authentic WritingArticlesEditorialsSpeeches Letters ProposalsMemoirs PoemsShort StoriesIf you used this visual representation of your lesson as a culminating activity, you would call it a post-graphic organizer.Now, just as you did with Goal 1, take 20 minutes to work in your groups to devise a plan for getting students to write every week in every class :05Ask someone in each group to stand and share…1:10
50 National Writing Commission: What Employers Say In most cases, writing ability could be your ticket in or it could be your ticket out…Everything must be documented… manufacturing documentation, operating procedures, reporting problems, lab safety, waste-disposal operations—all have to be crystal clearWriting is a significant hiring consideration in the finance, insurance, and real estate sectors
53 The “Net” Generation – Survey of College Students 97% own a computer94% own a cell phone76% use Instant Messaging.34% use websites as their primary source of news75% of students have a Facebook accountSource: Connecting to the Net Generation: Junco and Jeanna Mastrodicasa, 2007
55 Social networking – Facebook, My Space, Linked In Web 2.0Social networking – Facebook, My Space, Linked InBlogs, wikis, twitter, podcasting, RSS feedsRead and create interactive contentPhotobucket (online sharing)CollaborativeWeb 1.0Web pagesRead and research; use PPT to present contentOtofoto (digital to print)Individual-75% of students who are on line have a facebook or my space accountFacebook, my space, you tube, teacher tube, linked in,- Interactive content including hyperlinks-
56 2-column note-taking Step 1: Draw a grid with 3 sections Step 3: Identify key concepts or questionsStep 2: Take notes here; use abbreviationsStep 4: Summarize lesson here
57 Benefits of 2-column note-taking Many exposures to textMatches most textbook stylesEasy to teachStudy guideDifferentiation
59 All students will read the equivalent of 25 books per year across the curriculum to increase their understanding of the content of all classes.
60 Reading is the single most important social factor in American life today. The more you read, the more you know.The more you know, the smarter you grow.The smarter you are, the longer you stay in school.The longer you stay in school, the more diplomas you earn and the longer you are employed—thus the more money you earn in a lifetime.The more diplomas you earn, the higher your children’s grades will be in school.The more diplomas you earn, the longer you live.
61 The opposite is also true. The less you read, the less you know.The less you know, the sooner you drop out of school.The sooner you drop out, the sooner and longer you are poor.The sooner you drop out, the greater your chances of going to jail.
62 Poverty and illiteracy are the parents of desperation and imprisonment. 82% of prison inmates are school dropouts.Inmates are twice as likely to be in bottom levels of literacy.60% of inmates are illiterate.
63 To raise their reading skills and to increase understanding of the content of all classes, Students mustread more and a wider range of materials.read both fiction and non-fiction, including technical manuals and journal and magazine articles.prepare written reports.make oral presentations.perform tasks that are described in the text.Teachers shouldassign reading appropriate to the course content.expect students to demonstrate understanding of what they read.give students choice in the selection of materials.
65 Reading more = scoring higher High School:Seniors who read an assigned book outside class and reported on the main ideas several times during the year score 26 points higher than those who don’t.Students who read at least six books in English scored 12 points higher.500-point scale
66 Reading more = scoring higher Middle GradesEighth-graders who read 11 or more books each year score 25 points higher than those who read none.Those who read an assigned book outside class and demonstrated understanding only once per semester score 6 points higher.300-point scale
67 Why don’t we ask students to read more? Brainstorm in pairs.
68 Why don’t we ask students to read more? Believe students aren’t good readersBelieve students don’t have timeBelieve that reading detracts from teaching “my” contentLack of materialsTeachers aren’t readersSage on stage
70 Do students have time to read? High School35% of the students watch TV three or more hours per day26% spend three or more hours per day surfing the internet, ing or instant messagingMiddle Grades51% watch TV or play computer games three or more hours each school day.20% watch over 5 hours!
71 less than 30 minutes per day Do The MathGoal of 25 booksAverage reading rate 250 words per minute500 words per page100 pages per book175 school daysequalsless than 30 minutes per dayto reach goal!
72 What are some specific steps to raise the amount of reading? Looking for ideas…1. Review 11 strategies to get students to read more (pp )2. Skim the five sectionsDEAR (65)Summer reading (67-68)Technology (69-70)Motivational activities (70-72)Library media center (72-73)3. Select three ideas that might work in your school.
73 Table Talk and Planning What are some specific steps to increase the strategies our students use?Table Talk and PlanningWhat strategies might we want to try?What training and support would teachers need to implement these strategies?How will we know if these strategies are working (e.g., assessment, analysis of student work, classroom observations)?
74 HomeworkRead pp in LAC guideAdmit SlipTwo ahasOne So what?
75 Day Two – Literacy Plan “Planning” Review data – p. 36Review ppAnalyze and prioritizepossible actions – p. 41