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250 Pre-1865 Concepts/Words/Events/Vocabulary You need to know for the Graduation Test in Social Studies.

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Presentation on theme: "250 Pre-1865 Concepts/Words/Events/Vocabulary You need to know for the Graduation Test in Social Studies."— Presentation transcript:

1 250 Pre-1865 Concepts/Words/Events/Vocabulary You need to know for the Graduation Test in Social Studies

2 SSUSH5 The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution. a. Explain how weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation and Daniel Shays’ Rebellion led to a call for a stronger central government. b. Evaluate the major arguments of the anti-Federalists and Federalists during the debate on ratification of the Constitution as put forth in The Federalist concerning form of government, factions, checks and balances, and the power of the executive, including the roles of Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. c. Explain the key features of the Constitution, specifically the Great Compromise, separation of powers (influence of Montesquieu), limited government, and the issue of slavery. d. Analyze how the Bill of Rights serves as a protector of individual and states’ rights. e. Explain the importance of the Presidencies of George Washington and John Adams; include the Whiskey Rebellion, non-intervention in Europe, and the development of political parties (Alexander Hamilton). SSUSH6 The student will analyze the impact of territorial expansion and population growth and the impact of this growth in the early decades of the new nation. a. Explain the Northwest Ordinance’s importance in the westward migration of Americans, and on slavery, public education, and the addition of new states. b. Describe Jefferson’s diplomacy in obtaining the Louisiana Purchase from France and the territory’s exploration by Lewis and Clark. c. Explain major reasons for the War of 1812 and the war’s significance on the development of a national identity. d. Describe the construction of the Erie Canal, the rise of New York City, and the development of the nation’s infrastructure. e. Describe the reasons for and importance of the Monroe Doctrine.

3 SSUSH7 Students will explain the process of economic growth, its regional and national impact in the first half of the 19th century, and the different responses to it. a. Explain the impact of the Industrial Revolution as seen in Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin and his development of interchangeable parts for muskets. b. Describe the westward growth of the United States; include the emerging concept of Manifest Destiny. c. Describe reform movements, specifically temperance, abolitionism, and public school. d. Explain women’s efforts to gain suffrage; include Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the Seneca Falls Conference. e. Explain Jacksonian Democracy, expanding suffrage, the rise of popular political culture, and the development of American nationalism. SSUSH8 The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion. a. Explain how slavery became a significant issue in American politics; include the slave rebellion of Nat Turner and the rise of abolitionism (William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and the Grimke sisters). b. Explain the Missouri Compromise and the issue of slavery in western states and territories. c. Describe the Nullification Crisis and the emergence of states’ rights ideology; include the role of John C. Calhoun and development of sectionalism. d. Describe the war with Mexico and the Wilmot Proviso. e. Explain how the Compromise of 1850 arose out of territorial expansion and population growth.

4 SSUSH9 The student will identify key events, issues, and individuals relating to the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War. a. Explain the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the failure of popular sovereignty, Dred Scott case, and John Brown’s Raid. b. Describe President Lincoln’s efforts to preserve the Union as seen in his second inaugural address and the Gettysburg speech and in his use of emergency powers, such as his decision to suspend habeas corpus. c. Describe the roles of Ulysses Grant, Robert E. Lee, “Stonewall” Jackson, William T. Sherman, and Jefferson Davis. d. Explain the importance of Fort Sumter, Antietam, Vicksburg, Gettysburg, and the Battle for Atlanta and the impact of geography on these battles. e. Describe the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation. f. Explain the importance of the growing economic disparity between the North and the South through an examination of population, functioning railroads, and industrial output.

5 George Washington’s legacy as President Successfully squashed the Whiskey Rebellion- the first challenge to the new government Advocated a policy of non-intervention in Europe (neutrality) Farewell address

6 Whiskey Rebellion a revolt of settlers in western Pennsylvania in 1794 against a federal excise tax on whiskey suppressed by the militia that was called out by President George Washington Establishes the authority of the federal government.

