Presentation on theme: "250 Pre-1865 Concepts/Words/Events/Vocabulary You need to know for the Graduation Test in Social Studies."— Presentation transcript:
1250 Pre-1865 Concepts/Words/Events/Vocabulary You need to know for the Graduation Test in Social Studies
2SSUSH5 The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution.a. Explain how weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation and Daniel Shays’ Rebellion led to a call for a stronger central government.b. Evaluate the major arguments of the anti-Federalists and Federalists during the debate on ratification of the Constitution as put forth in The Federalist concerning form of government, factions, checks and balances, and the power of the executive, including the roles of Alexander Hamilton and James Madison.c. Explain the key features of the Constitution, specifically the Great Compromise, separation of powers (influence of Montesquieu), limited government, and the issue of slavery.d. Analyze how the Bill of Rights serves as a protector of individual and states’ rights.e. Explain the importance of the Presidencies of George Washington and John Adams; include the Whiskey Rebellion, non-intervention in Europe, and the development of political parties (Alexander Hamilton).SSUSH6 The student will analyze the impact of territorial expansion and population growth and the impact of this growth in the early decades of the new nation.a. Explain the Northwest Ordinance’s importance in the westward migration of Americans, and on slavery, public education, and the addition of new states.b. Describe Jefferson’s diplomacy in obtaining the Louisiana Purchase from France and the territory’s exploration by Lewis and Clark.c. Explain major reasons for the War of 1812 and the war’s significance on the development of a national identity.d. Describe the construction of the Erie Canal, the rise of New York City, and the development of the nation’s infrastructure.e. Describe the reasons for and importance of the Monroe Doctrine.
3SSUSH7 Students will explain the process of economic growth, its regional and national impact in the first half of the 19th century, and the different responses to it.a. Explain the impact of the Industrial Revolution as seen in Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin and his development of interchangeable parts for muskets.b. Describe the westward growth of the United States; include the emerging concept of Manifest Destiny.c. Describe reform movements, specifically temperance, abolitionism, and public school.d. Explain women’s efforts to gain suffrage; include Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the Seneca Falls Conference.e. Explain Jacksonian Democracy, expanding suffrage, the rise of popular political culture, and the development of American nationalism.SSUSH8 The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion.a. Explain how slavery became a significant issue in American politics; include the slave rebellion of Nat Turner and the rise of abolitionism (William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and the Grimke sisters).b. Explain the Missouri Compromise and the issue of slavery in western states and territories.c. Describe the Nullification Crisis and the emergence of states’ rights ideology; include the role of John C. Calhoun and development of sectionalism.d. Describe the war with Mexico and the Wilmot Proviso.e. Explain how the Compromise of 1850 arose out of territorial expansion and population growth.
4SSUSH9 The student will identify key events, issues, and individuals relating to the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War.a. Explain the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the failure of popular sovereignty, Dred Scott case, and John Brown’s Raid.b. Describe President Lincoln’s efforts to preserve the Union as seen in his second inaugural address and the Gettysburg speech and in his use of emergency powers, such as his decision to suspend habeas corpus.c. Describe the roles of Ulysses Grant, Robert E. Lee, “Stonewall” Jackson, William T. Sherman, and Jefferson Davis.d. Explain the importance of Fort Sumter, Antietam, Vicksburg, Gettysburg, and the Battle for Atlanta and the impact of geography on these battles.e. Describe the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation.f. Explain the importance of the growing economic disparity between the North and the South through an examination of population, functioning railroads, and industrial output.
5George Washington’s legacy as President Successfully squashed the Whiskey Rebellion- the first challenge to the new governmentAdvocated a policy of non-intervention in Europe (neutrality)Farewell address
6Whiskey Rebelliona revolt of settlers in western Pennsylvania in 1794 against a federal excise tax on whiskeysuppressed by the militia that was called out by President George WashingtonEstablishes the authority of the federal government.
