2Employee turnover rates The G.M. Sets the PaceG.M.s feelings & actions about issues will likely impact hotel staff attitudes about those issues.G.M.s personally direct only the work of department heads and, perhaps, relatively few other staff.G.M.s’ interaction with department heads directly impacts how they interact with their own staff.InfluenceStress the importance of human relations in the hospitality industry, and explain how G.M.s can influence human relations between members, as well as between staff and guests.Human relations are defined as skills needed to understand and effectively interact with other people.Level of moraleDesired product & service qualityEmployee turnover rates
3G.M.s Must Manage: Organizational Levels Top-Level Management (G.M.)Middle-Level Management (Department Heads)Supervisory-Level Managers (Supervisors/Managers)Entry-Level EmployeesNotice that the G.M. represents the highest management level on the property, and that he / she directs the work of middle-level managers.Of resources available, people (human resources) are the most complex and important for success!
4G.M.s Must Manage: G.M. Functions Management FunctionExamples of activity: Working withdepartment head (if applicable) to:PlanningDevelop an operating budget or a marketing planOrganizingAssign responsibilities for an upcoming banquet or conference eventStaffingRecruit, select, orient and train new department headsDirectingSupervise the work of department headsControllingTake corrective action(s) when budgeted financial plans are not attainedEvaluatingAssess the extent to which long- and short-range plans were attainedExplain five different management functions and relevant examples of activity.
5G.M.s Must Manage: G.M. Skills ConceptualAbility to collect, interpret, and use information logicallyLearning about a new, competing hotel opening nearby and making future marketing decisions accordinglyAbility to understand and interact well with guests, employees, suppliers, etc.InterpersonalSkillsAdministrativeAbility to organize and direct required work effortsAbility to develop policies and operating procedures necessary for guest safetyAbility to perform management-specific aspects of the jobForecasting guest demand for rooms and establishing room rates, etc.TechnicalDiscuss the importance of four skills outlined for the G.M.Ask students to give three additional examples of each of these: conceptual, interpersonal, administrative and technical.Ask students how they can increase their skills in these areas.
6G.M.s Must Manage: G.M. Relationships Staff membersOther hotel employeesYesterday: dictatorial leadershipToday: facilitatorsTomorrow: empowerment“Manage by walking around”G.M.External organizationOthers in communityParticipating in community social eventsAttending school & athletic events with their childrenJoining professional business and community service organizationsMeeting with community government representativesEmpowerment is defined as the act of granting authority to employees to make key decisions within those employees’ areas of responsibility.Discuss your students’ experiences in which an organization has empowered them; ask how they felt when this occurred, and how this impacted guest satisfaction. Ask students about times they wished they had been given such empowered, but were not (what happened?)How the hotel can meet and exceed guest expectationsGuests
7G.M.s Must Manage: G.M. Manage in Times of Change Relative to their counterparts “yesterday” G.M.s mustInteract with a more diverse workforceEmphasize teams rather than individual performanceCope with fast-paced technology changesAdjust to workplace changes (e.g., re-engineering, downsizing)React to global challengesRe-engineering is re-organizing hotel departments or work sections within departments.Improve quality while increasing productivityImprove ethical / social behaviors
8Evolution of Traditional Hotel H.R. Practices ContemporaryManager-focused work unitTeam-focused work unitManager is dominantManager is supportiveEmphasis on technical skillsEmphasis on employee facilitation skillsManager seeks stabilityManager encourages changeManager tells and sells personal viewsManager listensManager personally responsible for resultsManager shares responsibility for resultsManager personally solves problemsTeam problem-solving is employedFear and pressure used to motivate staffPride, recognition, and growth are used to motivate staffAutocratic (dictatorial) decision styleParticipative decision styleIndividual behaviorTeam behaviorAsk students whether the trend of the G.M. acting as facilitator and/or team leader rather than as “boss” will continue in hotel human resources practices in the future.Give examples of autocratic and participative decision styles.
