Presentation on theme: "Ceasar and the End of the Republic. Setup of Rome’s government ► Rome’s government was set up using social class more than anything else. (what are the."— Presentation transcript:
Ceasar and the End of the Republic
Setup of Rome’s government ► Rome’s government was set up using social class more than anything else. (what are the two social classes of Romans?) ► Plebians complained about having so little power. ► This brought about a change in the government that led to model much more equitable than had previously been the case.
Cincinnatus ► The Roman Government had a provision for a “dictator” during times of distress. ► This person had almost unlimited powers for 6 months. ► At the end of 6 months, they were to return the power to the 2 consuls, and go back to their lives. ► Cincinnatus, was one such example.
Cincinnatus Cont. ► Cincinnatus was a farmer, and a loyal and devoted citizen. ► The Roman army found itself surrounded and needed help. ► Cincinnatus was declared Dictator and asked to help. He defeated the enemy army and returned to his farm approx. 16 days after. ► He could have taken power, but refused. ► George Washington would later follow his example.
Roman Law ► Roman Law was very well defined. ► The first version that was adopted was called the “12 Tables”. ► This made sure the same laws applied to everyone, plebeians and patricians alike. ► They were carved on bronze tablets and placed in the Roman Forum. ► A person was innocent until proven guilty. ► People could defend themselves before a judge ► Law should apply equally to everyone was began. ► RULE OF LAW!!!!!!!!!!
Rome Expands ► Rome began to expand after it had conquered all it Italy. ► Rome’s main rival was another Mediterranean city named Carthage. ► Carthage was an Phoenician outpost. ► Carthage ruled a large trading empire that Rome needed in order to expand and grow. ► The island of Sicily brought both powers to war. Each side wanted the island. ► This began a set of conflicts called the “Punic Wars”
The Empire of Carthage began as a Phonecian trading post. It then became self sustainable and the focal point of a major empire of trading.
First Punic War ► Rome sent its army to Sicily to keep Carthage from taking over in 264 B.C. ► Rome was not used to fighting a naval battle, so they had to quickly assemble a navy and go to war with a much more able Carthaginian navy. ► After 20 years, Rome finally won and Carthage had to pay a huge fine to Rome and leave Sicily which was now under Roman rule.
Second Punic War ► To make up for the loss of Sicily, Carthage expanded into southern Spain. ► Rome viewed this as an encroachment on their territory and helped the people of Spain rebel against Carthage’s rule. ► Carthage, in response, sent their most famous general into Rome to punish Rome. ► His name was Hannible. ► This began the 2 nd Punic War
Hannibal’s route to Rome took him through the Italian Alps, where many of his men starved and much of his force was diminished.
Hannibal’s Defeat ► Hannibal, even with a diminished force, defeated the Romans and moved in to loot Rome. ► However, the Romans had attacked Carthage, and Hannibal had to return to Carthage to defend his country. ► A Roman general named Scipio defeated Carthage, and Rome now retained posession of Spain and received another large fine from Carthage.
Third Punic War ► While Carthage was no longer a military threat, they still were an economic power. ► In 146 B.C. Rome invaded Carthage and burned it. They also enslaved 50,000 men, women, and children. ► Rome, according to legend, even sowed salt in the fields so that crops could no longer be grown again. ► They also conquered lands in the eastern Med. Further enhancing their grip on the Med. Sea
Rich vs. Poor ► Problems in the Roman empire between the rich and the poor began to worsen. ► Small farmers could not compete with large farming estates called latfundia. ► Large landowners would use slave labor for farming, and small farmers could not afford to, thus forcing them out of buisiness. ► The army then entered politics in order to try and regulate the government, under Marius as Consul.
Problems Continue ► Marius was not able to reform Rome to the likes of the people. ► He even changed the Roman army from volunteer to a paid professional army. ► In 82 B.C. a general named Sulla inserted himself as Consul. ► He weakened the councils, and then stepped down from power hoping that Rome could heal itself. ► It would not be able to!
Civil War ► Many saw how Sulla had used an army to grab power, and tried to do the same. ► 50 years of civil war followed Sulla’s removal from office until a group of three came to power. ► The 1 st Triumvirate was headed by Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar. ► All three were successful military men who formed an alliance to gain power in Rome.
Fall of the 1 st Triumvirate ► Each of the three had a special area of concern. Pompey in Spain, Crassus in Syria, and Caesar in Gaul (France). ► Caesar became a hero to all classes of people. ► Crassus was killed in battle and the Senate decided Pompey should be the leader and return home with his army and step down from power. ► Instead, Caesar crossed the Rubicon with his army, and drove Pompey’s army from Italy, and then destroyed them in Greece.
CAESAR in POWER ► In 44 B.C. Caesar declared himself dictator for life. ► He also filled the Senate with members only loyal to him. ► He granted citizenship to people in Roman territories, started colonies to provide land for the homeless, created work for the jobless, and encouraged slave-owners to hire more free workers. ► He also created a new calendar, now called the Julian calendar, with 12 months, 365 days, and a leap year. ► However, his enemies killed him on the steps of the Senate in 44 B.C. on the “Ides of March”.