2 Remember Do not copy anything in ITALICS Do not copy anything on the review pages.Do not copy anything that has notice on it.DO COPY anything on the same page as a map or picture as long as it is not in italics.
3 QUICK FACTS POPULATION OF CHINA: 1,313,973,713 (July 2006 est.) World's fourth largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US); Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peakLIFE EXPECTANCY: 72 years (total pop)Female: 74Male: 70
4 CHINA DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS Huang He River (Yellow River): Gets its name for the soil that colors the rivers. Called the “Sorrow of China” because of the people killed when it flooded. It helps produce good soil for farming.Chang Jiang River (Yangtze River): Longer than the Yellow River, It also helps produce good soil for farming.
12 CHINA DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS CONT. Only about 1/10 of China is arable.Mountains and desert cover most of the land.Himalayas border China to the southwest.Kunlun Shan and Tian Shan border China to the west.The Gobi Desert occupies much of western China
21 MIDDLE KINGDOMChina is called the Middle Kingdom because people from China used to believe that they were at the center of the universe.Little is known about the first people that occupied China. It is known that they lived in the fertile Yellow River Valley. (Why would a civilization begin in a river valley?)The first known rulers of China were the Xia Dynasty. (Dynasty is an unbroken chain of rulers passed down from family member to family member.)
23 We know very little about the XIA Dynasty We know very little about the XIA Dynasty. We know where they were located (approximately), and we know that they probably used iron weapons. Until recently, they were thought to only be part of Chinese legend. What we do know about them comes from artifacts .
24 SHANG DYNASTYThe Shang Dynasty ruled China from about 1750 B.C B.C.They were supposed to have overthrown the last of the Xia Dynasty and began their own rule.They were probably the first dynasty to build a permanent city (what is a permanent city?)This city was called Anyang, and was China’s first capital.During this dynasty, there was a large gap between the aristocrats and the poor.
26 Most of what we know about the Shang Dynasty also comes from artifacts, although there is some written records. They were excellent warriors who also used bronze weapons. Above are some of their ceremonial vessels.
28 Written language of the Shang Dynasty is thought to have been the predecessor of the modern Chinese characters.
29 ZHOU DYNASTYThe Zhou dynasty followed the Shang Dynasty and was began by an aristocrat named Wu Wang.This dynasty lasted 800 years. This was the longest in Chinese history.The Zhou dynasty was eventually taken over by the Qin Dynasty: this was a group of local rulers who used cavalry and modern military equipment to become powerful and grab power from the Zhou.
30 Zhou Dynasty Continued During the Zhou Dynasty, technology improved.Irrigation was introducedFlood control helped with flooding riversIron plows broke up ground that wood plows could not.Silk trade increased and brought much wealth to China.
31 THE ZHOU DOWNFALLThe Zhou Empire relied on local rulers who paid tribute to the dynasty leaders. This eventually led to the downfall of the empire. The local rulers became too powerful and decided to keep power and money to themselves. This began the “Period of the Warring States.”
33 Review What are the three early Chinese dynasties? What are the two main rivers of China?What is the large desert in western China?What is the large mountain range that borders western China?What was the name of China’s first capital city?
34 Chinese Society Chinese society had three main classes. Landowning Aristocrats: lived on large estates and had large houses.Peasant Farmers: lived on aristocrats land and provided food for everyoneMerchants: provided goods and services, but were still below farmers when it came to social hierarchy.
35 Chinese families People had big families to help them with farming. Even young children worked in the field.They practiced filial piety. This meant that children had to respect their parents and older relatives.The head of the family was the oldest male, usually the father. If the father died, the oldest son would take over and event the mother must obey him.
36 Chinese Thinkers There are three main schools of Chinese thought. ConfucianismLegalismDaoism
37 How could this thought help people in America today? COACH TAYLOR IS VERY WISE TO BE SO YOUNG!CONFUCIANISM: It is based on the teachings of Confucius. He said that people should put the needs of their family and community first.How could this thought help people in America today?
38 COACH TAYLOR IS VERY HOT. I WISH I WAS AS GOOD LOOKING AS HE IS!! LEGALISM: Based on the teachings of Hanfeizi. He said that there needed to be a strict system of laws for society and also strict punishment.Do you agree or disagree with this philosophy?