7 Neutrality Proclamation 1793 formal announcement issued by President George Washington declaring the United States a neutral nation in the conflict between Great Britain and France that had begun with the French Revolution

8 John Adams –our second President Cousin to Sam the Brewer Also believed in Neutrality XYZ Affair Alien and Sedition Acts Marbury versus Madison occurs because of John appointing the midnight judges

9 What is an alien?

10 Alien and Sedition Acts 1798, four laws enacted by the Federalist-controlled U.S. Congress, designed to destroy Thomas Jefferson's Republican party The Alien Act gave the President the power to imprison or deport aliens suspected of activities posing a threat the Sedition Act did not allow spoken or written criticism of the government, the Congress, or the President and virtually nullified the First Amendment freedoms of speech and the press Later repealed

11 Northwest Ordinance in 1787 Congress set up a government for the Northwest Territory and outlawed slavery there. It also provided for the vast region to be divided into three to five separate territories in the future. Described the way for future territories to become states

12 Marbury v. Madison JR loves M and M’s John Marshall as head justice of the Supreme Court in the 1700’s established the right of Judicial review Judicial review means the Supreme Court can review all laws made in the USA and determine if they are constitutional or not. They determine the legality of the laws that Congress and the States make

13 XYZ affair President Adams sent 3 Americans to negotiate with French Minister Talleyrand over disputes with America not helping France in their revolution Tallyrand’s 3 agents (XYZ) told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe. "Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute!"

14 Thomas Jefferson Third President Anti-Federalist Democrat-Republican Creator of first political parties along with Alexander Hamilton Bought Louisiana Purchase Sponsored Lewis and Clark Tried to keep us out of war of 1812 with Embargo Act

15 Louisiana Purchase Offered 10 million for the city of New Orleans Napoleon of France said you can have it all for 15 million “bucks” President’s Jefferson said OK even though he had no constitutional power to do so Doubled the size of America

16 Acquiring Land for America Bought from Spain Northwest Ordinance territories Bought from France Some spoils of war and some bought Bought from Britain Settled by Pioneers Original 13 Colonies

17 Lewis and Clark Men asked by President Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Purchase Helped by Sacagawea Made it to the Pacific Ocean

18 War of 1812 fought from 1812 to 1815 between the United States of America and the British Empire. June 18, 1812- Madison asks Congress to declare war on Great Britain. Five reasons 1.Impressments 2.Blockade of American ships leaving. 3.Blockade of ships arriving. 4.Disruption of neutral trade. 5.Incitement of Indian hostilities in the West. Last battle was at New Orleans

19 Impressment British ships seizing or kidnapping American sailors and making them serve on their ships Led to the War of 1812

20 Embargo Act of 1807 Jefferson’s answer to war with Britain. Forbade American vessels to trade w/ any foreign nation. Merchants and farmers unable to sell crops to foreign buyers. –Encourages smuggling.

21 Non-Intercourse Act 1809 President Madison in power Forbade American merchants to do business w/ Great Britain or France. Trade w/ other nations allowed.

22 “War Hawks” Congress hesitant to go to war because of the cost. Western Congressmen who “whipped up” the war spirit in Congress. Calhoun and Clay

23 Tecumseh Leader of the Shawnee tribe with his brother, The Prophet. Rallies scattered tribes to stop selling land to the Whites. Asks white settlers to leave people alone. Concerns arise over Canadian (British) alliance w/ the Indians. –British back fur traders who supply the Indians w/ guns.

24 Results of the War of 1812 United States and Britain agree to a stalemate. Nobody wins. United States becomes independent of Europe. United States gains respect at home with its military heroes. United States would have little to do with European affairs for the next 100 years.-isolationism Increase of Nationalism in the USA

25 The “Era of Good Feelings” The years following* the end of the War of 1812 have been called the “era of good feelings” because of their apparent lack of partisan political strife.

26 Monroe Doctrine the policy, as stated by President Monroe in 1823, that the U.S. opposed further European colonization of and interference with independent nations in the Western Hemisphere. The USA is in the western Hemisphere

27 Adams-Onis Treaty-1819 settled a border dispute between the United States and Spain. In addition to granting Florida to the United States, the treaty settled a boundary dispute along the Sabine River in Texas and firmly established the boundary of U.S. territory and claims through the Rocky Mountains and west to the Pacific Ocean In exchange the U.S. paid Spain $5 million

28 Erie Canal Man made ditch built between the Atlantic Ocean, NYC, the Hudson river and eventually Lake Erie that opened up the Mid- West to trade and settlement in the early 1800’s Insured that New York city would become the center of finance and business for America

29 The original Erie Canal locks were 90 feet long and 15 feet wide, and were designed for a canal boat 61 feet long and 7 feet wide, with a 3 1/2 foot draft.

