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WARREN G. HARDING By Christina Crawford, Abiola Adamson, and Khristie Soriano.

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Presentation on theme: "WARREN G. HARDING By Christina Crawford, Abiola Adamson, and Khristie Soriano."— Presentation transcript:

1 WARREN G. HARDING By Christina Crawford, Abiola Adamson, and Khristie Soriano

2 Background  Harding, born near Marion, Ohio, in 1865, became  the publisher of a newspaper  He married a divorcee, Mrs. Florence Kling De Wolfe  He was a trustee of the Trinity Baptist Church, a  director of almost every important business, and a  leader in fraternal organizations and charitable  enterprises.  He delivered the nominating address for President  Taft at the 1912 Republican Convention. In 1914 he  was elected to the Senate, which he found "a very  pleasant place."

3 Domestic policy  Warren Harding took office promising to undo many  of the progressive policies of Woodrow Wilson's  administration  Harding wasted little time in cutting taxes on higher  incomes and raising tariff rates. However, charges  of patronage and wrongdoing sidetracked the  president's agenda early in his administration

4 Foreign policy  Harding's short term as president prevented him  from crafting a distinctive foreign policy and from  making peace arrangements in the Pacific.  The Washington disarmament conference of  1921 succeeded in reducing the navies of the United  States, Great Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and Italy,  came at the insistence of the Senate, not the  administration.

5 Political Rise  -Harding was elected to the Ohio State Senate in 1899 and served four years before being elected Lieutenant Governor of Ohio, a post he occupied from 1903 to  -He received the Republican nomination for Governor of Ohio in 1910, but lost to incumbent Judson Harmon.  -In 1914, Harding was elected to the United States Senate, becoming Ohio's first senator elected by popular vote.  -He served in the Senate from 1915 until his inauguration as President on March 4, 1921, becoming the first sitting senator to be elected President of the United States.  -Relatively unknown outside his own state, Harding was a true "dark horse" candidate, winning the Republican Party nomination due to the political machinations of his friends after the nominating convention had become deadlocked.  -In the 1920 election, Harding ran against Democratic Ohio Governor James M. Cox, whose running-mate was Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt.  -Harding ran on a promise to "Return to Normalcy", a seldom-used term he popularized. The slogan called an end to the abnormal era of the Great War, along with a call to reflect three trends of his time: a renewed isolationism in reaction to the War, a resurgence of nativism, and a turning away from the government activism of the reform era.  -In April 1921, speaking before a joint session of Congress, Harding called for peacemaking with Germany and Austria, emergency tariffs, new immigration laws, regulation of radio and trans cable communications retrenchment in government, tax reduction, repeal of wartime excess profits tax, reduction of railroad rates, promotion of agricultural interests, a national budget system, a great merchant marine and a department of public welfare.  -Harding called for measures to bring an end to lynching, but he did not want to make enemies in his own party and with the Democrats, and did not fight for his program.  -He was elected president in 1921.

6 Political Harding was first elected into the Ohio Senate Harding was elected a second time as a Floor leader Harding was elected the lieutenant Governor for two years Harding ran as a compromise gubernatorial candidate against a democratic incumbent, Judson Harmon Harding won the senatorial election Harding was elected the republican National Convention’s permanent chairman. Voted for returning rail roads to private owners after the war. Tariffs Opposed excess-profit taxes and high surtaxes. A member of the powerful Foreign Relations Committee Harding won the presidential election. -Eliminated wartime controls and slashed taxes, -Established a Federal budget system -Restored the high protective tariff, -Imposed tight limitations upon immigration.

7 Intellectual and Religion  At fifteen, he attended Ohio Central College and graduated in  His first job after college was as a teacher in a one-room school just north of Marion. While a student, Harding had been involved with school newspapers. This experience helped him land a job with the Marion Mirror, a Democratic newspaper. Harding reported on the 1884 Republican National Convention in Chicago for the Mirror.  Harding was Baptist

8 Art/ Culture  Harlem Renaissance  Harry Pace founds the Black Swan Phonograph Corporation and begins production of the "race records" that will help to bring jazz and blues music to a wider audience.  1921 The musical revue Shuffle Along opens on Broadway, delighting audiences with its high-energy singing and dancing and, many believe, providing the spark that ignites the Harlem Renaissance.  1921 Langston Hughes's great poem "The Negro Speaks of Rivers" is published in Crisis.  1922 Marian Anderson performs at New York's Town Hall, launching her career as a classical singer.  1922 The first major book of the Harlem Renaissance appears when Claude McKay's novel Harlem Shadows is published by Harcourt, Brace.  1922 Meta Warrick Fuller's sculpture Ethiopia Awakening is shown at the "Making of America" exhibition in New York.  1923 Bessie Smith records "Downhearted Blues" and "Gulf Coast Blues," soon becoming the most famous blues singer in both the northern and southern states.  1923 The National Urban League establishes Opportunity magazine, which will not only publish the work of Harlem Renaissance writers and artists but will help to support them through an annual contest.  1923 Roland Hayes makes his New York debut, singing a program of classical music as well as African American spirituals.  1923 Marcus Garvey is arrested for mail fraud and imprisoned for three months.  1923 The National Ethiopian Art Players produce Willis Richardson's The Chip Woman, the first drama by a black playwright to appear on the Broadway stage.  1923 Joe "King" Oliver's Creole Jazz Band makes a series of recordings with trumpet player Louis Armstrong.  1923 Pianist, composer, and band leader Duke Ellington arrives in New York with his band, the Washingtonians.  1923 Jean Toomer's innovative novel Cane is published and Toomer is hailed as one of the most promising young authors of the Harlem Renaissance.  1923 Harlem's largest and most famous cabaret, the Cotton Club, opens.