9Evolution of Traditional Hotel H.R. Practices (continued…) ContemporaryG.M. forces complianceG.M. earns the team’s supportWhat one says is inconsistent with what one doesWhat one says is consistent with what one doesInconsistent “moments of truth”Consistent “moments of truth”Reactive management/supervision styleProactive management/supervision styleBureaucratic “rituals”Flexible routinesTop down – one way communicationMulti-directional communicationHierarchy of controlEmpowermentPowerConsensusShort-term H.R. strategiesLong-term H.R. strategies
10Management Basics: Planning VisionWhat the hotel will strive to beMission StatementWhat the hotel must do to be successful and how this will be accomplishedLong-Range PlanHotel’s goal for long-range (e.g., five year) time spanShort-Range (Business) PlanHotel’s goal within a one-year time spanIntroduce Management Basics (planning, decision-making, organizing, delegation, communication flow, motivation) by explaining that they represent a range of strategies and tactics that G.M.s use to attain organizational goals.A strategy is a plan to achieve a long-range goal; a tactic is an action to attain a short-term objective.Share examples of vision and/or mission statements of prominent hospitality industry firms with students.Ask your students if they are familiar with the mission statement of the company/ies where they have (do) work; if many students are not well aware of the vision and/or mission statement of their current firms, encourage them to find out what they are if they exist.Operating BudgetAnticipating revenues and expenses during short-range plan implementationMarketing PlanWhat must be done to generate revenues anticipated by the operating budget
11Management Basics: Decision Making Before making a decisionWho is the correct person to make decisions?Will a decision about a specific issue bring the hotel closer toattaining objectives and goals?How will the decision affect guests?Is there only one acceptable alternative?How much time and effort can be spent on the decision?How does one’s experience help with decision making?Must the decision please everyone?What are the ethical aspects of the decisions?Give examples of programmed and non-programmed decisions.Stress that non-programmed decision methods present more challenges and opportunities for creativity than do non-programmed decision methods.Programmed decisionNon-programmed decisionRoutine and repetitive decisions made after considering policies, procedures, or rulesInfrequent decisions requiring creative decision making abilities
12Management Basics: Decision Making Approach Continuum of decision makingManager makes decisions unilaterallyTraditionalManager makes decisions after input from othersRecentManager allows team to make decisionsContemporaryDiscuss three possible decision-making approaches: traditional, recent, contemporary.
13Management Basics: Decision Making (continued…) AdvantagesDisadvantagesConsidering broad range of informationGenerating more creative alternativesWhole team keenly aware of issues and problemsAchieving higher moraleEasier implementationPossible conflictsMay be forced to “take sides” if alternative opinions are expressedDomination by staff members with strongest personalitiesTime-consumingNot applicable when fast decisions necessaryGroup decisionmaking processDo students agree with the advantages / disadvantages of the group decision-making process stated here? What are those?Discuss student group decision-making processes by considering their experiences at their school doing group projects; do students feel that they become involved in the team decision-making process at their current employers?
14Management Basics: Organizing Principles Unity of commandSpan of controlEach employee should report or be accountable to only one boss for a specific activityLimit to how many staff members one supervisor can manage effectivelyDistribution of authorityTypes of authorityUsed byExampleAdvisoryStaff managersDevelop orientation program for all hotel employeesLineLine managers (within departments)Hiring and firing employees within a specific departmentFunctionalLine managers (between departments)Executive housekeeper establishes table linen laundry schedule with F&B dept.
15Management Basics: Delegation Delegation benefits for the G.M.What work might be delegated by the G.M.?Allows the G.M. to do most important things firstEffective process to train employeesAllows more work to be accomplishedImproves controlsWork that others can do as well as the G.M.Work that is less important than other workWork that should be learned by more than one personDelegation is the process of assigning power to subordinates so they can do work which a manager at a higher organizational level would otherwise do.