30 The National road-early 1800’s the first major improved highway in the United States, built by the federal government.

31 Infrastructure the basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise The term typically refers to the technical structures that support a society, such as roads, water supply, sewers, power grids, telecommunications, air fields, railways, canals.

32 Industrial Revolution I Development of steam power, interchangeable parts and other inventions in the early 1800’s Began the industrialization of America Due to a labor shortage

33 Labor Shortage Many Americans are moving West in search of new land. Manufacturers forced to acquire labor-saving machines to be used in factories. Labor= work or worker of any kind

34 Samuel Slater 1789- English inventor arrives in America. Invents the mill. –Powered by water. Factory system- water-powered mills used to weave cloth and spin yarn. –Replaces hand labor.

35 Eli Whitney Invented interchangeable parts for muskets Invented Cotton gin

36 Gold Rush 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill, in Coloma, California. News of the discovery soon spread, resulting in some 300,000 men, women, and children coming to California from the rest of the United States and abroad

37 Manifest Destiny “From sea to shining sea it is America’s manifest destiny” The belief that Americans were fated by God to occupy all of North America from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean

38 Transcendentalism group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early to middle 19th century. Emphasized the individual's intuition, rather than doctrines of established religions. Thoreau, Ralph Waldo Emerson

39 Public school movement Horace Mann proposed free publicly supported schools for children in the early 1800’s

40 Seneca Falls Conference. Meeting in Seneca Falls, NY, that convened (met) to discuss women’s rights Sentiments of Doctrines was written there and signed agreeing that all men and women are equal Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan Anthony led the movement

41 Susan B. Anthony prominent American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the 19th century women's rights movement to introduce women's suffrage and equal rights into the United States.

42 Abolition To abolish or do away with People who wanted to abolish or do away with slavery in America Frederick Douglas, William Lloyd Garrison, Harriet Beecher Stowe

43 Grimke sisters Quaker Abolitionists Wanted immediate liberation of slaves

44 William Lloyd Garrison prominent American abolitionist, journalist He is best known as the editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator, and as one of the founders of the American Anti- Slavery Society. He promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the United States.

45 Temperance Movement Movement to outlaw alcohol

46 To promote or promoting To speak up for To advocate for To want to become a reality to advance in station, rank, or honor

47 Andrew Jackson Won Battle of New Orleans in War of 1812 Was voted in as President because he appealed to the populist vote by being an ordinary common man Responsible for Indian Removal Act and the Trail of tears Did not allow SC to secede from the Union and therefore threw out the Nullification Theory Increased suffrage in USA Increased nationalism in the USA

48 Jacksonian Democracy Increasing/expanding suffrage to all white males by eliminating the property requirements Developed the rise of the common man in popular political culture Developed American nationalism by promoting the need to love your country

49 John C. Calhoun Leading United States Southern politician and political philosopher from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. Calhoun was an advocate of slavery, states' rights, limited government, and nullification. He is perhaps best known as the first Vice President to resign his office due to the disagreement with President Jackson over tariffs and nullification.

50 Nullification Crisis A crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson It was an attempt by the state of South Carolina and John Calhoun to nullify (not obey) a federal law concerning the tariff of 1828 that was passed by the United States Congress North wanted tariffs, South did not Calhoun said “ We will secede before we pay that tariff” AJ said “Fine, I’ll hang you before you secede Nobody seceded

51 Indian Removal Act (1830) Native Americans in places like Georgia were forced to sign treaties agreeing to move west of the Mississippi to places like Oklahoma.

52 The Trail of Tears The route along which the United States government forced several tribes of Native American, including the Cherokees, Seminoles, Chickasaws, Choctaws, and Creeks, to migrate to reservations west of the Mississippi River in the 1820s, 1830s, and 1840s. Those on the march suffered greatly from disease and mistreatment.

53 Relax Breathe Count to 10 Exhale Do this 10 times Clench your body then relax it Shake off the stress from the top of your head to the ends of your fingers Do this 5 times Repeat shaking off the stress from your chest to your toes 5 times


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