9 Art/ Culture Continued  1923 The Ethiopian Art Players perform Eugene O'Neill's play All God's Chillun Got Wings in Washington, D.C., while in Cleveland the Gilpin Players at Karamu Theatre present In Abraham's Bosom by Paul Green.  1923 Louis Armstrong joins Fletcher Henderson's orchestra, which—performing at the famed Roseland Ballroom—becomes the most popular dance band in New York.  1923 Kansas City-born artist Aaron Douglas arrives in New York and begins developing a new style that will make him the official artist of the Harlem Renaissance.  1923 The Fire in the Flint, a novel by NAACP leader Walter White, is published.  1923 The publication of Jessie Redmon Fauset's There Is Confusion marks the first Harlem Renaissance book by a woman writer.  1923 At the Civic Club dinner hosted by Opportunity's Charles S. Johnson, promising young writers meet the influential editors and publishers who can boost their careers.  1923 Josephine Baker appears in Chocolate Dandies on Broadway.  1923 Roland Hayes performs at Carnegie Hall.  1923 Poems by Harlem Renaissance star Countee Cullen appear in four major white publications.  1923 Zora Neale Hurston publishes her first short story in Opportunity.

10 Technology  1921  Artificial life begins -- the first robot built.  John Larson invented the lie detector.  1922  Insulin invented by Sir Frederick Grant Banting.  The first 3-D movie (spectacles with one red and one green lens) is released.  1923  Garrett A. Morgan invents a traffic signal.  The television or iconoscope (cathode-ray tube) invented by Vladmir Kosina Zworykin.  John Harwood invented the self-winding watch.  Clarence Birdseye invents frozen food.

11 Economy Prohibition -18th Amendment banned the sale, transportation and manufacture of alcohol in America. -Major cities retained Gangsters Women - 19 th amendment gives women the right to vote.

12 Social  1920  19th Amendment to the US Constitution became law, but practically this did not give the vote to Southern African American women, who, like African American men, were largely prevented by other legal and extra-legal measures from exercising the vote  Mamie Smith and Her Jazz Hounds recorded the first blues record, which sold more than 75,000 copies in its first month  National League on Urban Conditions Among Negroes shortens its name to National Urban League  Katy Ferguson Home founded, named for 19th century African American educator  Universal African Black Cross Nurses founded, for public education, by the United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) led by Marcus Garvey  Zeta Phi Beta Sorority founded at Howard University, Washington, DC  (October 12) Alice Childress born (writer)  Bessie Coleman became the first African American woman to earn a pilot's license  Alice Paul reversed an invitation to Mary Mary Burnett Talbert of the NAACP to speak to the National Woman's Party, asserting that the NAACP supported racial equality and did not address gender equality  three African American women became the first African American women Ph.D.'s  Georgiana Simpson, University of Chicago  Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander, University of Pennsylvania  Eva Dykes, Radcliffe  (September 14) Constance Baker Motley born (lawyer, activist )

13 Social continued  1922  Lucy Diggs Stowe became Howard University's Dean of Women  Anti-lynching bill passes United States House, fails in the United States Senate  United Negro Improvement Association appointed Henrietta Vinton Davis as Fourth Assistant President, responding to criticism by women members of gender discrimination  (August 14) Rebecca Cole died (second African American woman to graduate from medical school, worked with Elizabeth Blackwell in New York)  1923  Bessie Smith recorded "Down Hearted Blues, signing a contract with Columbia to make "race records," and helping rescue Columbia from imminent failure  Gertrude "Ma" Rainey recorded her first record  (September) Cotton Club opened in Harlem - women entertainers were subjected to the "paper bag" test: only those whose skin color was lighter than a brown paper bag were hired  (October 15) Mary Burnett Talbert died (activist: anti-lynching, civil rights; nurse; NAACP director, president of the National Association of Colored Women )  (November 9) Alice Coachman born (first African American woman to win an Olympic gold medal ((London, high jump)), National Track and Field Hall of Fame)  (November 9) Dorothy Dandridge born (actress, singer, dancer)

14 Quotes “America's present need is not heroics, but healing; not nostrums but normalcy; not revolution, but restoration.” -Warren G. Harding

15 Blind If there was one word to describe Warren G. Harding that word would be blind or inattentive, because he was unaware of his appointed allies activities while in office. He disregarded his friends power and activity while in office which caused a whirlwind of mischief. He could have chosen to monitor his government officials, but chose not to, which resulted in a negative scandal.

16 Cabinet  -Calvin Coolidge – Vice President (1921–1923)  -Charles Evans Hughes – Secretary of State (1921–1923)  -Andrew Mellon - Secretary of the Treasury (1921–1923)  -John W. Weeks - Secretary of War (1921–1923)  -Harry M. Daugherty - Attorney General (1921–1923)  -Will H. Hays ( ), Hubert Work ( ), Harry S. New (1923) – Postmaster Generals  -Edwin Denby – Secretary of the Navy (1921–1923)  -Albert B. Fall ( ), Hubert Work (1923) – Secretary of Interiors  -Henry C. Wallace – Secretary of Agriculture (1921–1923)  -Herbert Hoover – Secretary of Commerce (1921–1923)  -James J. Davis – Secretary of Labor (1921–1923)

17 Cited Works  Kenneth J. Grieb; The Latin American Policy of Warren G. Harding 1976 online. 


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