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Presentation on theme: "INDIA: THE LARGEST DEMOCRACY ON EARTH"— Presentation transcript:

Begin new notes for Ch.6

2 NOTICE: Do not copy slides that say NOTICE, or that are written in Italics. Do not copy slides that have REVIEW at the top. Copy everything else into your notes, even the notes that may be connected to maps or pictures.

3 REVIEW Why do we call native Americans Indians?
Who was the person who played a great part in spreading Greek culture to the Indian subcontinent? What was the name of the super continent? (Idea that all of the continents were at one time connected?)

4 The subcontinent of India is surrounded on all sides by landforms which make it hard to access. Himalayas to the north, desert to the north west, ocean to the south east and south west, and dense jungle to the east.

5 India The history of India reaches back as far any written history on earth. Some historians believe that the Indus river may be one of the rivers mentioned in the Bible as the original site for the Garden of Eden.


7 Characteristics of India
India has two main rivers, the Indus, and the Ganges. Another defining characteristic of the Indian subcontinent is the Himalaya Mountain Range. The borders that have been previously discussed, kept India from being invaded for many years.

8 Monsoons Monsoons are seasonal winds which bring either cold dry air from the north (occurs in the winter) or warm moist air from the southwest (occurs in the summer). Indian culture has been set up around these monsoons, and their religions are also intertwined with the yearly weather events. Monsoon season can see it rain for weeks at a time, and drop almost all of the rain a region gets in an entire year in a month or two.


10 The population of India relies on monsoons to irrigate their rice paddies, which is a main staple of their diet. A good monsoon season means enough food for all. A bad monsoon season means many people will starve because of food shortages. Traditionally, the economy of India does well during good monsoon seasons, and poorly during bad monsoon seasons.




14 REVIEW How would American civilization be different if we had to cultivate our land, grow, and then prepare our food for each individual meal, each day?

15 Monsoons have provided India’s people with very fertile land to grow crops, most of the time. In ancient times this meant the people of India had time to do other activities, such as trading, building houses, building tools, or creating larger and larger cities. This has allowed India’s civilization to progress much faster than some others in the region.

16 Earliest Peoples of India
Two early civilizations in India have been discovered. Harappan and Mohenjo Daro. Little is known about these civilizations because of the lack of written records. What we do know about the cities comes from excavations of their cities. These peoples are believed to have existed prior to 2300 B.C.

17 Harappan civilization, which is the most prominent of the two early civilization of India, left behind artifacts for us to learn about how they lived. Cows were sacred to these early people because they provided meat, milk, cheese, and labor. Harappan civilization ceased around 1500 b.c.. Historians believe that this was mainly because of earthquakes and floods. The Indus river also changed its course and flooded many areas and also made many people flee the area.

18 Review What are the physical boundaries of the Indian subcontinent?
What are the yearly weather events in India called? Why are they so important to the culture? Who were the two main early religions in India

19 The Aryans Shortly after the fall of the Harappan civilization, a group of people moved in called the Aryans. These people were expert warriors who fought fiercely on horseback and had previously lived north of the Himalayas. (Thought to be related to the Mongol peoples.) Their civilization soon spread to the entire subcontinent.

20 The Aryans also populated present day Iran
The Aryans also populated present day Iran. Much of their culture has been misused by groups such as the Germans and white supremacists movements. Aryan culture in India brought skilled iron workers, new farming techniques, and new language called Sanskrit. The Aryans also made the worship of the cow mandatory. They also brought the caste system of culture the subcontinent.

21 Caste System in India Indian culture developed a very elaborate caste system when the Aryans entered the subcontinent. A caste is a group or a social class. Social classes in India are very important and are reminiscent of Egyptian social classes, but each were probably developed around the same time.

22 This is an example of the caste system
This is an example of the caste system. It was loosely based on several factors such as skin color and culture. Brahmin were priest and the only people who could be involved in religious ceremonies. Kshatriya were warriors who ran the government and the army. Vaishya were commoners who were usually merchants and farmers. Sudra were servants and unskilled labor. The majority of the culture fit into this category. The Untouchables were the lowest group and performed the dirty work.

23 The class of untouchables still exists today
The class of untouchables still exists today. This is the lowest class in the culture and are not even thought of as real people worth any dignity or respect. They are a large group of people who have virtually no rights or way to move out of their given social class.

24 MEN AND WOMEN Men had the highest rank in society. They were afforded rights that women were not. Marriages were arranged. If a high ranking man were to die, his body was cremated and his wife was expected to jump into the flames with him. If she did not she was disgraced. This practice was called suttee.


26 Review What are the classes of the Indian social system?
Who are the Aryans? What was the Aryan language called? Describe men and women's relationship in India.


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