Presentation on theme: "EGYPT Ch.2. Quiz What is the major river in Egypt? Which direction does it flow? What desert is on the west side of this river? What does this river do."— Presentation transcript:
Quiz What is the major river in Egypt? Which direction does it flow? What desert is on the west side of this river? What does this river do each year to help with farming? What was the ruler of Egypt called? What were their tombs called?
Remember Do not copy anything with Remember at the top. Do not copy anything with review at the top. Do not copy anything in Italics. History is your favorite subject.
The Nile Valley The Nile Valley is one of the most fertile places in the Middle East and North Africa. The Nile River (which runs north) keeps the land fertile through yearly floods. These floods deposit nutritious silt on the land that is good for crops. The river also allows farmers to irrigate their crops.
The Nile Delta The Nile Delta is where the Nile flows in to the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of the most fertile areas along the entire Nile River. Most of Egypt’s earliest cites began here. The Nile Delta is still one of the most heavily populated areas of Egypt.
Papyrus One of the many technological innovations the Egyptians created was papyrus paper. Papyrus is a reed like plant that grow along the banks of the Nile. Egyptians used this plant to make paper on which they wrote in their own language called Hieroglyphics.
Sahara On either side of the Nile is the Sahara desert. This was a natural protection for the Egyptians. However, whoever controlled the Nile controlled Egypt.
Growth of Kingdoms Eventually kingdoms formed in Egypt. These were separated into two different areas. The Upper Nile which is actually in the south. The Lower Nile which is actually in the north. About 3100 B.C., the two kingdoms became one. Their first king was named Narmer (also called Menes). He came from the upper Nile and conquered the lower Nile.
Narmer’s Dynasty Narmer ruled until his death, but even then, his family continued to rule for years. The continued rule by the same family is called a dynasty. Over time 31 different dynasties ruled Egypt. There were three kingdoms at this time Old Kingdom Middle Kingdom New Kingdom Each one was marked by a period of stability and growth
EGYPTIAN SOCIETY Social classes were very important to Egyptians. Each class had its own characteristics Leave 4 lines here Family life also had its own characteristics. Leave 4 lines here Women had a special role in Egyptian society
Review What is the name of the major river in Egypt? Which direction does it flow? What ruler united Egypt? What is continuous rule by one family called? How were women treated in Egypt?
EGYPT’S OLD KINGDOM The Old Kingdom Period began around 2600 B.C. During these years, the Egyptians set up a very strong government. They were led by a ruler called Pharaoh Pharaoh was head of the government and religion Pharaoh was considered to be son of the sun god Re. He participated in many ceremonies that people thought would help the Egyptians.
Pharaoh and Egypt’s Religion Egyptians believed very heavily the afterlife. They worshipped many different gods or deities. Re= Sun God Isis= God of the loyal wife and mother and co ruler of the dead Osiris= God of the dead and husband of Isis Hapi= God of the Nile
Life after Death To most Egyptians, death was simply another function of a soul. When you died, you went to an afterlife where you lived there. Pharaohs were prepared for this afterlife by embalming.
First You Remove the Organs
Then You Apply Salt
Then You Fill with Spices/Perfume
Next the Body is Tightly Wrapped
Then you Put it in A Coffin
Pyramids The Pyramids were built as tombs for the kings. They held the bodies of the pharaohs as well as all of the things that he or she would need in the after world. They also protected the bodies from the elements such as floods of the Nile.
EGYPT CONTINUED About 2300 B.C. Egypt went through a power change. Around 2100 B.C. the Middle Kingdom period of Egyptian History began. The capitol was moved from Memphis south to Thebes. The middle kingdom ushered in a new era of peace and prosperity for Egypt.
Advances of the Middle Kingdom The Middle Kingdom saw many advances in art and literature. Many artist used Pharaoh as their model. Pharaohs also bean cutting their tombs into cliffs and mountains instead of building larger and more expensive Pyramids. Many of these new tombs can be found in the Valley of the Kings
Hyksos The invasion of Egypt by a tribe called the Hyksos ended the Middle Kingdom. This occurred in 1670 b.c. They had more advanced weapons and fought on horseback. They ruled Egypt for about 150 years until Ahmose (an Egyptian noble) led a revolt and overthrew them.
New Kingdom When Ahmose overthrew the Hyksos, the New Kingdom began. This period lasted from about1550 b.c. until 1080 b.c. The Egyptians became even more powerful. They also bean to expand their empire