7Neutrality Proclamation 1793 formal announcement issued by President George Washington declaring the United States a neutral nation in the conflict between Great Britain and France that had begun with the French Revolution
8John Adams –our second President Cousin to Sam the BrewerAlso believed in NeutralityXYZ AffairAlien and Sedition ActsMarbury versus Madison occurs because of John appointing the midnight judges
10Alien and Sedition Acts 1798, four laws enacted by the Federalist-controlled U.S. Congress, designed to destroy Thomas Jefferson's Republican partyThe Alien Act gave the President the power to imprison or deport aliens suspected of activities posing a threatthe Sedition Act did not allow spoken or written criticism of the government, the Congress, or the President and virtually nullified the First Amendment freedoms of speech and the pressLater repealed
11Northwest Ordinancein 1787 Congress set up a government for the Northwest Territory and outlawed slavery there.It also provided for the vast region to be divided into three to five separate territories in the future.Described the way for future territories to become states
12Marbury v. Madison JR loves M and M’s John Marshall as head justice of the Supreme Court in the 1700’s established the right of Judicial reviewJudicial review means the Supreme Court can review all laws made in the USA and determine if they are constitutional or not. They determine the legality of the laws that Congress and the States make
13XYZ affairPresident Adams sent 3 Americans to negotiate with French Minister Talleyrand over disputes with America not helping France in their revolutionTallyrand’s 3 agents (XYZ) told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe.The Americans did not pay the bribe."Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute!"
14Thomas Jefferson Third President Anti-Federalist Democrat-Republican Creator of first political parties along with Alexander HamiltonBought Louisiana PurchaseSponsored Lewis and ClarkTried to keep us out of war of 1812 with Embargo ActThomas Jefferson
15Louisiana Purchase Offered 10 million for the city of New Orleans Napoleon of France said you can have it all for 15 million “bucks”President’s Jefferson said OK even though he had no constitutional power to do soDoubled the size of AmericaLouisiana Purchase
16Settled by Pioneers Bought from Spain Bought from France Bought from BritainNorthwest OrdinanceterritoriesSettled by PioneersOriginal 13ColoniesSome spoils of warand some boughtBoughtfromSpainAcquiring LandforAmericaBought from France
17Lewis and ClarkMen asked by President Jefferson to explore the Louisiana PurchaseHelped by SacagaweaMade it to the Pacific Ocean
18War of 1812fought from 1812 to 1815 between the United States of America and the British Empire.June 18, Madison asks Congress to declare war on Great Britain.Five reasonsImpressmentsBlockade of American ships leaving.Blockade of ships arriving.Disruption of neutral trade.Incitement of Indian hostilities in the West.Last battle was at New Orleans
19ImpressmentBritish ships seizing or kidnapping American sailors and making them serve on their shipsLed to the War of 1812
20Embargo Act of 1807 Jefferson’s answer to war with Britain. Forbade American vessels to trade w/ any foreign nation.Merchants and farmers unable to sell crops to foreign buyers.Encourages smuggling.
21Non-Intercourse Act 1809 President Madison in power Forbade American merchants to do business w/ Great Britain or France.Trade w/ other nations allowed.
22“War Hawks” Congress hesitant to go to war because of the cost. Western Congressmen who “whipped up” the war spirit in Congress.Calhoun and Clay
23Tecumseh Leader of the Shawnee tribe with his brother, The Prophet. Rallies scattered tribes to stop selling land to the Whites.Asks white settlers to leave people alone.Concerns arise over Canadian (British) alliance w/ the Indians.British back fur traders who supply the Indians w/ guns.
24Results of the War of 1812United States and Britain agree to a stalemate. Nobody wins.United States becomes independent of Europe.United States gains respect at home with its military heroes.United States would have little to do with European affairs for the next 100 years.-isolationismIncrease of Nationalism in the USA
25The “Era of Good Feelings” The years following* the end of the War of 1812 have been called the “era of good feelings” because of their apparent lack of partisan political strife.
26Monroe Doctrinethe policy, as stated by President Monroe in 1823, that the U.S. opposed further European colonization of and interference with independent nations in the Western Hemisphere.The USA is in thewesternHemisphere
27Adams-Onis Treaty-1819settled a border dispute between the United States and Spain.In addition to granting Florida to the United States, the treaty settled a boundary dispute along the Sabine River in Texas and firmly established the boundary of U.S. territory and claims through the Rocky Mountains and west to the Pacific OceanIn exchange the U.S. paid Spain $5 million
28Erie CanalMan made ditch built between the Atlantic Ocean, NYC, the Hudson river and eventually Lake Erie that opened up the Mid-West to trade and settlement in the early 1800’sInsured that New York city would become the center of finance and business for America
29The original Erie Canal locks were 90 feet long and 15 feet wide, and were designed for a canal boat 61 feet long and 7 feet wide, with a 3 1/2 foot draft.