16Management Basics: Delegation (continued…) Steps in effective delegationOrganizational climate necessary for delegationAssign specific duties & responsibilities to employeesGrant sufficient authority for carrying out assignmentsSupervisor & employees agree on expected resultsCommunicate responsibilities to minimize confusionManagers make feedback system to measure progress
17Management Basics: Flow of Communication Multi-directional communicationManagers/ SupervisorsDepartment Heads(Executive committee)G.M.EmployeesVertical Comm.Horizontal Comm.Distinguish between formal and informal communication channels.The grapevine is an example of an informal communication channel; note that often informal communication channels can be accurate and can be used to assess employee perceptions of the hotel’s “current events.”Vertical communication means communication between individuals which flows up and down throughout the organization, while horizontal communication relates to communication between individuals at the same organizational level.Formal channel (example): coachingInformal channel (example): grapevine / rumor mills
18Management Basics: Motivation Poorly motivated staffInconsistent performance for required quality or quantity standardsGuest dissatisfactionIncreased operating costsMore motivated employees’ leaveHotel suffers
19Management Basics: Motivation (continued…) Strategies to motivate employeesFollow sound management adviceEffective orientationTrain correctlyManage a professional hotelSupervise as you want to be supervisedEncourage effective communicationManage a friendly hotelHelp your employees succeed
20Management Basics: Leadership Effective leaders will:implement the property’s Mission Statementhave an objective & measurable “picture” of hotel’s desired futurehelp others develop the knowledge and skills needed to attain hotel’s vision (e.g., orientation, training, and coaching)utilize the empowerment processdevelop team of staff committed to hotel’s successCoaching has a goal of helping staff members and the hotel team to reach their highest possible performance levels.achieve a reputation for quality service consistently delivered to guestscultivate a reputation for fairness and honesty
21Management Basics: Discipline Discipline: activities reinforcing desired performanceor correcting undesired performance.Steps in a progressive discipline processOral warning (no entry in employee’s record)Oral warning (entry in employee’s record)Written reprimandProgressive discipline is a process of negative discipline in which repeated infractions result in increasingly severe penalties.Suspension for specific number of daysDischarge
22To be a good team leader, the G.M. must Team Building TacticsSelf-directed teamTo be a good team leader, the G.M. mustMore control over work responsibilitiesMake work assignments within the teamSchedule themselvesEvaluate each other’s workAssign compensation increasesHave high standards and expectationsSupport individual members and maintain trusting and respectful relationshipsPractice participative management and solicit input from membersDemonstrate that own personal goals and individual team member goals should not be placed before team goalsShare credit for team successesContemporary management focuses on team behavior rather than upon individual behavior.Determine what concerns (if any) students have regarding self-directed teams.
23G.M. CompetenciesG.M.s never have a daily routine; every day is differentActual daily activities undertaken by a G.M. vary from day-to-day & month-to-month as well as from property-to-propertyDaily involvement in guest relations are quite visibleG.M. is on duty eight or more hours daily and is often on-call even when not on the property
24G.M. Competencies: Employees Possible interactions with employees: positive examplesDaily conversations with long-term staffLearning employees’ suggestions about possible operating improvementsWelcoming new staff to the teamCongratulating personnel about significant events in their families’ livesMentoring younger workersFollowing employees’ careers as they are promoted within the organizationProviding non-job related advice when requestedObserving employees at a company picnic enjoy themselvesObserving staff who participate in community organizations/activities
25G.M. Competencies: Employees Possible interactions with employees: negative examplesDisciplining or terminating staffConfronting staff known to be stealingLearning about illegal acts committed off-property by staffAssigning work responsibilities to cover “no show” employeesDiscovering employee “sabotage”Supervising staff violating hotel policies, requirements, and rules.Comforting an employee whose child has passed awayObserving an intoxicated employee attempting to come to workExplaining to staff why they did not get promotions they sought
26G.M. Competencies with Guests Possible interactions with guests: positive examplesInteracting with frequent guestsReceiving spontaneous “Thank You Notes” from happy guestsObserving hotel guests celebrate significant family / professional occasionsProviding service / assistance to guestsReceiving input from guests who genuinely want the hotel to be successfulInteracting with guests as peers at community / professional meetingsProviding accommodations to guests stranded by adverse travel conditionsReceiving guest input about hospitable staff members
27G.M.Competencies with Guests Possible interactions with guests: negative examplesInteracting with police called to hotel for disturbances or illegal guest activitiesGuest deaths in sleeping rooms or in the hotel’s public spacesDealing with visibly intoxicated guestsPreventing on-site prostitutionPreventing guest theft of money, products and/or services from the hotelPreventing property vandalismCalming irate guests stranded by adverse travel conditionsDiscovering overt guest room damage