39 I WISH THAT I WAS AS GOOD A TEACHER AS COACH TAYLOR!!! DAOISM: Based on the teachings of Laozi. He believed that people should give up the concerns of the world and focus on nature and the Dao.Is this philosophy still relevant today?
40 The Qin DynastyThe Qin Dynasty began with a powerful ruler known as Qin Shihuangdi.He made changes in the government of China that would last over 2000 years.His ideas were based on the philosophy of legalism.He made the central government stronger than ever before, and made the provinces and counties subject to the central government.He also forced farmers to leave their field and work on strengthening the walls in northern China to protect them against the Xiongnu. This began the great wall of China.
41 Qin ShihuangdiHis name means “first Qin emperor.” He would brutally kill all those who opposed him. He chose every post that had power in the government. He standardized weights, and made laws the same everywhere. He also spent large amounts of money on huge palaces and buildings.Does a ruler have to be harsh to be effective?
42 The terracotta Army was buried with the first Emperor of Qin (Qin Shi Huangdi) in Their purpose was to help rule another empire with Shi Huangdi in the afterlife. Consequently, they are also sometimes referred to as "Qin's Armies".
46 Although he united the kingdom of China, pushed out foreign invaders, standardized money, taxes, measures, and restore order, he cut down on people personal freedoms. Do you believe that if you had lived during this time you would have though it was worth it?
47 Han Dynasty After Qin died civil war began. Liu Bang eventually became emperor and began the Han Dynasty.This dynasty reached its peach under Han Wudi.Han Wudi began the first organized civil service tests. To serve the government you had to take a test.The system was supposed to help anyone with the skills needed get a job, however, it began to favor the rich.Rich people would make their children begin studying at the age of 7 to pass the tests. If they passed they would become civil servants. If they failed they would take a job to help others or they would teach.After the death of Han Wudi the Chinese lived in peace for 150 years.
48 Under Han Wudi, civil service became available for only those who were rich. Are there any similarities between this and how we fill government jobs during this time in America?
49 Early Han administrators bust a move.…let your shoulder lean!!
50 Han Dynasty ContinuedUnder the Han dynasty the Chinese empire grew from 20 million to 60 million people.Han armies pushed the borders of China further westward than they had ever been.
51 Han InventionsA new era of inventions began under the Han Dynasty. Some of the inventions included:Waterwheels: helped grind more grainIron drill bits: helped mine more saltSteel: stronger tools and weaponsPaper: able to record eventsMedicines: prevented diseaseAcupuncture: eased illnesses
52 Acupuncture is the treatment of pain and illnesses performed by trained acupuncturist. Needles are stuck into the skin in specific areas containing nerves. The nerves are deadened and the pain ceases…..or so they say.
53 The water wheel was an invention that helped people more efficiently prepare food. The easier it is to prepare food, the more people it can support. This helped the Chinese population grow tremendously.
54 Have you ever used herbal therapy? Han Dynasty herbalist began treating people for illnesses using herbs. This is a very large business today.Have you ever used herbal therapy?
55 Review Name the five dynasties that we have covered. What were a few inventions during the Han Dynasty?Who initiated the building of the Great Wall of China?Who initiated Civil Service exams?What were three of the main philosophies in China during this time?Describe for me the Chinese social hierarchy.Describe for me the Chinese family structure.
56 After the Han…..When the Han Dynasty fell, China had no central government for almost 300 years.Warlords ran the country and fought each other.China was finally reunited under a general named Wendi, who then began a new dynasty called the Sui Dynasty. ( A.D.)
57 Sui Dynasty Reunited China after 300 years of war. Founded by general WendiDefeated by neighboring Korean peoples.Built the Grand Canal and helped unit China’s economy.
58 Tang Dynasty Began in 618 A.D. Tang capital was at Changan Restored civil service exam.Empress Wu was a woman who led the Dynasty and strengthened the military.China regained much of its former power.
59 Song Dynasty Regained control after fall of Tang Dynasty. Time of prosperity and cultural achievement.Moved their capital to Hangzhou.Military was not strong and could not control the entire region.