30The National road-early 1800’s the first major improved highway in the United States, built by the federal government.
31Infrastructurethe basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterpriseThe term typically refers to the technical structures that support a society, such as roads, water supply, sewers, power grids, telecommunications, air fields, railways, canals.
32Industrial Revolution I Development of steam power, interchangeable parts and other inventions in the early 1800’sBegan the industrialization of AmericaDue to a laborshortage
33Labor= work or worker of any kind Labor ShortageMany Americans are moving West in search of new land.Manufacturers forced to acquire labor-saving machines to be used in factories.Labor= work or worker of any kind
34Samuel Slater 1789- English inventor arrives in America. Invents the mill.Powered by water.Factory system- water-powered mills used to weave cloth and spin yarn.Replaces hand labor.
35Eli Whitney Invented interchangeable parts for muskets Invented Cotton gin
36Gold Rush1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill, in Coloma, California.News of the discovery soon spread, resulting in some 300,000 men, women, and children coming to California from the rest of the United States and abroad
37Manifest Destiny“From sea to shining sea it is America’s manifest destiny”The belief that Americans were fated by God to occupy all of North America from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean
38Transcendentalismgroup of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early to middle 19th century.Emphasized the individual's intuition, rather than doctrines of established religions.Thoreau, Ralph Waldo Emerson
39Public school movement Horace Mann proposed free publicly supported schools for children in the early 1800’s
40Seneca Falls Conference. Meeting in Seneca Falls, NY, that convened (met) to discuss women’s rightsSentiments of Doctrines was written there and signed agreeing that all men and women are equalElizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan Anthony led the movement
41Susan B. Anthonyprominent American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the 19th century women's rights movement to introduce women's suffrage and equal rights into the United States.
42Abolition To abolish or do away with People who wanted to abolish or do away with slavery in AmericaFrederick Douglas, William Lloyd Garrison, Harriet Beecher Stowe
43Grimke sisters Quaker Abolitionists Wanted immediate liberation of slaves
44William Lloyd Garrison prominent American abolitionist, journalistHe is best known as the editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator, and as one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.He promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the United States.
46To promote or promoting To speak up forTo advocate forTo want to become a realityto advance in station, rank, or honor
47Andrew Jackson Won Battle of New Orleans in War of 1812 Was voted in as President because he appealed to the populist vote by being an ordinary common manResponsible for Indian Removal Act and the Trail of tearsDid not allow SC to secede from the Union and therefore threw out the Nullification TheoryIncreased suffrage in USAIncreased nationalism in the USAAndrew Jackson
48Jacksonian DemocracyIncreasing/expanding suffrage to all white males by eliminating the property requirementsDeveloped the rise of the common man in popular political cultureDeveloped American nationalism by promoting the need to love your country
49John C. CalhounLeading United States Southern politician and political philosopher from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century.Calhoun was an advocate of slavery, states' rights, limited government, and nullification.He is perhaps best known as the first Vice President to resign his office due to the disagreement with President Jackson over tariffs and nullification.
50Nullification Crisis A crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson It was an attempt by the state of South Carolina and John Calhoun to nullify (not obey) a federal law concerning the tariff of 1828 that was passed by the United States CongressNorth wanted tariffs, South did notCalhoun said “ We will secede before we pay that tariff” AJ said “Fine, I’ll hang you before you secedeNobody seceded
51Indian Removal Act (1830)Native Americans in places like Georgia were forced to sign treaties agreeing to move west of the Mississippi to places like Oklahoma.
52The Trail of TearsThe route along which the United States government forced several tribes of Native American, including the Cherokees, Seminoles, Chickasaws, Choctaws, and Creeks, to migrate to reservations west of the Mississippi River in the 1820s, 1830s, and 1840s.Those on the march suffered greatly from disease and mistreatment.
53Relax Breathe Count to 10 Exhale Do this 10 times Clench your body then relax itShake off the stress from the top of your head to the ends of your fingersDo this 5 timesRepeat shaking off the stress from your chest to your toes 5 times